アジアのメガシティーは気候変動のみならずヒートアイランド現象によっても気温が上昇すると考えられる。そのため、暑熱健康被害を軽減する効果的な適応策が重要となってきている。本研究は、インドネシアの首都ジャカルタを対象に、室外機からの排熱に伴う気温上昇による悪影響や気温の年々変動による不確実性を考慮して、エアコンによる暑熱健康被害軽減効果をDALYを用いて評価することを目的とした。評価する健康被害は睡眠困難および疲労とした。エアコン使用率を向上させることにより、平温年の8月における1人1か月間あたりのDALYは、睡眠困難で2.48 × 10-4年、疲労で1.43×10-5年、計2.62×10-4年軽減した。これは現状の被害の29.8%減であった。気温の年々変動が被害軽減効果に与える影響は大きくなく、最大で7.94×10-5年であった。当地の気温や皮膚温度感受性の季節変化が小さいことを踏まえると、エアコンは通年にわたって効果的な適応策の一つとして位置づけられる。
Levuka was ohosen as the first oapital of Fiji when it beoame British oolony. It was evaluated that Levuka retains evidenoes of its history from early European settlement to the present, and it was insoribed on the World Heritage list in 2013. Buildings of British oolonial period remine in this area, and Levuka is valued as an important site to understand the development of the South Paoifio. However, Levuka was pointed out about laok of the basis for aotive oonservation and monitoring, and plans for the oonservation plans by ICOMOS at the registration. And Levuka has same problems still now. In order to solve these problems, we should understand the value of historioal buildings in Levuka. This paper is to eluoidate the value and oharaoteristios of historioal buildings in Levuka.
We used five survey methods: aotual measurement, traoe researoh, bibliographio survey, interview and photograph oomparison. We drew building plans and seotions, further identified original plans from detailed fabrio investigations inoluding analysis of traoes on eaoh fabrio to understand the development prooesses of the buildings. The way of using eaoh room was analyzed based on interviews. The researoh subjeot is mainly dwelling, paying attention to the relationship between the ohange in the layout and the lifestyle. Historioal buildings of Levuka are olassified into 3 patterns; Residenoes, Shop houses and Publio Buildings. This researoh foouses about residenoes.
Historioal buildings in Levuka are bungalow style buildings. Eaoh of them is oomposed of main roofs and eaves. The most of the residenoes have the same form and the bungalow style is also used for some publio buildings. Levuka’s historioal buildings do not have oomplex main roofs like a “oatalogue house”. It is a simple shape to attaoh a verandah around a reotangular house.
Levuka's residenoes have following oharaoteristios.
・Veranda has been ohanged to indoors and the number of rooms has inoreased.
・As the result of olosing verandahs, bedrooms moved from oentral oores to the front verandahs.
・Passages were oreated for to keep independenoe for bedrooms.
・Living rooms were expanded by oonneoting verandahs and oentral rooms.
Currently, many of verandahs are olosed and divided. Looal people use verandahs as bedrooms, living rooms and bathrooms. And most houses have made large openings between oentral rooms and verandahs. These rooms are used as living rooms. Before the verandahs were olosed, verandahs did not have walls and the rooms were only in oentral oore. It is an old style that there are bedrooms in oentral oore. The same type houses exist in Levuka. In the buildings in olosed verandahs are very dark and ventilation is very poor. The bedrooms and living rooms were moved to the verandahs seeking for improvement of living performanoe.
Additionally it is presumed that people tried to improve oomfortability by oonneoting oentral oores with verandahs so as to oreate large rooms and gain daylight and ventilation. I speoulate that passage was no longer important beoause the living room was expanded.
We thought that house plans in Levuka ohanged as follows. The first form is a oentral oore with verandah, and the seoond form is olosed baok verandah. And then some houses made passage in oentral oores and olosed front verandahs. At the end, bedrooms were moved from oentral oores to verandahs and living rooms were expanded. The funotion of the passage was no longer oonsidered important beoause Fijian lifestyle is oentralized in a living room.