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全文: "後輪状披裂筋"
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  • 1.ヒトとカニクイザルの比較
    松本 祐二, 佐藤 巌, 恩田 聰, 安室 健郎, 猪口 清一郎
    昭和医学会雑誌
    1986年 46 巻 2 号 173-181
    発行日: 1986/04/28
    公開日: 2010/09/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    喉頭の発声機能と喉頭筋との関係を形態学的に解析するために, ヒトおよびサルの喉頭各筋の筋線維構成を検討した.研究材料はヒト成人およびカニクイザル成獣の各4例から得られた喉頭筋で, 喉頭筋の観察はゼラチン包埋, Sudan Black B染色標本により, 筋線維を赤筋線維, 中間筋線維, 白筋線維に分類し, 断面の筋線維数, 筋線維の太さおよび密度を検討した.結果は次の通りである.1.ヒトでは筋腹横断面の筋線維総数は披裂筋と輪状甲状筋が最も多く, 喉頭蓋筋群が最も少なく, 筋線維の太さはその逆の傾向を示し, 密度は後輪状披裂筋, 輪状甲状筋および甲状披裂筋が高く, 喉頭蓋筋は著しく低かった.2.筋線維型は一般に白筋線維が40%前後で最も多く, 以下僅かの差で赤筋線維, 中間筋線維の順であり, 筋線維の太さは3筋線維型とも喉頭蓋筋群が最も大で, 白筋線維と中間筋線維では甲状披裂筋が, 赤筋線維では後輪状披裂筋がそれぞれこれに次いでいた.3.これに対してサルでは喉頭蓋筋を欠き, ヒトに比べて各筋とも筋線維は少なくて披裂筋及び輪状甲状筋で特にその差が著しかった.3筋線維型の頻度は白筋線維が一般に50%前後を占め, ヒトよりも高く, その差は披裂筋及び甲状披裂筋で著しかったが, 白筋線維の太さはヒトに比べて小で, その差は甲状披裂筋, 次いで披裂筋と外側輪状披裂筋の順に著明であった.4.以上の事からサルではヒトに比べて声門の後部を閉鎖する筋, 及び緊張した声帯の複雑な変化に携わる筋の発達が弱いことになり, その結果, サルの喉頭は高調な短い発声には適するが, 連続的な種々の音調の発声には適しないと考えることが出来た.
  • その迷走神経性調節
    福田 宏之
    日本気管食道科学会会報
    1973年 24 巻 6 号 276-280
    発行日: 1973/12/10
    公開日: 2010/11/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    agal afferents on laryngeal respiratory function were investigated with special regard to the effect of stretch and pressure afferents on phasic abductor activity.
    Forced inflation of the lung reflexly abolished the activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle during inspiration. Forced deflation of the lung resulted in increased PCA activity.
    After bilateral distol vagotomy, however, neither inflation nor deflation seemed to affect the PCA activity. In addition, continuous low frequencies of vagal stimulation caused reduction of the PCA activity. On the other hand, continuous high frequencies of vagal stimulation caused increased PCA activity.
    The results of the experiments reported upon were discussed in regard to respiratory control mechanism.
  • 福田 宏之
    日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報
    1974年 77 巻 3zokan 号 39c
    発行日: 1974/01/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 福田 宏之
    日本気管食道科学会会報
    2002年 53 巻 2 号 142-143
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2007/10/25
    ジャーナル 認証あり
  • 呼吸性運動に関する知覚
    三橋 敏雄, 持田 晃, 伊藤 宏文, 遊座 潤, 金子 敏郎
    喉頭
    1992年 4 巻 1 号 1-6
    発行日: 1992/06/01
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have reported that the activity of the mechanoreceptors against vibration in the subglottic mucosa enhances reflexive contraction of the contralateral thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) primarily via the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and partially via the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN), both of which are indispensable for reflexive laryngeal control. Morphologically, some parts of the laryngeal mucosa receive sensory innervation from both RLN and ISLN.
    In the present study, we recorded respiratory neurograms of the Galen anastomosis (GA) of spontaneously breathing cats under general anesthesia. Rhythmic inspiratory activities were recorded from GA and they were synchoronous with the activities of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA). Weak expiratory activities were also recorded from GA. Sections of the nerve branches for the adductor muscles did not affect the rhythmic activities of GA. When the nerve branch to PCA was sectioned, the inspiratory activities of GA disappeared. An additional section of the main trunk of RLN resulted in disappearance of the remaining expiratory activities.
  • 福田 宏之, 斎藤 成司, 北原 哲
    日本気管食道科学会会報
    1976年 27 巻 5 号 350-355
    発行日: 1976/10/10
    公開日: 2010/02/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Tracheotomy is playing a very important role in daily clinic. However, inability of decannulation or closing tracheostoma is not so seldom seen. When no anatomic laryngotracheal abnormality can be demonstrated, the inability to decannulate a prolonged tracheotomiged patient may in fact be explained by the temporary loss of laryngeal abductor function. This study was carried out to see if the phasic inspiratory activity of the laryngeal abductors may be altered by tracheotomy.
    Eleven dogs were used for this study. Motor action potentials of the posterior cricoarytnoid muscle were electromyographically studied while varying the resistance of the upper airway and after acute and/or chronic tracheotomy. The loss of abductor activity persists as long as air way resistance remains severely reduced. Prolonged reduction of airway resistance by, for example, tracheotomy, resulted in difficulty of reestablishment of abductor function. It seems most likely that gradual reduction of tracheotomy bore or increasing ventilatory resistance by partial cannula occlusion is very effective in restoring the phasic activity of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle in a patient with problem of decannulation due to affected abductive movement of the vocal cord.
    In fact, we had a tracheotomized patient with inability of closing the tracheostoma due to sever stridor and dyspnoea.
    Laryngobronchoscopic examination revealed that there was no significant anatomical and organic abnormality but for loss of laryngeal abductor function. Supported by the present experimental data, gradual reduction of the bore of tracheostoma was carried out while careful checking blood gas values.
    Finaliy, laryngeal abductor function was obtained enough to inspirate respiratory air. In this paper, this case was reported and discussed in terms of the present experimental data.
  • 渡邉 宏, 南 仁成, 前山 忠嗣, 松尾 博道, 梅崎 俊郎, 進 武幹
    喉頭
    1994年 6 巻 2 号 102-108
    発行日: 1994/12/01
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Reinnervation and subsequent paradoxical movements of the motor nerve after injury is well known in the facial nerve, ocular nerve, peroneal nerve, etc. as well as the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN). Way of the experimental injury to the RLN at a level below 15 mm from the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage was accomplished two different methods : one to be neurorrhaphy under microscope after transection of the nerve and the other to be freezing by ophthalmological forceps at a temperature below 80 degrees for five minutes. This latter procedure allows the Schwann sheathe and perineurium to remain intact but damages the endoneurium. Movements of the pathological vocal fold were observed macroscopically and monitored regularly by electromyogram (EMG) from one week to nine months. Redistribution of the motoneuron originating from regrowth of the nerve fiber around the injured RLN was histologically verified by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) at the time of the EMG monitorings. The target muscles for observatory analyses were determined to be the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) and thyroarytenoid muscle (TA). Monitoring of these muscles between the adductor and abductor is essential in order to assess the paradoxical movement after regrowth of nerve fibers. It was suggested that following transection of the nerve sprouting began three months later than it did in the group that underwent freezing injury two weeks after trial when the distribution rate was calculated in the nucleus ambiguus of the medulla oblongata. Furthermore, the numbers of sprouting fibers increased at one point beyond the normal level (in our study) of 90 six months after injury and gradually normalized in both groups at the 9 months. The rate of excessive growth in the first transected group was superior to the second freezing group. This result suggests that the rate of paradoxical movement following misdirected reinnervation is greater in the transected group than in the freezing group. This was verified by monitoring of the EMG. In both groups, HRP stained target neuron cells affecting the PCA muscle were observed in the localized control dorsoventral area at the more cephalad site. However, aberrant motoneurons also appeared out of the normal area and in the caudal and ventral regions (TA motoneuron). This also suggests paradoxical movement after reinnervation of nontarget organs.
  • 三浦 巧, 野本 実, 柴 啓介, 遊座 潤, 和田 研, 山中 康久, 鈴木 晴彦, 今野 昭義, 金子 敏郎
    喉頭
    1994年 6 巻 2 号 97-101
    発行日: 1994/12/01
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Six adult cats weighing 2.2kg-4.7kg were anesthetized with intramusclar injection of ketamine hydrochloride. The left recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) was transsected at the level of the second tracheal ring and both cut ends were ligated. Electrically induced vocalization was performed after Kanai's method. (Horsley-Clarke coordinates AP : 0, L4.5-5.5, H-3.0--6.0) (stimulation 0.2ms, 50-100 μA, lasting 5-10s) Then EMG of the throarytenoid muscle (TA) and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) were recorded. Besides, single afferent discharges from laryngeal sensory receptors of paralyzed vocal cord were recorded during evoked vocalizations.
    In this study, 25 weeks after transection of RLN the EMG of left TA showed recruitment, but the electromyographical activity of the left PCA was not observed. 20 weeks after neurorraphy of the left RLN and the left Ansa cervicalis, the activity of the left TA was almost the same as that of the control side. The EMG of left PCA showed the continuous activity during vocalization. However, in all cases, no return of vocal cord mobility was observed. The rate of single afferent discharge from laryngeal sensory receptors on paralyzed side was corresponded to fundamental frequency change during evoked vocalization. This result suggests that the central nervous system has received informations about paralyzed vocal cord vibrations from larynx during evoked vocalization.
  • 3. イヌと霊長類, 筋線維と神経線維
    山本 俊雄, 猪口 清一郎, 甲田 基夫, 佐藤 巌
    昭和医学会雑誌
    1990年 50 巻 6 号 591-599
    発行日: 1990/12/28
    公開日: 2010/09/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    発声と喉頭筋の発達との関係を明らかにするために, イヌ喉頭筋の筋線維構成を霊長類と比較するとともに, ヒトとサルの喉頭各筋の筋線維数と支配神経中の有髄神経線維数との比較を行い両者を対照し検討した.研究対象は, イヌは中等大の雑犬雌雄各1頭, ヒトは40歳代~50歳代の男性4名, サルはニホンザル雄成獣1頭で, イヌの喉頭筋はSudan Black B染色により筋線維を3型に分別, ヒトおよびサルの例では筋線維はHE染色, 神経線維はトルイジンブルー染色によった.結果: 1.イヌの喉頭筋には, ヒトおよびチンパンジーにみられた喉頭蓋筋と斜披裂筋は認められなかったが, 室筋が認められ, 発声への関与が考えられた.2.イヌの喉頭各筋の横断面積と筋線維総数は雌雄とも輪状甲状筋が最も大, 甲状披裂筋 (声帯筋を含む) がこれに次ぎ, 室筋が最も小で, 性別的には一般に雄の方が雌よりも大であったが, 横披裂筋と外側輪状披裂筋では差がなかった.3.イヌの喉頭各筋の筋線維型については, その頻度は各筋とも雄では白筋線維, 中間筋線維, 赤筋線維の順に高く, 雌の方が雄よりも白筋線維の頻度が高かった.その太さは, 雄では白筋線維, 中間筋線維, 赤筋線維の順に大で, 白筋線維は後輪状披裂筋と輪状甲状筋と横披裂筋が, 中間筋線維と赤筋線維では室筋が, それぞれ最も大で, 3筋線維型とも甲状披裂筋が最も小であった.雌でも雄と同順であったが, 中間筋線維と赤筋線維の差は少なかった.白筋線維では横披裂筋が最も大で雄と等しかったが, その他の筋では雄>雌の傾向が著明であった.4.イヌの喉頭各筋とヒト, チンパンジー, ニホンザル, ガラゴ等との比較では, チンパンジーに最も近く, ヒトよりも大きな筋が多く, 白筋的性格が強かった.5.ヒトとサルの喉頭各筋の支配神経中の有髄神経1に対する筋線維数を比較すると, ヒトの方がサルよりも各筋とも少なくて, 神経支配が密ということになり, その差は甲状披裂筋と横披裂筋において著明であった.ヒトとサルとイヌの喉頭各筋の筋線維総数をみると, ヒトとサルでは一定の数比が認められたが, ヒトとイヌとの問では筋によって大小の差が著しく, 異なった筋線維配分比を示していた.
  • 野中 聡, 富山 知隆, 金谷 健史, 海野 徳二, 太田 善博
    日本気管食道科学会会報
    1985年 36 巻 4 号 345-352
    発行日: 1985/08/10
    公開日: 2010/02/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Sneeze is one of the most essential airway reflexes. In order to study the neuromuscular mechanism of sneeze, experiments were done on 23 anesthetized dogs. Electrical stimulation (0.5-1.0mA, 0.2ms duration, 50 pulses/s) to the nasal membrane interrupted normal respiratory rhythm and evoked sneeze attacks with a latency of 2-3s from the stimulus onset. Sneeze attacks were also evoked by stimulation (20-50μA, 0.2ms duration, 10 pulses/s) delivered to a ventro-medial part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus within the medulla oblongata by means of a glass microelectrode filled with metal.
    Preceding the beginning of sneeze, the subglottic pressure (SGP) gradually decreased reflecting the preparatory inspiratory phase. During sneeze, it abruptly increased to a peak pressure level of 80-100cm H2O reflecting the explosive expiratory phase. During the preparatory inspiratory phase, the diaphragm (DIA) was activated. Approximately 180ms before the moment of the peak SGP, the increased activity of the DIA was terminated and then the rectus abdominis muscle (RA) became active.
    The thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle (PCA) showed transient and reciprocal discharge patterns. The duration of discharge was about 80ms in both muscles. The switch over from the TA activity to the PCA activity occurred about 90ms preceding the peak SGP. The RA and the TA co-contracted for a brief period of about 60ms. During this period the SGP greatly increased. These observed sequential activation patterns of respiratory and intrinsic laryngeal muscles were essentially similar both in the nasal membrane-induced sneeze and the brainstem-induced one.
    All these results suggest integrated activity of respiratory and intrinsic laryngeal muscles underlies the sneeze. Such an integration is possibly performed at the level of the medulla oblongata.
  • 伊藤 宏文, 遊座 潤, 鈴本 晴彦, 金子 敏郎, 持田 晃, 三橋 敏雄
    日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報
    1991年 94 巻 10 号 1492a
    発行日: 1991/10/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 木村 百合香
    日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報
    2012年 115 巻 11 号 992-993
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 横山 貴康, 岩切 裕昌, 小林 吉史, 半谷 公彦, 野中 聡, 海野 徳二
    喉頭
    1994年 6 巻 2 号 136-139
    発行日: 1994/12/01
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to clarify the functional subunits in a single laryngeal muscle, electrophysiological and histochemical studies were performed. The thyroarytenoid muscle was divided into the rostral compartment and the caudal compartment. The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle was divided into the lateral and the medial compartment.
    EMGs were recorded during normal respiration and mechanically-evoked cough from rostral (r-TA) and caudal (c-TA) compartment of thyroarytenoid muscle along with lateral (l-PCA) and medial (m-PCA) compartment of posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. Histochemical detection of myosin ATPase and EMGs revealed that the type 2B fiber was most abundant in r-TA and gradually decreased in the order of c-TA, l-PCA and m-PCA.
    During cough, these four compartments of muscles equally exhibited bursting discharges. L-PCA activity during cough exhibited a ninefold increase over that during respiration, while m-PCA exhibited a threefold increase. These data suggest that the intrinsic laryngeal muscle consists of different compartment with distinctive motions. Hence the intrinsic laryngeal muscles should be considered as a complex of some functional subunits.
  • 佐藤 巌, 猪口 清一郎
    人類學雜誌
    1985年 93 巻 1 号 55-69
    発行日: 1985年
    公開日: 2008/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    フォルマリン注入屍(男•女各2例)から得られたヒト喉頭筋について,筋腹横断面の筋線維数および筋線維の太さを検討し,四肢およびその他の筋と比較してその特徴を明らかにした。組織標本はセロイジン包埋,H•E 染色標本によった。ヒト喉頭筋については,筋の大きさは筋腹横断面積および筋線維数から見て非常に小さい部類に入ったが,筋線維の太さは最小1.000μ2で,咬筋,舌骨筋群,手の大部分の筋より大であり,太い方の喉頭蓋筋と甲状披裂筋では抗重力筋に匹敵した。すなわち,喉頭筋は一般に小さいが,筋線維は大であり,筋線維構成は各例間の個体差が著しく,性別的傾向は見られなかった。これらの中で,声帯の緊張と弛緩に関する輪状甲状筋と甲状披裂筋では筋線維総数においては個体差が著しく,発声の個人差との関係が考えられた。
  • CT検査・視診による浸潤範囲の推定
    曹 載植
    耳鼻と臨床
    1988年 34 巻 3Supplement3 号 874-889
    発行日: 1988/07/10
    公開日: 2013/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to decide the feasibility of conservation surgery in hypopharyngeal carcinoma, an accurate preoperative determination of involvement into various laryngeal structures is necessary. Twenty-two cases of hypopharyngeal carcinoma were investigated to evaluate the preoperative diagnostic accuracy of determination of the extent of laryngeal involvement by comparing preoperative CT and inspection with corresponding histopathological findings of whole organ serial section study after total laryngopharyngectomy. The results were summerized as follows: 1) Estimation of the involvement into laryngeal cartilages by CT was difficult. Most incorrect readings were false positives due to overestimation. 2) Invasions into thyroarytenoid, cricothyroid, lateral cricoarytenoid and interarytenoid muscles were detected relatively easily, but those of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle were difficult to determin by CT. For the estimation of the involvement into the interarytenoid and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles, inspection proved more useful than CT. 3) Invasion into the paraglottic space was easily detectable by CT, but at the glottic level, it was difficult to detect by inspection. In the preepiglottic space, some false positive cases were observed with CT, but it was almost possible to determine the invasion by inspection. 4) In the aryepiglottic fold, there were some false positive diagnoses with CT. Inspection was more accurate than CT. 5) It was possible to predict the invasion into the recurrent laryngeal nerve by CT.
  • 加納 滋
    日本気管食道科学会会報
    2005年 56 巻 2 号 167
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2006/02/17
    ジャーナル 認証あり
  • 日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報
    2012年 115 巻 11 号 996
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 福永 博之, 今村 ルイ, 吉田 義一, 中島 格
    日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報
    1998年 101 巻 4 号 518b
    発行日: 1998/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小池 忍, 久 育男, 馬場 均, 貝木 信尚, 宇野 敏行, 村上 泰
    日本耳鼻咽喉科学会会報
    1998年 101 巻 4 号 518
    発行日: 1998/04/20
    公開日: 2008/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 木原 浩文, 小池 靖夫
    耳鼻咽喉科臨床 補冊
    1993年 1993 巻 Supplement61 号 107-111
    発行日: 1993/04/15
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    The inner laryngeal muscles possess subtle cooperative movements to fulfill various laryngeal functions. Many assessments have been made to clarify these physiological functions, however various views not yet unified.
    Laryngeal function in humans remains generally unclear despite results obtained from repeated animal experiments. However, with humans has not been easy. clarifying the physiological functions by experiments. Among current methods of study, the elec- tromyograph is considered to obtain the most potent measurements for elucidating the physiological mechanism of the inner laryngeal muscle in humans. Therefore, we assessed the problems remaining to be solved by summarizing existing findings in relation to the inner laryngeal muscle activity during respiration in humans as demonstrated by electromyographical studies reported thus far.
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