The objective of the present study was to elucidate the current functions of nutrition teachers and those who have been certified as nutrition teachers but are currently working as dietitian for school lunch program, as well as the future role of nutrition teachers. A survey was conducted in July and August 2008 on 329 individuals who had attended the 2004 seminar for certification of nutrition teachers (hosted by Kagawa Nutrition University) as well as 509 individuals who had attended the 2005, 2006, and 2007 seminars (hosted by the Saitama Prefecture Board of Education). The results were as follows.
1. Both nutrition teachers and dietitian for school lunch program smoothly performed related to provision of school lunches and dietary guidance. In order to further facilitate these functions, it is necessary to promote cooperation with homeroom teachers and other teachers.
2. Cooperation with school nurses and home economics teachers is essential for implementing individualized guidance for students.
3. It necessary to clarify the expertise of nutrition teachers.
4. Nutrition teachers may be expected in the future to enhance dietary guidance by cooperating with specialists outside of school as well as students’ families.
Background: Nursing arts required at school have not been fully studied for a long time, although they differ from those used by nurses at medical institutions and facilities. For this reason, the details of school nursing arts that are desirable to teach in Yogo teacher training education are not yet clear.
Objective: This study proposed a comprehensive taxonomy of the school nursing arts.
Methods: 1.Step 1: Development of a taxonomy of school nursing arts (draft) The framework (draft) of pediatric nursing arts was created on the basis of data including standards of the Japanese national licensure examination for nurses, and the validity was examined by five researchers involved in basic nursing education. Next, the literature on school nursing was compared with this framework (draft), and the taxonomy of school nursing arts (draft) was created, excluding medical practice. The necessity of the content was examined by five researchers involved in Yogo teaching education.2.Step 2: Examination of the validity of a taxonomy of school nursing arts (draft) In February 2018, we sent questionnaires to Yogo teaching researchers across the country and asked a researcher from each school to respond. The contents of the survey included the recognition of the necessity of each school nursing art, the implementation of education at each school, and the attributes of the researchers. First, we examined whether there was a difference in recognition of the necessity of each school nursing arts according to the training background. Next, based on the consent rate of the Delphi method, we examined the necessity of the school nursing arts with a low consent rate regarding the necessity of school nursing arts through the information presented in extant literature or prevailing expert discussions, and designed the final version of the taxonomy.
Results: In the first step, 4 major items (I. Basic School Nursing Arts, II. School Nursing Arts to Keep Safety and Comfort of Children, III. School Nursing Arts of Daily Life Support, and IV. School Nursing Arts of Health Support), 19 middle items, 38 sub-items, and 211 details were generated. In the second step, responses were obtained from 47 Yogo teaching researchers (response rate 34.6%). As a result of examining the necessity of school nursing arts by training background (nursing and non-nursing), there was no significant difference. In each sub-item, 15 items received moderate consent, 12 items received low consent, and 1 item received a consent rate of less than 50%. Eventually, 2 items were excluded and 8 were added, along with the addition of 1 middle item, 1 sub-item, and 6 details, thereby bringing the total items generated to, 4 major items, 20 middle items, 39 sub-items, and 215 details.
Conclusion: In this study, we extracted items related to school nursing arts based on extant studies and lit-erature on school nursing, and examined the necessity based on the opinions of Yogo teaching researchers. This taxonomy of school nursing arts is one of the evidence data for improving Yogo teacher training education and Yogo teacher training.
Background: Yogo teachers need to assess urgency and severity in first aid of students. The assessment can however be a challenge.
Objective: This study aimed to examine and classify the thought process in Yogo teachers for the clinical reasoning with first aid in difficult cases of students
Methods: Yogo teachers’ responses in 157 cases of children who visited the health office due to medical conditions and/or injuries, including extremity injury, head injury, stomachache, headache, breathing difficulty, and syncope, were examined. The Yogo teachers’ thought processes for the clinical reasoning were classified, employing the respective processes of hypothetico-deductive model of clinical reasoning. Relationships of the classified thought processes with characteristics of Yogo teachers and cases were also studied.
Results: The thought process was found to be classified into the following six types: Ia: the “hypothesis validation type”, Ib: the “accepting all what children tell, with hypothesis formation” type, II: the intuition type, III: the hidden hypothesis validation type, IVa: the “gathering comprehensive information” (or checklist) type, and IVb: the “accepting all what children tell, without hypothesis formation” type.’ Five of the six types were without adequate hypothesis formation/validation or information gathering.
Relationships between the six types and the medical conditions/injuries were as follows. For the extremity injury, proportion of the type Ib was small. For the head injury, proportion of III was large and that of Ia was small percentage. For the stomachache, proportion of III was small and that of IV was large. For the headache, proportion of III was small and that of Ib was large.
Conclusion: We first classified Yogo teachers’ thought process in first aid for students. This classification might help improve the Yogo teachers’ assessment and develop educations for their clinical reasoning.
Background: Although practical training for Yogo teacher is necessary for the curriculum at Yogo teacher training universities in Japan, the contents of the practical training for Yogo teacher vary considerably among universities. It is not clear whether the students are sufficiently learned, whether they are satisfied with practical training and what factors affecting goal achievement level and student satisfaction level.
Objectives: This study was designed to assess factors affecting student’s goal achievement level and satisfaction level of practical training.
Methods: A questionnaire survey was administered to 316 students who had experienced practical training for student Yogo teacher from April to December in 2014. The questionnaire asked about the frequency of practice and activity of the practical training, learning at practice, goal achievement level, and satisfaction level with practice. Analysis objects were 285 (95.6%) students.
Using exploratory factor analysis, we constructed summative scales to assess activity of the practical training, their learning of practice and goal achievement level. Generalized linear models were produced using a score for goal achievement level and a score for satisfaction level with practice as an objective variable, with the type of training course, training method, frequency of practice, a score for practice situations that concern students, and a score for learning of the practice as explanatory variables.
Results: Factor analysis of goal achievement level extracted two factors: “understanding of the Yogo teachers’ job” and “building the value.” Factors influencing “understanding of the Yogo teachers’ job” were “a good relationship with the Yogo teacher at the school leading training” (b=0.31, p<0.01), “understanding of the children” (b=0.20, p<0.05) and “understanding of the Yogo teachers’ role” (b=0.47, p<0.001). Factors influencing “building the value” were “practice experience” (b=0.12, p<0.01), “highly motivated attitude” (b=0.23, p<0.05), “intention to be Yogo teacher” (b=0.18, p<0.001), “understanding of the Yogo teachers’ role” (b=0.31, p<0.001), and students of nursing (b=-0.83, p<0.01). Factors influencing satisfaction level with practice were “a good relationship with the Yogo teacher at the school leading training” (b=0.15, p<0.001), and the “intention to be Yogo teacher”（b=0.08, p<0.01）
Conclusion: Results show that almost all students were satisfied with their practical training for student Yogo teacher. And understood the Yogo teachers’job. However, “building the value” differed among the type of training course, students of nursing scores were low. Every Yogo teacher training university must recognize a goal achievement and raise“building the value.”Further efforts must be undertaken to build a training support system.