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  • 岡村 勇作, 全 螢煥, 堀 洋一
    電気学会論文誌D(産業応用部門誌)
    1995年 115 巻 2 号 130-135
    発行日: 1995/01/20
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In servomotor control systems, it is difficult to obtain the accurate speed information by using a low resolution encoder because encoder pulses are very rare in a low speed range. To overcome this problem, we proposed the instantaneous speed observer to estimate the instantaneous speed and improved the system stability and also realized the disturbance rejection control. However, when the inertia moment changed, the estimated instantaneous speed had an error because the observer used the nominal inertia to calculate the speed. For this reason, the identification method of the inertia moment was proposed but it operated at about 50rpm speed command. In this paper, we propose novel identification methods for the average speed type instantaneous speed observer and identify the inertia moment in a very low speed range below 1 rpm.
  • 瞬時速度オブザーバと慣性モーメントの同定
    堀 洋一, 亀井 宏映
    電気学会論文誌D(産業応用部門誌)
    1994年 114 巻 4 号 424-431
    発行日: 1994/04/20
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Due to the recent development of DSP (Digital Signal Processors), we can control a servomotor with a very short sampling period, e. g. 100 [μs]. The speed information is usually calculated from the increased pulse number of a shaft encoder within one sampling period. However, in this simple method, the speed resolution in lower speed range is easily lost. If we use a longer sampling period for maintaining the speed resolution still high, the system will be unstable. To overcome this problem, we proposed the instantaneous speed observer to estimate the instantaneous speed at every 100μs sampling point and greatly improved the system stability. Also, we realized the disturbance rejection control using the disturbance observer inherently included in the speed observer. However, this speed observer needed the exact value of the inertia moment. In this paper, we propose an identification method of the inertia moment by applying some adaptive methods. We implemented the basic least square method, the recursive least square method and the fixed trace method, and compared their identification performances. We realized the stable operation of the speed observer. Further, we designed STR (Self Tuning Regulator) type speed controller by feeding back the identified inertia moment for further performance improvement. The proposal in this paper is one suggestion to combine the robust and adaptive methods in servo motor control.
  • 大石 潔, 小川 泰明, 百目鬼 英雄
    電気学会論文誌D(産業応用部門誌)
    2002年 122 巻 3 号 209-216
    発行日: 2002/03/01
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper proposes a new speed control method for PM motor using a low resolution encoder and a speed observer. The servo system should be economical and simple. For this purpose, this paper realizes the high performance speed control system using a low resolution encoder, whose performance is nearly equal to the performance of speed servo system using a conventional optical encoder. The speed observer uses the information of motor current and motor voltage. The rotor position is calculated by the estimated value of speed observer. This observer has the influence of electrical parameter variation. This paper proposes the correction algorithm of both the voltage error of PWM Inverter and the electrical parameter variation. The experimental results and numerical simulation results point out that the proposed speed control system has the desired speed response, on condition of parameter variations and load torque perturbation.
  • 李 宙〓, 竹下 隆晴, 松井 信行
    電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
    1999年 119 巻 1 号 111-117
    発行日: 1999/01/01
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents a stable motor speed control system in low speed region with a low resolution shaft encoder. The proposed control system has the models of the controller and the motor to estimate the rotor speed. The estimation of speed is performed by correcting the estimated position, speed and the integration term of controller in accordance with the position estimation error between the detected and estimated positions. The stability of the proposed control system and the design of the estimation gains are examined.
    The proposed algorithm was verified by using a 4-pole, 2.2kW test motor drive system with a 256 pulse/rev encoder. In the experimental results, the stable speed control for the reference speed of 20 rpm was realized. The proposed algorithm was also stable against the step change of the disturbance torque.
  • 長谷川 均, 武藤 雅威
    紙パ技協誌
    2001年 55 巻 3 号 299-303,015
    発行日: 2001/03/01
    公開日: 2010/10/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    鉄道総研とJR東海が共同開発している,「超電導磁気浮上式鉄道」がリニアモーターカーの正式名称である。海外ではMagnetic Levitation (磁気浮上) を略してMaglevと呼ばれることが多い。以下超電導リニアと呼ぶ。
    超電導リニアを一言で言うならば,「超電導現象を利用した超電導磁石を用い, リニアモーターで推進し, 浮上して走行する乗り物」となる。超電導リニアの特長は, 在来の鉄道が鉄のレールの上を鉄の車輪で走行するのに対し, 浮上して走行することである。また, パンタグラフで架線から集電してエネルギーを得ているのとは異なり, 地上側と非接触で, 集電することなく地上設備から直接, 電磁気的なエネルギーを得て超高速走行を行うという点にある。
    超電導リニアの目標とする営業最高速度は
    時速
    500kmである。この際, 駆動力は電磁気的な力によるため, 平らな場所ばかりでなく, 急な勾配のあるところでも, 天候に関係なく
    時速
    500kmで走ることができる。さらに, 公共交通機関の場合, 天候に左右されずにどこでも安全に止めるということは, 絶対の条件である。超電導リニアは, 非接触で駆動・制動するので勾配や天候にともなう車輪の空転・滑走という問題がなく, 電磁気的な力で減速ができるので, いつでも高速から安全に停止することができる。
    超電導リニアは, このように加減速が自在であるうえ, 騒音などの環境問題も大幅に低減できるため, 超高速での走行に有利なシステムである。本報では, これまでの開発の経緯について説明し, さらに今後の試験予定と将来計画について触れる。
  • 杉本 英彦, 市川 毅, 細井 啓介, 川崎 章司
    電気学会論文誌D(産業応用部門誌)
    2002年 122 巻 9 号 899-909
    発行日: 2002/09/01
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    On startup of a brushless DC servomotor, it is necessary to detect of its magnetic pole position, to generate the torque effectively. Numerous brushless DC servomotors provide a high angle resolution encoder for the speed control and position control. It can use as a magnetic pole position detection, too. There are the absolute encoder and the incremental encoder. If a brushless DC servomotor provides an absolute encoder, the motor can startup, because it is necessary to detect of its absolute position for the magnetic pole position detection. However, it is not used except uses of demands for high accuracy because the encoder is expensive. The incremental encoder in general use cannot detect the magnetic pole position when the motor starts, and so it demands an exclusive magnetic pole position sensor till a standard signal output of the encoder.
    This paper describes a method of the magnetic pole position detection of a brushless DC servomotor with an incremental encoder only use the encoder without an exclusive magnetic pole position sensor. The feature of this method is that can detect the magnetic pole position with very little revolutions in a matter of minutes during the motor starts.
  • 関根 秀臣, 須藤 二全, 須藤 一彦, 佐藤 伸一, 水出 正一, 大手 丈夫
    電気学会論文誌. B
    1983年 103 巻 4 号 306
    発行日: 1983/04/20
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 藤岡 健彦, 児玉 賢一, 山本 晋平
    日本機械学会論文集 C編
    1992年 58 巻 556 号 3499-3504
    発行日: 1992/12/25
    公開日: 2008/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Many studies on the magnetic levitation (maglev) suspension of electric dynamic systems have been reported. Most of them are concern about systems in which ground coils for levitation are arranged on the bottom of the guideway. In the new type of maglev suspension, ground coils for levitation are arranged on the sidewall of the guideway. This kind of suspension has not been investigated precisely yet. In this paper, we apply the strategy for the previous system to the new system and design a experimental device to measure electromagnetic forte in the new system. The results of calculation and measurement are clarified; and the effectiveness of the strategy of analysis for the new system is verified.
  • 小林 史典, 近久 直一, 小林 彬
    計測自動制御学会論文集
    1985年 21 巻 2 号 157-163
    発行日: 1985/02/28
    公開日: 2009/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Though the measurement of minute fluctuations in rotational speed is involved in various fields of engineering, eccentricity error unavoidable in practical situations poses limits on accuracy. This paper proposes a method for providing high accuracy while easing the setup procedure.
    The principal configuration of the instrument is that the image of a radial stripe pattern attached to the rotating shaft of interest is projected by a lens onto the polar-coordinate-type spatial filter. Undesirable fluctuation caused by the eccentricity of the pattern is canceled by the differential operation afforded by a number of elements of the spatial filter.
    The primary advantage of the proposed method is its high accuracy in the order of 0.02% of the average, while employing relatively crude components. Also featured is the sensor housing separated by about 20cm from the rotating pattern, thus providing safety at high speeds.
    Two examples of tortional vibration are evaluated: cogging of a motor, which could not be directly evaluated so far; and a planetary gear mechanism rotating at speeds as high as 15, 000rpm, which could not be traditionally treated because of the mechanical limitation of bearings.
  • 今野 雄介, 堀 洋一
    電気学会論文誌D(産業応用部門誌)
    1992年 112 巻 6 号 539-544
    発行日: 1992/06/20
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    We propose the instantaneous speed observer for high performance control of servomotors which use inexpensive low precision shaft encoders. Due to the recent development of DSP (Digital Signal Processors), we have been able to control servomotors with a very short sampling period. We usually obtain the speed information from the increased pulse number of a shaft encoder in a sampling period. However, in this simple method, we lose the speed resolution easily. If we get accurate speed information by clocking the period of encoder pulse, the system will be easily unstable in the lower speed range because a long deadtime is inserted in the feedback loop. To overcome these problems, we propose the novel estimation technique of the instantaneous speed by utilizing the armature current together with the encoder information. As this observer inherently includes the disturbance observer. We can use it for the effective disturbance rejection control. We implement this system by using a DSP, and prove through laboratory experiments that it can greatly improve the system stability and achieves the excellent disturbance rejection performance.
  • 藤岡 健彦, 児玉 賢一, 山本 晋平
    日本機械学会論文集 C編
    1992年 58 巻 556 号 3468-3472
    発行日: 1992/12/25
    公開日: 2008/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Active suspensions are usually applied for control of secondary suspensions because of the restrictions of hardware. Since magnetic levitation vehicles have heavy unsprung masses of superconductive magnets and have no viscous damping at high velocity, it is supposed that the characteristic of their vibrations is worse than that of ordinary vehicles. On the other hand, magnetic levitation vehicles have the advantage that primary suspension can also be actively controlled. This is because the force in the primary suspension is generated by electro magnetic force. In this paper, it is shown that unsprung mass resonance is decreased by use of direct control of primary suspension. Frequency responses which are calculated for an optimal regulator are compared, and the characteristics of secondary suspension control and of primary suspension control are clarified.
  • 鶴田 和寛, 藤本 孝, 張 文農
    精密工学会誌論文集
    2005年 71 巻 10 号 1281-1285
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2007/05/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    メカトロニクスのサーボ系において, 位相の遅れた速度信号を用いてフィードバック制御した場合, 制御ゲインを高く設定することができず, 応答が遅くなるという問題がある. 我々は, 数サンプリング先までの速度信号を予測し, 位相遅れを補償した速度予測方式を開発し, 高速・高精度位置決め応答を実現した. 本論文では, 速度予測方式の原理, シミュレーションおよび1軸スライダの位置決め応答結果を報告する.
  • 大道 等
    日本体育学会大会号
    1990年 41A 巻
    発行日: 1990/09/10
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 笠井 健, 桜井 卓
    日本体育学会大会号
    1990年 41A 巻
    発行日: 1990/09/10
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 崔 康賢, 中村 秀男, 小林 尚登
    計測自動制御学会論文集
    1997年 33 巻 6 号 550-551
    発行日: 1997/06/30
    公開日: 2009/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper tries to improve estimations of angle velocity of servo systems. Angle velocity is usually carried out from angle data by observers, numerical differentiation, f/v transformation and so on. In this paper, we merge the all data derived by the above all methods, and we try to derive the best estimation. The experimental results show that this merging method remarkably improves the estimations comparing with ones by using each method separately.
  • 大石 潔, 中村 宜弘, 北条 善久, 小林 弘和
    電気学会論文誌D(産業応用部門誌)
    1997年 117 巻 12 号 1463-1470
    発行日: 1997/11/20
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper proposes a new high performance speed control method for wide speed range, which is based on instantaneous speed observer considering the characteristics of DC chopper. In order to regulate a motor speed for wide speed reference including a very low speed range, this paper designs the instantaneous speed observer which uses the information of an armature current and an armature voltage. This observer has no effect of inertia variation and disturbance torque completely, but it has the effect of electrical parameter variation. Hence, this paper proposes a new identification algorithm to cancel out the estimation error caused by both the resistance variation and the voltage drop. The proposed observer can always estimate an instantaneous value of motor speed. The proposed total system becomes a new robust speed servo system for a wide speed range.
  • 第一報圧力変動に及ぼすスクロールの影響
    鶴崎 展, 今市 憲作, 鍛治野 安弘
    ターボ機械
    1983年 11 巻 2 号 87-96
    発行日: 1983年
    公開日: 2011/07/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 足底圧評価による検討
    石橋 健, 倉田 勉, 矢内 宏二, 小黒 賢二
    理学療法学Supplement
    2015年 2014 巻 O-0321
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/30
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    【はじめに,目的】近年,足部アーチサポート機能を施した靴下(以下,機能靴下)が流通し,走りやすさや疲労軽減を期待するアスリートやスポーツ愛好家に広まりつつある。我々は先行研究において,立位や歩行でのアーチサポート効果と,勤労女性の長時間着用における疲労軽減効果を報告した。しかし,走行における効果が不明確であった。そこで,本研究では走行中の機能靴下のアーチサポート効果を速度毎に検証することを目的とした。【方法】対象は健常成人男性10名(平均年齢:28.27±2.80)の左右20足とし,使用した靴下は通常靴下と機能靴下(N社製),計測靴は統一した。運動課題はトレッドミル上での走行とし,走行は
    時速
    10,12,14,16kmの4条件,各速度における走行時間は約10秒間とした。その際,F-scanII(ニッタ社製)を用いて走行中の足底圧を計測した。計測時間は走行が安定した後の5秒間として,分析対象は計測時間中の安定した左右連続3歩とした。分析項目は足部アーチ指数であるCenter of Pressure Excursion index(以下,CPEI),Modified Arch index(以下,MAI)の2項目とした。統計学的検討として,各走行速度のCPEI,MAIを用いて,靴下間の比較検討を対応のあるt検定にて行った。尚,有意水準は5%未満とした。【結果】各走行速度におけるCPEI(%)は通常靴下,機能靴下の順に,
    時速
    10kmは7.56±4.28,10.21±4.80,
    時速
    12kmは7.98±4.20,9.36±4.80,
    時速
    14kmは7.96±3.68,9.51±4.02,
    時速
    16kmは8.79±3.21,10.50±3.82であり,全ての速度において機能靴下の有意な高値を認めた。各走行速度におけるMAIは通常靴下,機能靴下の順に,
    時速
    10kmは0.118±0.051,0.111±0.056,
    時速
    12kmは0.118±0.050,0.111±0.055,
    時速
    14kmは0.119±0.049,0.113±0.054,
    時速
    16kmは0.119±0.046,0.114±0.051であり,全ての速度において機能靴下の有意な低値を認めた。【考察】CPEIは足圧中心軌跡から算出され,足圧中心が外側方向へ弧を描きながら推移するほど高い値を示す。結果より,全ての速度条件において機能靴下着用時の足圧中心はより外側を推移した。また,MAIは中足部の荷重割合を示し,その算出には前・中・後足部の3区画に分割したそれぞれの荷重積分値が用いられる。結果より,全ての速度条件において機能靴下着用時に中足部荷重割合は減少した。以上で述べた足圧中心の外側への推移,中足部荷重割合の減少は,走行中の機能靴下のアーチサポート効果によるものと考えられた。【理学療法学研究としての意義】機能靴下の走行におけるアーチサポート効果を認めた。機能靴下は足部アーチ低下に起因する種々の足部障害の発生予防やリハビリテーションに活用出来る可能性がある。
  • 白土 博通, 松本 勝
    日本風工学会誌
    1994年 1994 巻 59 号 5-9
    発行日: 1994年
    公開日: 2010/09/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The 2-D rectangular cross section with corner-cut in each edge has been accepted as one of the effective aerodynamic stabilizing countermeasure. Previous wind tunnel experiments proved that vibrational amplitude as well as stationary aerodynamic force such as draf force, lift force could be remarkably reduced by this slight geometrical change. However, it is recently reported that the aerodynamic properties are so sensitive to Reynolds number. Intensive investigation including a couple of committee works have been then initiated in civil engineering field . The dependence on Reynolds number and its mechanism are introduced in this paper based on these activities.
  • 日本舶用機関学会中小形ディーゼル研究委員会
    日本舶用機関学会誌
    1981年 16 巻 8 号 663-670
    発行日: 1981年
    公開日: 2010/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently diesel engines for generators have become compact by applying a high-super charging system, and generators have also become small by applying a cylindrical type rotor.
    So, momentary speed variations of the diesel generator system has been increased because of high super-charging of the engine and small GD2 of the generator rotor. And the generator system whose engine has a little margin to the system output can not sometimes satisfy the rule requirement about the momentary speed variation in case of a loading condition being 0→50%→400%.
    And so there are some cases that generator engines are obliged to have larger capacity for required output to the generator in order to satisfy the requirement of the speed variation and it causes a price increase for the generator system.
    But after our research through some simulations, we have come to the conclusion that the capacity increase of the diesel engine can be avoided without any problems, if an appropriate protection device is provided.
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