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  • 福尾 勉
    日本医科大学雑誌
    1960年 27 巻 2 号 294-323
    発行日: 1960/02/15
    公開日: 2010/10/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. The lunate sulcus is present in 69 Japanese brains among 90, in 101 hemispheres among 180; the percentage is 76.7 for individuals, 56.1 for hemispheres.
    2. As for the side of the appearance of the lunate, the left side (25 among 90 individuals, 27.7%) is far more frequent than the right (12, 13.3%). Among 101 hemispheres with the lunate sulcus 57 are left (56.4%), 44 are right (43.5%) As for the sexual difference the lunate sulcus is present more frequent in the female brain (17 among 24 hemispheres, 70.8%).
    3. The site of the lunate sulcus is on the same hight with the occipital pole (66.3%), when it deviates, it is more frequent lower (28.7 %) than higher (5.4%).
    4. The form of the lunate sulcus is almost half circle in 50.4%(type I-V), the others (type VI-XI) are more flat or bent down, the chord of the arc runs almost always from up and medial to down lateral.
    5. The greatest distance from the occipital pol to the lunate sulcus is 2.6-3.5cm long in total, it is longer (3.1-3.5cm) by the half circle form, shorter (2.6-3.0cm) by the flat form.
    6. The depth of the lunate sulcus is pretty deep, it's length is 3.1-5.0cm.
    7. The situations of the lunate sulcus is up and lateral to the outer part of the retrocalcarine sulcus, except this retrocalcarine the upper and lower occipital sulci are surrounded by the arc of the lunate. A part of the upper occipital may situate out of the arc, the lateral occipital comes always lateral and out of the lunate.
    8. The retrocalcarine sulcus is present in 135 among 180 hemispheres, its prolongation to the lateral side is observed in 88 among 135. The lunate sulcus comes in 61 among these 88, the remaining 40 hemispheres with the lunate are without retrocalcarine.
    9. As for the anastomosing sulcus with lunate the upper occipital is more frequent than the lower occipital. The number of the anastomose is one in 45.5% among lunate hemispheres. The site of the anastomose is at the middle part of the sulcus, less frequent at the lower end and scanty at the upper end.
    10. The lunate sulcus is almost always accompanied by the prelunate, , the number of the latter is one, less frequently two. Except this prelunate there are 2 or 3 collateral short accompanying sulci.
    11. The dimensions of the cuneus on the medial surface are inclined to be a little broader by the lunate specimens. The angles between the calcarine and parieto-occipital sulci oscilate between 70° and 89°. It seems that there is no correlative relation between this angle and lunate.
    12. By the lunate specimens are the intraparietal sulci not straight and run nearer to the mantle rim. At their caudal end the medial branch of the transverse occipital sulcus is longer than the lateral.
    13. When a circumscript elevation on the outer surface of the occipital lobe may be called as operculum, there are 126 examples among 180 hemispheres. In the 101 lunate specimens there are 55 distinct, 24 not so much distinct operculum, 79 in total.
    14. The sulci which limit the operculum at the upper margin are almost always the transverse occipital, at the lateral margin are the lunate, and when the latter deficient the lateral occipital.
    15. The lateral occipital sulcus is distinct in 168 among 180 hemispheres, and when the lunate is present it lies always medial to the lateral occipital and horizontal. The anastmosis with the lateral occipital comes to the temporalis medius frequently (62 among 180).
    16. The upper and lower occipital sulci are less marked by the lunate brains.
  • 長谷部 言人
    人類學雜誌
    1925年 40 巻 5 号 184-192
    発行日: 1925/06/09
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 秋元 豊, 松葉 欣一郎
    医療
    1956年 10 巻 5 号 422-425
    発行日: 1956年
    公開日: 2011/10/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 竹岡 明日香, 杉下 守弘
    認知神経科学
    2001年 3 巻 1 号 54-56
    発行日: 2001年
    公開日: 2011/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 安藤 広志
    映像情報メディア学会誌
    2009年 63 巻 12 号 1727-1730
    発行日: 2009/12/01
    公開日: 2011/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 吉川 徹雄
    日本畜産学会報
    1949年 19 巻 1-4 号 16-20
    発行日: 1949/03/01
    公開日: 2008/03/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 有国 富夫
    Equilibrium Research
    2003年 62 巻 4 号 284-301
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2009/06/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, many functional areas have been identified in the parietal cortex of the brain in monkeys, and owing to this, cytoarchitectonic subdivision has been elaborated in the monkey parietal cortex. This review deals with sulcal patterns of the parietal lobe in human and monkey brains, and corticocortical connections of both neurophysiologi-cally defined regions and cytoarchitectonic areas of the parietal cortex in monkeys. The author proposes that the transverse occipital sulcus is a boundary between the parietal and occipital cortices in the human brain. A brain map of the monkey is presented. The parietal cortical areas are subdivided into somatosensory, eye movement related, hand or upper limb movement related, vestibular, and auditory areas, according to neu-rophysiologically defined functions of individual cortical areas. The somatosensory system contains areas 3a, 3b, 1, 2, 5, 7b, and SII: S1 projects to motor and premotor areas and somatosensory association areas project to premotor areas, the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic cortices, and the hippocampus. The eye movement system is composed of areas 7a, LIP, and PIP: It receives input from visual and temporal cortices and sends output to premotor areas, the prefrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. Hand movements are mediated in areas AIP, VIP, CIP, MIP, PEc, and V6A: These areas receive afferents from somatosensory areas, visual and temporal cortices and send efferents to the ventral premotor area. The vestibular functions are executed by coordination of areas 3aNV, 3aHV, 2NV, Ri, and VPS: These areas reciprocate with the cingulate cortex and insula and project to the ventral premotor area, SWA, and frontal eye field. The auditory system involves areas VIP and LIP: It receives afferents from the superior temporal sulcal cortex and sends efferents to the premotor area, frontal eye field, and prefrontal cortex.
  • 長澤 米藏, 永井 一
    日本医科大学雑誌
    1934年 5 巻 1 号 1-36
    発行日: 1934/01/15
    公開日: 2009/07/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 後藤 昇, 後藤 潤
    リハビリテーション医学
    2001年 38 巻 4 号 296-302
    発行日: 2001/04/18
    公開日: 2009/10/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The functional localization of the cerebrum is described from the anatomical point of view. In the central nervous system, neurons or nerve fibers with the same function gather to form gray matters or nerve fiber bundles. This article briefly describes and discusses about morphology of the telencephalon, structures of the cerebral cortex and functional localization of the cerebral cortex. On the surface of the telencephalon, there are many sulci and gyri. Several sulci such as the central, lateral, parietooccipital, etc. subdivide the pallium into five lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and insular. The insula is covered by the operculi frontale, frontoparietale et temporale. Under the microscopic observation of cerebral corteces, they consist of six cortical layers which vary from part to part. Since Brodmann (1909) divided the cortical areas into 52, we can explain cerebral areas properly for example, Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic areas 4, 3-1-2, 17, 41, 44, etc. Regarding cerebral functional localizations, Broca (1861) proposed first a theory of cerebral functional localization on motor speech after examining a patient with motor aphasia. Penfield and Rasmussen (1950) published a monograph entitled “The cerebral cortex of man: A clinical study of localization of function”. They studied cerebral functions at various parts using many patients with brain damages prior to surgical treatments. Their study have covered sensorimotor representation of the body, head and eye movement, representation of autonomic system, vocalization and arrest of speech, secondary sensory and motor representation, vision, hearing and equilibration, memory, sensory perception, etc. This review article plays up several important points of past researches on human beings.
  • 平田 豊
    基礎心理学研究
    2014年 33 巻 1 号 81-85
    発行日: 2014/09/30
    公開日: 2014/11/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Eye movements have been extensively studied in Neuroscience as a model system to understand neural mechanisms of motor control and learning. Further they have been examined in clinical and psychological studies since neural circuitries involved in eye movements extend to wide brain areas that are also involved in other brain functions such as attention. In this paper, I summarize recent researches in neuroscience that employ eye movements to elucidate neuronal mechanisms of motor learning. Then, an example of application of the accumulated neuroscience evidence to real world engineering problem, namely adaptive robot control, is introduced. Another application of eye movements to monitor car driver's physiological states is also summarized. By showing these recent studies on eye movements, I propose that eye movements can be one of the most attractive model systems to bridge the engineering and basic psychology in harmony.
  • 長澤 米藏, 永井 一
    日本医科大学雑誌
    1934年 5 巻 10 号 1193-1214
    発行日: 1934/10/15
    公開日: 2010/01/14
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 高山 吉弘
    認知神経科学
    1999年 1 巻 1 号 5-10
    発行日: 1999/04/28
    公開日: 2011/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー
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