The concept of meaning seems to be diminished in recent trends of TEFL in Japan. The diminishment is buttressed by the combination of objectivist semantics, objective tests, neo-liberalism and one-dimensional objectivism. Against the diminishment, this paper offers a new concept of meaning by introducing Integrated Information Theory by Tononi in neuroscience and supplementing it with the theory of meaning by Luhmann in theoretical sociology. In a sharp contract with objectivist semantics that regards meaning as an objectively describable, static, and determinate object, the new concept states that meaning is (1) a subjective experience on an objective physical mechanism; (2) experienced in unification of determinacy of actuality and indeterminacy of potentiality; and (3) a dynamic process. The paper also offers some practical implications.
William James's concept “stream of thought” has mainly two backgrounds to build up its original style. The first is the difference between material state and inner state of vital phenomena, and the second is the impossibility to associate plural ideas without transcendental subject. The first is influenced by an issue in the theory of evolution. That is a question, on which point in evolution the inner state of life has emerged. This is the principal impossibility which is contrary to the emergence of vital phenomena as material body. For this problem James reexamines “mind-stuff theory”, and he approves its one aspect which assumes inner state from the beginning of evolution, but rejects its another aspect which affirms association. The problem of the latter aspect has something to do with the second background. To overcome this problem, James attained to “stream” after examining “several another hypotheses”.
要 旨 Tornstam（1989）は老年的超越が老年期後半に出現する心理的特性であることを指摘している。 本稿ではこの心理的特性が、母性社会と言われる我が国においてもそのまま当てはまるかどうかについて、自我やアニミズム・アニミズム心性との関係で論じた。その結果、文化的、歴史的に母性社会においては、アニミズムやアニミズム心性の傾向が強く、自我意識が抑制されることから、老年的超越は老年期後半よりもずっと以前の、発達のかなり早期から継続して認められる心理的特性であることが推測された。