This study is intended to answer the following questions: what caused some of the Filipino masses to collaborate with the Japanese?; and why did their collaboration for the Japanese bring about severe violence?
Over seventy years or so since the end of the Asia-Pacific War in Asia, numerous academic works have been discussing so far the subject matters on the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines. However, only a few of them have discussed the issues of the collaboration with the perspectives from “below.” Even though there have been published numerous studies on the Filipino popular history, very few historians have examined the nature of collaborationism transpired in the local setting of the Philippines with such perspectives.
This paper aims to shed light on rampant severe violence frequently happened among the masses or locals in Leyte Island of the Philippines, one of the rural areas of the country, during the Japanese occupation, that have not yet been thoroughly examined in Philippine historiography. Applying theoretical frameworks of Ranajit Guha (2007) dealing with the historical study on the mass movement in India, this study tries to clarify the characteristics of the mass violence by focusing on the actuations of a number of actors, most of whom belonged to low middle class including some local governmental officials (municipal mayors, treasurers, or chieftains of small villages in the province), local small merchants or landless peasants with a scant educational background. These kind of people tended to be treated as minor actors in “periphery” in the Philippine society when describing the history of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines. Some of them were said to be involved in severe violence during the time of their organizing some paramilitary groups for the Japanese such as the Home Guard in Ormoc or Jutai in Abuyog. Being minor one in Philippine historiography, the significance of mass violence have had been ignored, and these violent incidents were considered nothing but black side of patriotic movements against the Japanese initiated by the anti-Japanese guerrilla groups. Therefore, their involvement in the local history have been forgotten on the minds of locals and local historians as well.
Discussing several cases presented in this paper, the author tries to posit that such minor actors in “periphery” of the Philippine society tried to delineate themselves in the elite-dominated society like Leyte Province by collaborating with the Japanese. Unfortunately, their activities were too sporadic to unite other minor elements toward the unified movement as the Sakdal Movement or Hukbalahap Movement in Luzon Island did during that time.
今年V-Dem（Varieties of Democracy）研究所から発行された年報Democracy Report 2018: Democracy for All?によると、ここ約10年の世界の民主政の様態は、概して「独裁化（autocratization）」傾向を示しているという。もちろん、普通選挙の実施に限れば、常態化している国もみられるため、この場合の「独裁化」は、普通選挙以外の側面、つまり、表現および結社の自由や法の下の平等に関してのものである。現代社会で最も正当とみなしうる政治体制は自由民主主義体制であり、それは慣例的に「自由」を省略して単に「民主主義体制」と呼ばれるが、皮肉にも現在、世界の多様な民主制が概してダメージを被っているのは、まさにこの省略されがちな「自由」の部分なのである。同時期のラテンアメリカ諸国での民主政をみてみると、ここでも選挙民主主義の点では安定した様相をみせているが、自由民主主義指標の変化でみると、ブラジル、ドミニカ共和国、エクアドル、ニカラグア、ベネズエラの国々でその数値の低下がみられた。しかし，世界的な傾向とは若干異なり，これらの国では「自由」の中でも，執政権に対する司法や立法権からの制約の低下が著しかった。本稿では、上記の世界的傾向や近年のラテンアメリカ地域での傾向をV-Demデータを使ってみたところ低下がみられた、ベネズエラを除いた上記4カ国の最近の政治状況について端的に報告する。
In contemporary international relations, it is almost impossible to acknowledge the actual situation of armed conflicts without the reports of human rights NGOs. These reports often record detailed data, including the number of civilian casualties, and therefore contribute to the construction of the representation of armed conflicts. While constructivism analyzes the normative power of human rights and NGOs, it misses the struggle over the representation of armed conflicts between human rights NGOs and sovereign states. Applying P. Bourdieu’s theory of fields, this article demonstrates how human rights NGOs have fought against sovereign states and acquired a decisive influence over the representation of armed conflicts. Sovereign states and NGOs have constituted global and local fields in which actors wrangle over legitimacy by making the representation of the armed conflicts.
This article argues that the struggles over the representation of armed conflicts between states and NGOs began in the late 1960s because of several post-colonial conflicts such as the Nigerian Civil War (the Biafran War) and the Northern Yemen Civil War. In these conflicts, traditional neutrality rarely afforded protection from military attack to NGOs; on the contrary, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)’s policy of avoiding testimony faced severe criticism as this policy seemed to help genocide continue. Until the 1960s, NGOs such as the ICRC had tended to avoid publicly criticizing sovereign states in armed conflicts even when NGOs confronted genocides.
In the 1970s, human rights networks, including local and international NGOs, have been created because of serious human rights violations in Latin American countries. Various NGOs recorded human rights violations and publicly criticized authoritarian states. In the 1980s, when the Salvadoran Civil War occurred, local NGOs tracked civilian casualties and human rights violations by armed forces. With the help of these local NGOs, the newly established Americas Watch published many reports on the Salvadoran Civil War. Thereby, the Americas Watch tried to change the foreign policy of the Reagan administration that strongly supported the Salvadoran government. The data on civilian casualties was the focal point of the struggle between NGOs and the Reagan administration. This struggle contributed to the constitution of the global regime for humanitarian crises and led to the development of the methodology of fact-finding in armed conflicts. In the late 1980s and 1990s this global regime for humanitarian crises expanded as the number of human rights NGOs increased and the UN was involved in fact-finding missions.
A questionnaire aimed at improving the environmental education work of Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) was distributed to 99 staff working in Meru National Park, Kenya. The results indicated the need for conservation education support in the park. Conservation education for people living in the area of the park has seen a number of challenges in terms of both quality and quantity due to staff irresponsibility, problem in the maintenance of fuel and vehicles, and poor collaboration between different departments. The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the JOCV will need to work to improve the knowledge and awareness of locals about conservation and the relationship between the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) and locals by coordinating the supply of materials and revenues that are urgently needed by the KWS with the grassroots activity of the JOCV while winning the understanding of KWS staff.