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  • 石川 太郎
    照明学会誌
    1989年 73 巻 7 号 372-375
    発行日: 1989/07/01
    公開日: 2011/07/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 沼尻 晃伸
    土地制度史学
    1995年 38 巻 1 号 16-32
    発行日: 1995/10/20
    公開日: 2017/12/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to make clear the characteristics of relation between land readjustment (L. R. for short) and city planning in the Inter-war Period. We analyze Nagoya city that private L. R. have been developed most in Japan before World War II. In the begining of the 1910s, land owners in the suburbs of Nagoya began to carry out Agricultural L. R. on purpose to develope residential area. Some peasants were opposed to the L. R. If circumstance required, the land owners compensated their peasants for the customary tenant right, and then they enforced L. R. In 1920s, Nagoya City Planning had expanded L. R. areas in suburbs. The L. R. supplied housing sites for people living in the northeast, zoned as industrial district, and for the salaried men willing to live in suburb. The L. R. enforced by land owners had two characteristics. First, the L. R. promoted development of farmland. Secondly, the L. R. partly substantialized Nagoya Zoning. But L. R. of south area, zoned as industrial district, didn't invite to set up many plants, because the price of land had risen in 1920s and the area was out of condition for plant location. Capitalists demanded extentions of industrial district. Conseqently, the government determined to put off the effectuation of the Enforcement Ordinance of the Urban Building Act in. 1933, and to expand of the industrial district of Nagoya Zoning. In the latter half of the 1930s, the L. R. have only functioned as the development of farmland, losing the function of substantializing land use plan.
  • 菊池 利夫
    人文地理
    1954年 6 巻 4 号 249-264,320
    発行日: 1954/10/30
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Some fundamental matters are to be reported here an the contracting reclaimed rice-field of the trading class. They are the following three points:
    (1) The relatian between the productivity of the reclaimed rice-field and kokumori i.e. the estimated crop according to which the landtax was collected (2) Composition of population in villages of the reclaimed rice-field (3) Gains brought about by the reclamation and development of rice-field, in other words, the reason why the contracting reclaimed rice-field of the trading class increased about the middle of modern times.
    (1) It is said that kokumori, the estimated harvest as the standard for collecting the land-tax, was generally 80 per cent of the producing capacity of land in the early years of modern times, and 100 per cent about the middle of modern times. As to the contracting reclaimed rice-field, kokumari is computed to have been 110-130 per cent of the productivity. This is because of the fact that the actual area of the rice-field corresponded to be 1.8 times as large as the square measure made public. Consequently, it follows that kokumori was 80 per cent of the productivity at the best reclaimed rice-field, and 61 per cent at the most inferior field. The landowners of these rice-fields paid the land-tax in proportion to their respective square measure made public, while they collected rent paid in rice accoding to the actual area. Consequently, the balance was a profit for the landowners. An increase of the productivity made the balance between an annual tribute and harvest wider, and rent paid in rice was collected as much as the balance. In general, this is regarded as the reason why the contracting reclaimed rice-field appeared in succession, though in reality this is not often the case.
    (2) The population of newly reclaimed villages was composed of a mi nority of immigrated farmers and a majority of tenant-farmers coming for work from other areas. The ratio between the immigrated farmers and the tenant-farmers depended upon the degree how far the farming population in existing villages was divided into extremes from a viewpoint of the social scale, namely, the higher classes and the lower classes, leaving only a small number in the middle classes. Requiring a large number of the tenant-farmers coming for work from other areas, the reclamation and developmnent of rice-field temporarily delayed the above-mentioned process of farmers going to the extreme social standings.
    (3) Feudal clans remitted the landlords of the reclaimed rice-field the land-tax for twelve years. The latter still requested twelve years' prolongation of the term, which was granted. It seems that this was the period for repaying the amount with interest added of the expenses costed by the reclamation and development of rice-field. The annual interest was 8 per cent. The incomings and outcomings of the reclaimed rice-field usually brought about a profit of 10 per cent yearly. The annual interest for a loan to feudal lords was 5 per cent in those days, the higher rate of interest being 10 per cent annually; which was, however, often in danger of remaining unpaid. Therefore, the reclamation and development of rice-field was a sound and profitable enterprise for the trading class about the middle of modern times.
  • 大森 光彦
    大日本窯業協會雑誌
    1929年 37 巻 442 号 438-457
    発行日: 1929/10/01
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 大森 光彦
    大日本窯業協會雑誌
    1929年 37 巻 437 号 169-176
    発行日: 1929/05/01
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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