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  • 坂口 歳斗, 土井 幸輝, 藤本 浩志
    ヒューマンインタフェース学会論文誌
    2017年 19 巻 1 号 69-76
    発行日: 2017/02/25
    公開日: 2018/12/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hardness identification is one of the most important tactile senses for acupuncturists. For example, during palpation, acupuncturists identify stiffness in the muscle by using their hands and identifying the hardness. In acupuncturist schools, the students practice palpating with weak press force in order to not cause pain to their patients. However, the acupuncturist school teachers cannot objectively evaluate their fundamental technique of palpation. In this study, to determine the relation between the press force and the characteristics of hardness identification, we investigated the differential threshold of hardness for different press forces. We used seven elastic test pieces with different Young’s moduli on the assumption of palpation as the presented stimuli. We conducted an experiment using the constant stimuli method to calculate differential threshold of hardness as one evaluation index of hardness identification when using the thumb. The results of the experiment showed that in the case of weaker press force, the differential threshold of hardness increased. This knowledge will be useful for evaluating fundamental human identification of hardness.
  • 中西 保正
    溶接学会誌
    1987年 56 巻 8 号 457-462
    発行日: 1987/12/05
    公開日: 2011/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小野岡 竜三, 近田 淳雄
    繊維学会誌
    1969年 25 巻 7 号 332-342
    発行日: 1969/07/10
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    A micro-hardness tester based on the static indentation method was designed to study the hardness of polymer films. The contact area of a film with an indenter under loading was measurable in the terter. This tester has the following characteristics:
    1) The error caused by elastic recovery characteristic of visco-elastic materials can be decreased.
    2) The testing load changes continuously from 1g to 300g.
    3) The testing temperature can be changes widely.
    The results obtained by application of the tester are as follows;
    i) The Vickers and Brinell hardness of thin polymer films was measured with an indenter under a proper small load. The hardness was independent upon the thickness of samples used in this experiment. A difference between the hardness under loaded and unloaded states for thin polymer films was observed. The hardness under unloaded state agreed with the value obtained by a commercial tester.
    ii) In the case of uniaxially drawn PET, the shape of the contact area of the film with a ball indenter was ellipse, whose minor axis coincids with the drawing direction. The ratio of the major axis to the minor was proportional to the birefringence of the samples.
  • 入江 隆, 岡 久雄, 安原 清隆, 山本 辰馬
    電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
    1992年 112 巻 8 号 443-450
    発行日: 1992/08/20
    公開日: 2008/12/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The measurement of a hardness on the human body has been anticipated in a basic and clinical medicine, a skin science, and other various fields. Some indexes of hardness on the human body, which have been based on a dynamic measurement in vivo, have been reported, but there are few to lead to a practical application i. e. an evaluation of palpation.
    In order to realize a practical application, a hardness-meter for the human body has been developed. This measurement system uses a single sinusoidal vibration to simplify both its hardware and software. SH (Skin Hardness), which expresses mechanical mobility, is proposed as a new index of hardness. The measuring probe is designed as a handy type to measure almost all around the human body and the whole system is a portable type. The forced vibrating and the detection of acceleration are realized by a piezo-electric element of bi-morph type. Besides, the measuring error, the proper measuring conditions and the relations between SH and the other indexes are made clear.
  • 押込硬度の圧こんについて-第3報
    財満 鎮雄
    材料試験
    1957年 6 巻 51 号 777-781
    発行日: 1957/12/15
    公開日: 2009/05/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    It goes without saying that the material of a standard block for hardness test should not fail to be homogeneous and give the same hardness number regardless the measuring points on the surface of the block, thus the hardness number measured on the block, must always agree with the standard number, which is alotted according to the same standard, independent from time and place. It is desirable, therefore, that we may obtain the reliability of hardness number as a standard by the stadard hardness block.
    A great deal of studies on the standard block have been made, which seems to lead to succeed in manufacturing the standard block to certain extent, but there is still left to be discussed in details about this problem. The author discusses on the Vickers standard block on market in this paper, from the results obtained by the research on depression, especially on the piling-up. The demestic standard blocks supplied by two makrers (HV=200-800) are tested on depression ranging from 1 to 50kg with subsequent examination of depression by the Ogoshi Surface Roughness Tester on the surface.
    The results are summarized as follows:
    (1) Every block shows its homogenuity having no difference in hardness number notwithstanding the measuring points.
    (2) The degree of piling-up differs according to the makers, but the aspect of piling-up has the same inclination regardless the makers, and there is the highest piling-up at HV≈400.
    (3) There is no continual relationship between the hardness number measured on each standard block and the degree of each piling-up, and the influence of error on harddness caused by the piling-up is not proportional to the hardness. It seems desirable, therefore, to toke the influence of piling-up into consideration for the standard series of hardness block.
    (4) And it is necessary that a standard block manufactured shold be of those materials which have less piling or piling to the equal amount at least.
    (5) We can easily obtain the general aspects of the piling-up by means of the Knoop indentator.
  • 西畑 三樹男
    材料試験
    1960年 9 巻 82 号 459-463
    発行日: 1960/07/15
    公開日: 2009/05/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山本 普
    実務表面技術
    1983年 30 巻 10 号 443-447
    発行日: 1983/10/01
    公開日: 2009/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山本 普
    実務表面技術
    1981年 28 巻 5 号 224-230
    発行日: 1981/05/01
    公開日: 2009/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 井上 武美
    土木学会論文報告集
    1978年 1978 巻 274 号 145-148
    発行日: 1978/06/20
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 高瀬 翔, 土井 幸輝, 藤本 浩志
    ヒューマンインタフェース学会論文誌
    2010年 12 巻 2 号 155-161
    発行日: 2010/05/25
    公開日: 2019/09/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    In this study, in order to define the influence of the type of touching motion on the hardness sensation of an elastic object, we conducted an experiment to compare the hardness sensation experienced on performing two different touching motions (pinching and pushing) by the method of successive categories. In this experiment, we used 14 elastic test-pieces with different hardnesses as the presented stimuli. Eleven participants were asked to rate the hardness of the presented stimuli on a seven-point scale extremely soft, fairly soft, slightly soft, neither, slightly hard, fairly hard, and extremely hard‐when touching the test-pieces with their forefinger by pushing and pinching motions. The results indicated that the hardness sensation in the case of pinching motion was softer than that in the case of pushing motion when the hardness of the elastic object was categorized as extremely soft or hard. In addition, the type of touching motion influenced the hardness sensation.

  • 阪口 明弘, 豊田 康二, 門岡 直也, 田坂 茂樹
    日本建築学会構造系論文集
    2013年 78 巻 691 号 1649-1657
    発行日: 2013/09/30
    公開日: 2013/11/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Rockwell hardness of high-strength bolt sets subjected to high temperature was measured. According to these data, the equation that Rockwell hardness decreased at 7HRC per 100℃ above the tempering temperature was proposed as a conservative simple estimation method for fire-damaged investigation. The temperature of high-strength bolt sets was decided by averaging three temperatures, which estimated by applying the proposed equation to bolt, nut and washer. The proposed method was applied to the fire resistance test on full-scale beam and the measured temperatures of bolt sets could be estimated with adequate accuracy.
  • 山本 卓, 小島 光司
    計測と制御
    2005年 44 巻 10 号 722-728
    発行日: 2005/10/10
    公開日: 2009/11/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 林 浩孝, 今井 秀孝, 秦 勝一郎
    計測と制御
    1999年 38 巻 2 号 133-137
    発行日: 1999/02/10
    公開日: 2009/11/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • *青柳 良二, 梅津 薫
    電気関係学会東北支部連合大会講演論文集
    2006年 2006 巻 2C4
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2007/02/05
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 関谷 三郎, 福島 義明
    材料
    1972年 21 巻 222 号 168-172
    発行日: 1972/03/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The testing of hot hardness is recently widely practised and drawing attention as a convenient way to find the mechanical properties of engineering materials, e.g. tensile strength, creep strength and creep rupture strength at an elevated temperature. There are two types of apparatuses for testing hot hardness that are now available in Japan to measure the Vickers hardness of materials, both metallic and non-metallic, and the measured values of the hot hardness are greatly variable depending on the measuring conditions and methods. In order to obtain the reliable values of hot hardness it is absolutely necessary, therefore, that the measuring conditions and method will be carefully studied. We have performed a number of experimental studies regarding the testing procedures and the conditions in connection therewith, and have been able, thanks to the cooperation of twelve research laboratories, to obtain a criterion for proper conditions and methods for the testing of hot hardness.
  • 触診時の指の動作を基本にした生体の硬さ測定
    有馬 義貴, 矢野 忠
    医用電子と生体工学
    1998年 36 巻 4 号 321-336
    発行日: 1998年
    公開日: 2011/10/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    Though palpation has long been one of major medical examinations in Oriental medicine, the evaluation of information gained from it depends so much on subjective judgement of each therapist that diagnosis by palpation are often inconsistent. From palpation, a therapist not only feels the hardness, stiffness or flatulence of the place he palpates, but also judges how the hardness of the same point changes as he pushes the body with his fingers. We modeled a bioelasticity system on therapists “pushing” action, in which hardness of the points with different depths in body can be measured. And we made experiments to see how the different “pushing” actions affect measurement. From statistical discussion on the results obtained through experiment, we decided the most reproducible and clinically useful way of “pushing.” In this study, we also tried to visualize the inner structure of the model in which jerry rings of different hardness are stratified.
  • 加藤 章, 吉田 孝
    日本機械学会論文集 A編
    1995年 61 巻 588 号 1851-1857
    発行日: 1995/08/25
    公開日: 2008/02/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated a method for automated measurement of micro Vickers hardness using image processing techniques. A TV image of the indentation from a microscope was input into an image processing system, and a method was developed to measure the size of Vickers indentation. When an indentation is marked on an unclean surface, the difference of gray levels in the material surface region and the indentation region is small in the input image of the specimen, and the boundary of the indentation is not clear in this case. It is not easy to separate the indentation part from the material surface. Since the features of the gray level distribution in the indentation region are different from those at the material surface region, we applied the image feature extraction methods to detect the indentation region. The result measured by this method was similar to the result measured manually. It was concluded that the accuracy of this method is sufficient for practical use.
  • 山本 普
    Journal of Advanced Science
    1995年 7 巻 3-4 号 206-213
    発行日: 1996/03/15
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Hardness is defined as a scale to evaluate the resistance of an object against the force of an impression. Throughout their long history, hardness tests have acquired more and more applications in line with growing attention to the mechanical properties of industrial materials. The more advanced the materials, the greater accuracy is required when testing their hardness, attracting attention to a broader range of parameters which includes the geometry of indenters, loading conditions, and methods for measuring impressions.
    The purposes of hardness tests have also expanded to include the evaluation of material strength and microstructural changes as a factor of hardness and to guarantee product quality.
    The level of quality control required for hardness testing machines is highly dependent on their applications. Given this complicated situations, this paper deals with some basics for effectively using the scale of hardness.
  • 木下 統, 永田 雅輝, 松田 大
    植物工場学会誌
    2003年 15 巻 2 号 67-71
    発行日: 2003/06/01
    公開日: 2011/03/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    A method for measuring the firmness of cherry tomatoes based on the displacement of their surface caused by the spraying of compressed air was studied. The main results were as follows : 1) If the air pressure, the inner diameter of the nozzle for spraying the compressed air, and the distance between the tip of the nozzle and the fruit surface were given suitable values, and if the fruit was secured so that it would not shake, the surface of the fruit would be only slightly deformed, and the displacement of the fruit surface could be measured precisely ; 2) The coefficient of correlation between the measurements obtained by this method and measurements obtained by a commercial fruit firmness meter was about -0. 95 ; and 3) When the displacement was calculated from the value that was measured by a laser displacement sensor, 0 mV was the optimal standard value. Thus, it appears that this method can be used to measure the firmness of cherry tomatoes.
  • 伸銅薄板の最小限界厚さ
    真下 美佐男
    精密工学会誌
    1994年 60 巻 9 号 1319-1324
    発行日: 1994/09/05
    公開日: 2010/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents the minimum specimen thickness limit (Tmin) of copper alloys (brass, 2 kind of phosphor bronze and nickel silver). Standardized hardness blocks were tested by HRB·HRBQ, HR 30 T·HR 30 TQ scales, errors of the similarity in hardness were found to be lower than 1% (2nd report). To test thinner specimen, scales are extended to HR 15 T·HR 15 TQ. Hardened steel spot anvil (SSA) and diamond spot anvil (DSA) are used, both spot diameters are 4 mm. Criterions of the Tmin, are : (1) Difference of hardness measured with SSA, DSA is lower than ±0.1 hardness unit. (2) The bulge or mark appears on underside is barely visible. (3) The elastic deformation of SSA is reasonable that is 0.2-0.9 hardness unit depending on the specimen thickness. This test uses specimens which are extracted from usual factory products. They were hardened by cold rolling and hardness were changed by working ratio, heat treatment, tension annealing, etc. Therefore the hardness of these copper alloys generally vary throughout thickness of specimens and the thickness is decreased by etching (HNO3) and polishing, the hardness changes. The values in the test results shoud be taken as average ones. The hardness test data are fitted with second or third order polynomials by least square method. The above 5 materials are divided into 2 groups. (1) brass, phosphor bronze (Bs, PB) and (2) Nickel silver (NS) in the relation between Tmin and hardness. The hardness for the same Tmin differs significantly. HRB 3.7-7.3, HR 30 T 1.8-3.1, HR 15 T 1.8-3.0, in middle and high hardness range (H, EH, SH). But the difference between polynomials within the same group is lower than 1.0 unit (except phosphor bronze ≤ 1.4).
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