The aim of this paper is to indicate that structure of recording industry based on analogue sound recording technology has transformed as a consequence of digitization, a technological innovation. In this study, it is considered that digitization in sound recording technology has formed two paths: the one is a way to strengthen existing market of recording industry and to form prosperity, the other is a way to expand Do-It-Yourself music production and “prosumer” related with diffusion of computer, ICT and the like. Both paths of digitization have been accelerating in the mid-1990s. In the latter half of 1990s, digitization in music creation has enabled to reduce production cost and to integrate industrial organizations: record production, artist management, and music publishing. It used to be reasonable for music companies to divide and assign property rights of their music into mass media companies, and each music copyright used to be joint-ownership in many cases.
“The fourth step” of recording industry evolution is shown as mixed situation with both digitization paths. This study relies on the evolutionary model developed by Kabashima (2009) that explains transformations of content industry. Furthermore, this research attempts to improve on the model. “The fourth step” is added to the three steps of the content industry’s evolutionary theory shown by previous study. “The fourth step” of recording industry is characterized by things as follows: partial integration in industrial organization, creation by consumers, and shift of platform. It is suggested that digitization has led the change of recording industry system since around 1995 in this study. Thus, it is possible to perceive dynamics of recording industry by indicating “the fourth step” of the evolutionary model.
The aim of this paper is to clarify characteristics of music prosumers through quantitative analyses mainly focusing on their purposes and digitized tools of production. The term “prosumer” coined by Toffler (1980) means consumer who produces something. Consumers’ productions in content industries have been suggested in previous studies. However, it has not quantitatively revealed what has led consumers’ creations. This paper contributes to suggesting a correlational relationship between digi- tized tools and productions and to understanding intrinsic motivations of the prosumer, which have not clarified in previous studies.
This research reconsiders on a prosumer construct and its scale items based on Katsumata and Ichikoji (2010), Ikuine, Katsumata and Ichikoji et al. (2011), and collects both quantitative and qualitative data from a questionnaire survey. First, using Mann-Whitney’s U test, differences between prosumers and non-prosumers are examined to reveal some characteristics of the prosumers. Second, a free de- scriptive answer text is analyzed to reveal what are the purposes of creative activities. Third, a cor- relation analysis is conducted to examine the correlational relationship between each instrument and each production activity.
Consequently, it is indicated that the purposes of consumers’ productions are mostly for self-con- tented and/or self-satisfying through analyzing answer data of the open-ended question in this research. For the music prosumers, creations are neither for sharing with the others nor for progressing in their skills and/or quality of the works. Distinguished from the non-prosumers, people who make creations prefer to others’ works released from not only major labels but also independent labels, individuals, and amateurs. Also, the prosumer has forwardness in listening, watching, and viewing other people’s works and learning from them. The prosumer seems to seek the contents of his/her own motion without much influence from mass-media appeals. This paper also clarifies the usage of digitized instruments has correlation with production activities such as arrangement of content, publishing the works, and making profits from them.
Based on this research, it is thought that “production itself” and “acquisition of knowledge or skills” can be an object for consumption and/or be an experience good. Thus, business models should be designed based on those facts indicated in this paper. As further issues, it might be necessary to reconsider a construct of production, because technological developments have realized easy production without recognition of producing. Also, it is required to develop the scale items and to conduct more precise researches regarding the prosumer.
There has been an increase in the number of Japanese people who disagree with traditional gender roles which has resulted in diversified male roles. Based on a nine-male-roles model, this study examined the chronological changes and differences in male characters as per their ages and relationships with the heroine in NHK’s morning drama serials known as “asadora,” which is a Japanese TV drama. Results indicated that the roles of middle-aged men evolved from “high communion” in the ’60s and ’70s, to “high social status” in the ’80s and ’90s, to “commitment to household responsibility” in the ’00s and ’10s. Meanwhile, young men’s roles evolved from “high agency” in the ’90s to “attentiveness to women” in the ’10s. Additionally, the heroines’ husbands, ex-husbands, male friends, and romantic partners demonstrated “low effeminacy,” “superiority to women,” and “attentiveness to women.” Conversely, the heroines’ brothers, sons, and neighbors demonstrated “psychological and physical strength” and “emancipation from emotional restriction and toughness.” Based on social changes in Japan, implications of this study and future prospects were discussed.
The purpose of this study is to comprehensively review the trends in psychological research on manipulation of others and to consider the direction of future research in this area. Based on the studies in this review, a model is proposed that can order in terms of effectiveness or susceptibility the manipulations used in antisocial behaviors using combinations of “personality traits that seek to manipulate others or techniques for manipulating others” and “specificities of the object persons of the manipulation”, respectively. As for future issues and prospects, it is desirable to develop a comprehensive model that includes various underlying concepts by defining the common theoretical structure that encompasses various concepts in each area while repeatedly testing the validity of the model. The applicability of the model should be evaluated based on the many actual techniques of manipulating others and on the social cases of manipulating others.
This study considers the activities of street performers on and around the new Umeda footbridge in Kita, Osaka. In this study, the perspectives of time geography and social networks are emphasized.
The following conclusions can be drawn as a result of field observations and personal interviews with street performers,
The various street performers are divided into 4 types: (1) musicians, (2) fine artists, (3) vendors, and (4) other performers. Based on these types, the purpose of their street activity varies and their space-time distribution patterns can be seen around the new Umeda footbridge.
The environment surrounding the street performers consists of the police and municipalities, local companies, media organizations, fans and visitors. On the one hand, they regulate the activities of the street performers, while, on the other, they are affected by the independent activities of the street performers.
Against the background of the spread of the Internet, street performers form social networks by creating their own homepages.
From knowledge of time geography and social networks, this paper analyzed various structural relations around street performers. Street activities in the city are understood as an example exhibited in many dimensions of time, space and society.
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the transformations of socio-economic systems that orig- inated from technologies. For instance, media and content industries can be conceptually explained as socio-economic complex systems that were constructed from technologies, rules, institutions, markets, and culture. Accordingly, this paper identifies these constituents and patterns of the systems in the abovementioned industries. These industries developed after the inventions of reproduction technol- ogies, and technological characteristics have contributed to the development of certain standardized patterns for these industries, such as content reproductions and the copyright business. Defining such patterns would help in conducting quantitative analyses regarding micro structural changes within the systems. The patterns would be transformed if the dominant technologies of the systems would change. The whole system is emergent and indecomposable; therefore, each element of the system is indicated conceptually in this paper. This approach would contribute as an explanation for the transformation of the whole complex system both deductively and empirically.