At the beginning of Meiji Period, modern military system was installed in Japan, modelled after Western countries. Since then, military ceremony, as well as its manners and regulations, had been consolidated. Among them, Kanpeishiki, Japanese military parade conducted in the presence of the Emperor as Daigensui (Commander-in-chief), is one of the most significant Imperial ceremony in modern Tokyo, involving the general public in the city.
This study aims to clarify the characteristics of ceremonial space used for Kanpeishiki in modern Tokyo, focusing on temporary use of three parade grounds (Hibiya, Aoyama, and Yoyogi) and the Imperial Palace Plaza from Meiji Period to pre-war Showa Period. Since those parade grounds and Imperial estates had covered large areas in the city, it is important to characterize their ceremonial use in understanding urban formation of modern Tokyo, especially as a military city.
In the second chapter, the forming process of Kanpeishiki and the development process of those sites are reviewed as a premise for this study. Parade grounds in Tokyo, established for military training and its ceremony, had been redeployed twice with the influence of military and political factors, receding from the Imperial Palace. On the other hand, the Imperial Palace Plaza, developed as a symbolic plaza in the center of Tokyo, had become sacred space by being used as a site of imperial ceremony including Kanpeishiki.
The third chapter shows the site transition of Kanpeishiki by creating the chronological table. Kanpeishiki, started as a closed ceremony inside the Imperial Palace within the Emperor and limited people at the beginning of Meiji Period, had become a public ceremony in the city by being conducted in parade grounds. On the other hand, the Imperial Palace Plaza also started to be used for Kanpeishiki from the end of Taisho Period.
In the fourth chapter, the procedure and the usage pattern of each site are revealed by analyzing operation manuals of Kanpeishiki made by the army. As well as the procedure, the site usage pattern has been formulated from the 1870’s through the 1880’s in Hibiya Parade Ground. The basic layout plan of the Emperor and troops is almost common among three parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza, but the scale of ceremony had become larger, especially the space for the general public.
In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that sites used for Kanpeishiki in modern Tokyo has the following characteristics.
1) The parade grounds had been used as main ceremonial sites from Meiji period to pre-war Showa Period, and those sites had moved westward due to redeployment of military reservation. On the other hand, the Imperial Palace Plaza was also used occasionally as a ceremonial site. Three parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza met conditions necessary for ceremonial use of Kanpeishiki regarding possession, size and figure, but they have different characteristics in scenic beauty and location. It is presumed that this difference led to combination use of parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza.
2) The basic site usage pattern was formulated and basically common among three parade grounds and the Imperial Palace Plaza, on the other hand, its scale had become larger to accommodate thousands of people. It can be said that this formulation enables the Imperial Palace Plaza, not originally established for military purpose, to be used as a site of Kanpeishiki. Additionally, it can also be pointed out that not only the Emperor and soldiers but also the general public had come to be positioned as important participants of military ceremony by the nation.