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全文: "軍人"
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  • 民族學研究
    1943年 New1 巻 10 号 1023-
    発行日: 1943/10/05
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 日本機械学会誌
    1938年 41 巻 258 号 856-
    発行日: 1938/09/01
    公開日: 2017/06/21
    解説誌・一般情報誌 フリー
  • 昇 亜美子
    日本財団パラリンピックサポートセンターパラリンピック研究会紀要
    2019年 11 巻 17-39
    発行日: 2019年
    公開日: 2019/07/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    A precursor to the Paralympics was the Stoke Mandeville Games, and it is well known that one of its major objectives was to provide treatment to military personnel and to support their reintegration into civilian society. While the Paralympics subsequently developed as an elite sports competition, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of disabled war veterans taking part. As a form of rehabilitation for military personnel, the Paralympics can be seen as having come full circle. This is particularly noticeable in the case of the US: at the 2018 Paralympics in Pyeongchang, veterans made up 24.3% of the entire US team.

    Behind that development is the increase in the number of disabled veterans resulting from the various wars against terror that America has fought since the 9/11 attacks in 2001. This increase has resulted in an expanding medical and welfare bill that puts pressure on US government finances, and delays in diagnosis and treatment in veterans hospitals have emerged as a major social and political problem. Veterans in the US number more than 20 million, constituting a major political force that can even affect the outcome of presidential elections, and how veterans are treated has become an election issue in recent years.

    One of the various policies that the U.S. goverment agencies such as U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs have adopted to deal with this increase in disabled veterans has been to encourage individuals to take part in adaptive sports. Since the mid 2000s there has been an expansion in programs specifically designed for military individuals, undertaken in close cooperation with the US Olympic Committee. In particular with the passing of the Veterans’ Benefits Improvement Act of 2008, various programs were launched to provide grant to organizations that run adaptive sports programs for disabled veterans and to pay monthly training allowance to disabled veterans with Paralympics-level competition skills.

    What effects will these sorts of proactive government policies have on the Paralympics and adaptive sports in the future? First, we can argue that they will contribute to the growth and development of the Paralympics and adaptive sports as a whole. The US Olympic Committee and other sports organizations will be strengthened on the financial front, the increasing number of disabled veterans taking up adaptive sports will result in more athletes being developed, and there will be more public interest. Second, because there is significantly more support given to disabled veterans engaged in sports in comparison to disabled civilians, there is a possibility that military personnel will have an unfair advantage in opportunities to participate in the Paralympics. Third, if disabled veterans receive preferential treatment and their proportion among Paralympics participants increases, defining the value of disabled sports may be focused on its sports element and increasing competitive skill, rather than welfare-related aspects such as the rehabilitation of disabled people, their psychological stability, the recovery of their self-confidence and dignity, and supporting their reintegration into communities. Lastly, because participation in sports by a nation’s veterans often includes patriotic elements such as the prominent use of the national flag, the Paralympics Games may also become an event with a stronger appeal to nationalism.
  • ─傷痍軍人とその妻に求められていたもの─
    高安 桃子
    ジェンダー史学
    2009年 5 巻 51-65
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2010/11/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses the measures taken to assist disabled soldiers in finding marriage partners from the outbreak of the war between Japan and China to the Pacific War. I will also consider the role that disabled soldiers and their wives were expected to play during wartime. During the war years, the numbers of disabled soldiers increased dramatically, and measures were taken to help these disabled soldiers find marriage partners.
    This program to aid disabled soldiers began in 1938 when an organization of women took the lead in efforts to introduce future partners to disabled soldiers. In response to a request from the government, the activities were extended to the whole country in 1941.
    A number of goals lay behind the program including: a desire to assist in the rehabilitation of disabled soldiers so that they might comeback to serve the nation; a desire to secure manpower; and bestowing honor on the soldiers. Disabled soldiers needed a strong commitment if they were to complete rehabilitation, and also needed to have a sense of their own identity as disabled soldiers. Thus it was important to draw a distinction between those with congenital disabilities, and the disabilities of the soldiers who were wounded in combat.
    The movement sought Japanese woman who were willing to marry disabled soldiers. Women did not normally join the military services, but marrying a disabled soldier and relieving him of despair was promoted as a way for a woman to serve the nation. In the training schools set up to support the brides of disabled soldiers, women were taught useful vocations so that they would be able to earn a living instead of their husbands.
    The disabled soldier's wife was also expected to be a caregiver. The wife's most important role was to support the rehabilitation of her husband so that he could again serve the nation. She was supposed to be strong enough to bear the burden in her marriage. We can imagine that it must have taken a very strong resolve for a woman to decide to marry a disabled soldier.
  • ―信州郷軍同志会・大日本赤誠会を中心に―
    玉木 寛輝
    法政論叢
    2014年 51 巻 1 号 67-
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 軍事援護學會教育委員會
    教育学研究
    1944年 13 巻 1 号 38-40
    発行日: 1944年
    公開日: 2009/01/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 大沢 英雄, 橋本 豊司, 十校内 功, 二ッ森 修
    体育学研究
    1966年 10 巻 2 号 414-
    発行日: 1966/07/15
    公開日: 2016/12/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 永井 和
    史学雑誌
    1987年 96 巻 10 号 1595-1618,1703-
    発行日: 1987/10/20
    公開日: 2017/11/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this note the author attempts to classify the 44 Japanese Cabinets in the pre-war period from the first one headed by Ito Hirobumi to the Higashikuni Government of August-October 1945, according to the prime minister's military position. His conclusions may be summarized as follows. Japanese pre-war Cabinets can be classified into two categories. One is headed by a general or an admiral of the Army and Navy and the other is not. The former may be called 'Military Prime Minister Cabinet' (MPMC), and the latter a 'Civilian Prime Minister Cabinet'. Of the pre-war 44 Cabinets, 20 were MPMC's. The MPMC can also be divided into two sub-categories. In type A the prime minister was on active duty in the Army or Navy. In type B he was in the reserves or retired. According to an edict on army and navy officer position and service decreed in 1888, officers appointed to the civil service must have been discharged from military service. However, if the Emperor ordered or permitted by the special decree, a civil servant could remain in military active service. Type A is further divided into 'Yamagata Style', 'War and Surrender Cabinet' and 'Other'. The First and Second Yamagata, the First and Second Katsura, the First Yamamoto, the Terauchi and the Kato Tomosaburo Cabinets are all of the 'Yamagata Style'. The Tojo arid the first half of the Higashikuni Cabinets form the 'War and Surrender Cabinet Style'. 'Other' includes the first half of Kuroda Cabinet (before the prolamation of the 1888 edict). Type B contains 4 sub-groups. The first is 'Katsura-Tanaka Style' (a party cabinet but its Premier was a military general). The Third Katsura and the Tanaka Giichi Cabinets belong to this subgroup. The second is 'Elder Admiral Prime Minister Cabinet' consisting of the Second Yamamoto, the Saito, the Okada and the Suzuki Kantaro Cabinets. The third is 'Army Reserve General Prime Minister Cabinet' which includes the Hayashi, the Abe and the Koiso Cabinets. The Yonai and the latter half of Kuroda and the Higashikuni Cabinets can't be put into any group mentioned above, and therefore should be thought of as exceptions. Using the chronological distribution of the MPMC as an index, a new periodization scheme can be introduced into Japanese cabinet history. The first period is from the First Ito to the First Okuma Cabinet, during which the MPMC form is rarely seen. Its time share is below 25%. The second is from the Second Yamagata to the second Yamamoto Cabinet. In this period the MPMC, especially type A dominated the others. Its time share is 55.0% (type B's is 2.3%). It may be called 'the Age of Type A' or 'the Age of Yamagata Style'. The third is from the Kiyoura to the Inukai Cabinet. The MPMC's time share decreased to 26.0% during this interval. This period overlaps 'the Time of Party Government'. The last is from the Saito to the Higashikuni Cabinet. The MPMC is again dominant. The time share of type A is 21.1% and that of type B is 45.3%. Therefore it may be called 'the Age of Type B'.
  • なぜ北朝鮮の軍人はクーデターを起こさなかったのか?
    宮本 悟
    年報政治学
    2005年 56 巻 2 号 195-215,253
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    For a long time, a majority of people have thought that the military would attempt a coup d'etat in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea due to the widespread economic deterioration in the past, and the fact that the domestic economy has seen some recent improvement makes this event more unlikely at present.
    Why haven't a group of officers within the Korean People's Army attempted a coup d'etat? In this research, I provide three key reasons that explain why, even during three crisis periods involving major politico-military purges, this has not happened.
    Chiefly these were: entrenched clique competition in the military; the existence of an organization that can oppose the armed forces; and a systemic and purposeful division of the military. I have confirmed through this research that the system that has divided the military still exists in the army, a system controlled effectively by a senior commissar. Therefore, this research concludes that the possibility of a coup d'etat occurring is low even in the present D. P. R. K.
  • 高島 重孝
    レプラ
    1948年 17 巻 1 号 8-14
    発行日: 1948/02/15
    公開日: 2008/12/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • アメリカ在郷軍人会による西部戦線巡礼と「聖地」創出
    望戸 愛果
    社会学評論
    2013年 63 巻 4 号 569-584
    発行日: 2013/03/31
    公開日: 2014/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    G. Mosseの歴史社会学的議論において, 戦間期における戦場観光旅行の流行は, 現実の戦争を矮小化する「戦争の平凡化」の過程として捉えられ, 従軍体験のある退役軍人はもっぱらその流行を嘆く反対者か, あるいはその流行に抗いがたく追随する消費者として描かれてきた. 一方で, このような議論においては, 戦争の記憶の大衆消費の拡大過程において退役軍人自身が果たす役割は等閑視されている.
    本稿では, アメリカ最大の退役軍人組織であるアメリカ在郷軍人会 (1919年創設) による, 戦間期における西部戦線巡礼事業の変遷を論じる. 在郷軍人会による巡礼者の選抜・募集方法, 旅行会社・船会社との契約関係のあり方, さらに実際に巡礼に参加した退役軍人の所感は, 報告書, 書簡, 機関誌, 議事録等の一次資料から析出することができる. このような分析から明らかにされてくるのは, 従来の研究において想定されているように「平凡なるものの侵略から神聖なるものを防衛」せんとする退役軍人の守旧的態度ではない. むしろ, 船会社との独自契約によって生み出された利益構造を組織運営に取り込み, 大衆娯楽小説や観光ガイドブック上のイメージを退役軍人向けに巧みに加工・流用し, ついには戦場・墓地巡りに特有のものであったはずの巡礼の「神聖性」の定義までをも大幅に変化させていく最大退役軍人組織の戦略的事業展開なのである.
  • 荒川 有史
    文学と教育
    1997年 1997 巻 176 号 53-
    発行日: 1997/03/25
    公開日: 2017/03/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 在郷軍人会に対する指揮・命令権を中心として
    池山 弘
    四日市大学論集
    2013年 26 巻 1 号 57-85
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2020/09/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 宮西 香穂里
    文化人類学
    2008年 73 巻 3 号 332-353
    発行日: 2008/12/31
    公開日: 2017/08/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    日本人妻をはじめ、米軍男性と結婚した外国人軍人妻は、概して受動的な存在として記述されてきた。彼女たちは、軍隊の理解が欠如し、さらには米国の文化、慣習や言語の障害をも抱える、無力で従属的な立場に置かれている女性であった。本稿では、およそ1年間の調査に基づき、横須賀米海軍基地における日本人妻の結婚と家族生活に着目し、日本人妻がけっして受動的なかたちで日々の生活に追われているわけではないことを明らかにする。すなわち、先行研究における外国人軍人妻描写に認められるステレオタイプを是正し、彼女たちの多様な生き方に迫る。同時に、従来われわれの眼にふれることの少ない日本人妻の民族誌を描くことを試み、軍人との結婚生活に大きく関わる軍隊の組織や軍人の生活や文化について記述し、その理解を目指す。日本人妻は、米国社会からも、軍隊生活からも、さらには日本社会からも「よそもの」扱いされ、周縁的であることを考慮すると三重に(トリプル)アウトサイダーである。日本人妻は、夫の階級が異なる妻同士の交際の制限や夫のエスニシティに関する問題に直面し悩み苦しんでいた。一方で、軍人妻として夫や夫の所属する部隊の妻たちの先頭に立って生きる日本人妻もいた。またアメリカで夫の家族や親族との衝突や日本社会からの差別に苦しむ妻もいた。彼女たちは、先行研究で描写されているような無力で受動的な存在ではない。日本人妻は、積極的な適応や抵抗ではないが、結婚生活の中で見られるさまざまな困難についで悩み、苦しんでいる。彼女たちの悩み、苦しむという姿は、無力で受動的であることを必ずしも意味しない。本稿では、悩み、苦しむということもまた妻たちの能動的な態度であるという認識が、妻たちを無力で受動的とみなす視点を克服する第一歩であることを指摘した。
  • 土田 宏成
    史学雑誌
    2000年 109 巻 7 号 1392-1393
    発行日: 2000/07/20
    公開日: 2017/11/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 寺崎 昌男, 清水 康幸, 雨田 英一, 鈴木 そよ子, 井澤 直也, 前田 一男, 大橋 伸次, 横畑 知己, 斉藤 利彦, 米田 俊彦
    日本教育学会大會研究発表要項
    1983年 42 巻 9-10
    発行日: 1983/08/30
    公開日: 2018/04/20
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
  • 安藤 忠
    教育學雑誌
    1984年 18 巻 17-28
    発行日: 1984/03/31
    公開日: 2017/01/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 軍人勅諭を中心として
    桑原 作次
    教育学研究
    1943年 12 巻 2 号 126-154
    発行日: 1943年
    公開日: 2009/01/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 柴野 浩樹
    法制史研究
    2010年 59 巻 360-369
    発行日: 2010/03/30
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小西 律子
    社会福祉学
    2011年 51 巻 4 号 5-17
    発行日: 2011/02/28
    公開日: 2018/07/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    岩橋武夫は,自らが構想した日本型盲人社会事業を具現化すべく,1935(昭和10)年,大阪ライトハウスを設立した.やがて日中戦争が勃発する.同戦争を盲人問題解決の好機ととらえた岩橋は,国とのつながりを強めつつ,失明軍人対策に乗り出す.建物の増改築などの準備を終え,1943(昭和18)年10月,失明軍人講習会を実施.翌年1月には,シャープ株式会社の創業者早川徳次の協力を得て,失明軍人6人からなる「早川分工場」を設立する.同工場は,日本型盲人社会事業を職業リハビリテーション分野で実現させたものであり,職業訓練の場と,訓練の有効性を実証するための実践の場を併せ持つ,当時としては画期的な取り組みであった.同工場は終戦による閉鎖等の曲折を経て,ライトハウス金属工場およびシャープ特選工場へとつながっており,同工場での経験は今日なお生き続けている.
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