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  • 宇田川 英夫, 中谷 雄一, 渡辺 博幸, 尾谷 浩, 甲元 啓介
    日本植物病理学会報
    1986年 52 巻 5 号 779-784
    発行日: 1986/12/25
    公開日: 2009/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    昭和59年のナシ黒斑病の大発生では,被袋果実に被害が著しかったが,果頂部病果の多いことが特徴的であった。この原因として花器感染の可能性が疑われたので,疫学的調査を実施した。開花期の
    雌蕊
    組織内には黒斑病菌が高率に潜在感染していた。一方,
    雌蕊
    切除処理では果頂部病果率が減少した。さらに,コリン要求性黒斑病菌をトレーサーとして利用した感染モデル圃蝪実験の結果は,
    雌蕊
    接種2カ月後でも接種菌株が果袋内果実上で生態的優位を保ち,
    雌蕊
    近傍の果頂部位に2次感染をひき起し,病斑形成に至っていることを明白に示した。黒斑病異常発生年の被袋果実の発病における
    雌蕊
    感染の重要性が実験的に立証できたと考えられる。
  • [記載なし]
    藥學雜誌
    1893年 1893 巻 132 号 166-168
    発行日: 1893/02/26
    公開日: 2018/08/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 寺尾 博, 大谷 義雄, 土井 彌太郎, 趙 重九
    日本作物学会紀事
    1940年 12 巻 3 号 196-202
    発行日: 1940/12/29
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 清水 正治, 久野 勝治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1966年 35 巻 3-4 号 257-263
    発行日: 1966/12/25
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effects of IAA (3-indoleacetic acid), TIBA (2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid) and x-ray irradiation on the appearance of abnormal spikelets, especially regarding the changes in sex expression, were investigated with a special variety of paddy rice "Akaho". "Akaho" is known to have very unstable characters in regard to the morphogenic regulation of spikelet genetically and to express various abnormalities of spikelet even under usual cultivating conditions. Since this experiment was carried out in phytotron at 25-30°C, in the winter of 1965-1966, the short-day condition promoted female and depressed male sex expression remarkably as seen in other short-day or day-neutral plants grown under the short day condition. With external application of IAA, the femaleness was promoted further and the maleness was suppressed, decreasing the number of stamens and increasing the organs of intermediate structure that were partially transformed stamens to pistil and the pistils of multi-ovary. On the contrary, the application of TIBA and x-ray irradiation showed clear cut inhibitory effects on the shifting tendency of the control plants toward femaleness, increasing stamens and decreasing the pistils of multi-ovary in number, particularly in the plots of x-ray treatment. In these plots, the morphological abnormalities in glumes and the development of additional glumes became to appear more frequently than in the control, on the other hand. From the results above mentioned, it is clarified that an elevation of auxin level promotes the female and depresses the male sex expression in rice plants. Based upon the results obtained in this study and the writers' other obsevations regarding to the effects of gibberellin on the spikelet morphogenesis, it is considered that the endogenous level of gibberellin-like substances may be high at the early stage of spikelet development and afterwards that of auxin-like substances may become dominant absolutely or relatively, in the regions of organogenesis, and the unbalance of these substances in spikelt development seems to induce various kinds of abnormalities in the spikelet morphogenesis.
  • 清水 正治, 久野 勝治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1967年 36 巻 2 号 255-264
    発行日: 1967/06/10
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Studies on the effects of gibberellin on the spikelet formation were carried out in 1965 and 1966 years, using a special variety of paddy rice "Akaho" which has a genetic character to manifest various abnormalities in spikelets even under the usual cultivating conditions. Gibberellin was applied at the stage just before the panicle differentiation, at the concentration of 100 ppm mixed in the nutrient solution. 2. The symptoms of abnormalities in the control spikelets varied considerably by year and the expression of genetic character on the spikelet formation was seemed to vary according to the environmental factors. 3. Since almost all kinds of the spikelet abnormalities were promoted by the treatment, the physiological conditions caused by the exogenous gibberellin were considered to be quite similar with those induced by the genetic factors concerned with the abnormal formation of spikelets. 4. Though the number of spikelet organs was increased as seen in other varieties, the development of primary branches and spikelets in a panicle was decreased remarkably by the treatment in "Akaho". The latter part of above results was different from what were obtained in the previous experiments on other varieties that every organs in the panicles had been promoted by the exogenous gibberellin. So, the optimum concentration of exogenous gibberellin should vary with the kind of organs or the varietal factors. 5. From the facts that the development of morphologically perfect stamens in a spikelet changes from two to eight in number by spikelet and the percentages of spikelets which have stamens more than or less than six in number increase conspicuously, the exogenous gibberellin is thought to make the physiological conditions very unstable and variable in a panicle by locus. 6. Frequent occurrence of the slightly feminish Intermediate organs and the increment of pistils per a spikelet in number give the impression that the exogenous gibberellin promotes the female tendency in "Akaho", making a rather contrast to that obtained from the previous experiments on other varieties. The above results indicate that the effect of gibberellin on the sex expression may not be specific to the male or female but vary with the internal and external factors. 7. Some considerations were tried on the development of intermediate organs and the appearance of multi-stigmatic pistils and several conflicting phenomena obtained in this and the previous studies were indicated deferring. the decision of the question to the future investigations.
  • 金子 洋平
    関東東山病害虫研究会報
    2016年 2016 巻 63 号 34-37
    発行日: 2016/12/01
    公開日: 2017/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    千葉県において,ナシ「幸水」の心腐れ症は生産現場で認識しにくく,消費者の産地に対する信用に関わるため,問題となっている。本症状は,薬剤だけでは完全な防除は難しいことから,耕種的防除も併せた対策が必要である。そこで,薬剤散布に加え,感染経路の一つと考えられる花かすの人為的な除去試験を行い,その効果を検討した。併せて,花かすからの胴枯病菌の分離調査を行った。その結果,花かすを除去した区における発症果率は2010年および2011年の試験で低下した。一方,2012年の除去効果は判然としなかった。また,この年は花かす組織から胴枯病菌が分離される頻度は低かった。

  • 突永 一枝
    藥學雜誌
    1928年 48 巻 10 号 981-990
    発行日: 1928/10/26
    公開日: 2009/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    以上の結果を綜合すると次の如くである.
    1. 玉蜀黍
    雌蕊
    の大部分は無窒素化合物よりなる.
    2. フィトステロールは玉蜀黍
    雌蕊
    の一成分であつて, エーテル浸出物より之を分離せり.
    3. 玉蜀黍
    雌蕊
    中には約2%の還元糖を含有し, 其の大部分は葡萄糖であつて葡萄糖の存在は酒精浸出物よりグリュコーズ, フェニールオサゾンとして證明せり.
    4. 玉蜀黍
    雌蕊
    中の炭水化物は主として葡萄糖, ペントーザシ, ガラクラン等よりなる.
    5. ペントーザンは主としてキシランよりなる.
    6. キシランの存在は加水分解生産物よりキシローズのカドミウム鹽及キシロズフェニールオサゾンとして證明せり.
    7. ガラクタンの存在は加水分解生産物より粘液酸の生成により之を證せり.
    8. 玉蜀黍
    雌蕊
    中には少量の有機酸を含有す.
    9. 無機物質中の主要なるものは加里鹽であつて其の一部は酒精浸出物中より鹽化加里として分離せり.
    本研究をなすに當り試料の普通成分の分析は西野利雄及田中正吉兩氏の助力を得たことを兩氏に深謝す.
  • 清水 正治, 久野 勝治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1966年 35 巻 1-2 号 91-99
    発行日: 1966/08/25
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    Vatious morphogenic abnormalities as shown in figures were observed in the rice spikelets which were grown under low temperature-day temperature 14-18°C and night temperature 14°C. Morphogenic abnormalities found in the spikelets may be summarized as followings: 1) changes of organs in number, especially increment in number, 2) remarkable phenomena of fusion of inter and/or intra organs of lodicules, stamens and ovaries, 3) appearance of organs of intermediate and bisexual structures, 4) changes in sex expression, promoting femaleness and depressing maleness, 5) continuance of vegetative growth in the spikelets with no formation of sexual organ, incepting only glume and branch primordia, 6) exposure of extraordinarily developed ovule or integument from ovary through the style canal, 7) frequent occurence of abnormally swelled tissue or organ, and 8) appearance of multi-floret spikelets, etc. From the results above mentioned it is considered that the morphogenic regulation in the meristematic tissue of spikelet primordia may become unstable and the disturbance of organ development tends to be occured, by the low temperature treatment. Some discussions were tried on the relationship between the appearance of morphogenic abnormalities due to a low temperature treatment and the level of some growth substances, auxins and gibberellin, in spikelet primordium, based upon the writers' experimental results previously reported.
  • 清水 正治, 久野 勝治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1967年 36 巻 4 号 489-502
    発行日: 1967/12/10
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cyto-histological observations were carried out on the morphogenetically abnormal rice spikelets caused by a low temperature, 14∼18°C. Several cyto-histological abnormalities were found on the stamens, such as, unusually swelled anthers with stigmatic pieces, loculi with tapetal hypertrophy, plasmodium-like matters and abortive pollens etc., as seen in figs. 1∼3. The complex types of various kinds of abnormalities as seen in figs. 2, 3 and 6 were found frequently, suggesting that these abnormalities not were independent each other, but were caused fundamentally by a common physiological background of feminization. On the female organ, various grades of additional ovary formation from carpel-like structures to ovaries as seen in figs. 16∼25, were observed and a good many of the varied multi-pistils and the pistils with multi-ovaries were found in the spikelets consequently. In general, these tendencies of feminization has been said to be brought about by the level-up of the endogenous auxin content. From the fact that the morphological and cyto-histological abnormalities due to the low temperature are quite similar to those induced by the application of gibberellin, it is considered that the gibberellin-like substances may have some strong connection with the spikelet morphogenesis under the low temperature and may act to promote the feminization effects of auxin at the later stage of spikelet formation. About the outgrowth phenomena of the unknown tissues from the ovaries, they were clarified to be resulted from the followings, these were, the unusual development of integuments-particularly the outer one as shown in figs. 8∼11, the disclosure of ovule itself as shown in figs. 12 and 13, and the continuous growth of a part of the fasciated portion of two ovaries as shown in figs. 14 and 15 etc., seemingly due to the so-called "flower vegetativation". Occasionally, the vessel-like cells with partially thickened cell wall as seen in fig. 26 were found at the undeveloped embryo sac mother cell or tetrads and some their neighboring cells. Not only the irregular arrangement of egg cell, synergids, antipodes and polar nuclei in the embryo sac but also abnormal enlargement or degeneration of them, as seen in figs. 27 and 28, were also observed frequently. It was indicated that the sexually intermediate structures changed from stamens appeared most repeatedly on the stamens initiated at the palea side, above all on the right or left one which has developed at the most proximity of the female organ.
  • 高橋 祐希, 松田 靖, 福岡 壽夫, 村田 達郎
    芝草研究
    2006年 34 巻 2 号 89-95
    発行日: 2006/03/31
    公開日: 2010/06/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    ニュージーランド固有種であるZ.minimaの形態学的特性と他のZoysia属との交雑親和性について検討した。Z.minimaの葉長, 葉幅は, Z.tenuifoliaよりもさらに小さい値を示し, 葉身における維管束配列の組織学的観察の結果, 葉縁はC型 (左右同型) であった。本種の穂は非常に小さく, 他のZoysia属と明らかに違い1穂1小花であった。また開花期は, 本学 (熊本県阿蘇郡) の調査では, Z.tenuifolzaとほぼ同様の11月上旬から12月上旬であった。本種も他のZoysia属と同様に
    雌蕊
    先熟であったが,
    雌蕊
    の柱頭が褐変する前に葯が出現するために自殖種子が得られる可能性が高い。本種の染色体数は他のZoysia属と同様に2n=40であり, 柱頭上でZ.japonicaおよびZ.matrellaの花粉発芽・花柱内への花粉管伸長が観察され, 交雑親和性が認められた。そこでZ.minimaZoysia属3種との種間雑種によって, 10個体の雑種を作出した。
  • 人と自然
    2009年 20 巻 73-79
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2019/02/08
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Cirsium japonicum is one of the gynodioecious herbs. We clarified the morphological differences between the female and hermaphrodite florets by an observation of their flowering stages in C. japonicum. Movement of stamen and pistil is basically same in both female and hermaphrodite fl orets, i.e., the fi laments shrank, and the styles expanded and contracted, as the fl owering stages progressed. In all the female fl orets, stamens are degenerated as to be not able to release the pollen. The degenerated stamens were recognized to divide into three types in the form. It was suggested that gynodioecy was robably evolved through several steps of degeneration of male organ. We observed that both the female and hermaphrodite flowers produced nectar from the nectar glands at their base of corollatube and also both were visited by insects. Therefore, insect-visitors can probably pollinate the fl owers without regard to plant sex. Female fl ower gave birth to both female and hermaphrodite fl ower of next generation. It was supported that male sterility was inherited by nuclear genes.
  • 吉田 鎭雄
    日本作物学会紀事
    1949年 18 巻 2-4 号 150-152
    発行日: 1949/10/30
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. Castration of many ears of wheat var. Saitama No. 27 apparently in a stage of several days before flowering was carried out simultaneously by the clip method in the field, and then mature pollen of wheat var. Norin No. 26 was pollinated daily. 2. During eleven days ranging from the time a few days before flowering to the time six or seven days after flowering, fertilizing ability of the pistil was highly retained. Seeds of high vitality were produced by the daily pollination during these eleven days. 3. It was observed that fertilizing ability of the pistil decreased sharply after the twelfth day from castration and then almost disappeared on the fourteenth day from castration. 4. Immediately atter castration and on the following day the receptivity of the pistil was comparatively low while germination energy of the seed was high, but sinee the second day from castration, the receptivity of the pistil and germination energy of the seed showed the sarne tendency. 5. It is favourable in crossing operation that pollination is possible to be carried out safely at any time during these comparatively long period.
  • 清水 正治, 武岡 洋治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1966年 35 巻 1-2 号 100-104
    発行日: 1966/08/25
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    1) This study was carried out to make clear the distribution of morphological abnor- mal spikelts induced by gibberellin. 2) It was indicated that the number of spikelets was increased remarkably with the treatment as previously reported and the increase was more conspicuous in upper primary branches than in lower ones. 3) Main morphological abnormalities, such as inception of additional glumes, chandes of stamens and pistils in number were found more frequently in the upper portion of the primary branches. 4) Judging from the above results, it is considered the morphogenic effects of gibberellin on panicle development are more remarkable in the upper or distal portion of panicles or primary branches. This tendency also supported by the writers' studies on the effects of gibberellin on the vascular development in panicles. 5) On the other hand, so called "white hulls" were found frequently in the basal portion of lower primary branches. So, it is concluded that the initiation of "white hulls" should be brought about by a quite different pathway from that of the morphogenic abnormalities. 6) The difference in frequency of the abnormality in glume, stamen and pistil was indicated and discussed from the stand-point of the ontogenic changes in form and related morphogenic substances in the meristematic tissue of spikelet primordium.
  • 戸部 博
    植物地理・分類研究
    2019年 67 巻 2 号 89-115
    発行日: 2019年
    公開日: 2020/03/26
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 小河原 進, 中沢 秋雄, 関 正治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1954年 22 巻 3-4 号 86-87
    発行日: 1954/06/30
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    We had previously reported on the electric potential differences in the pistil of rape under ordinary temperatures. In the present report, the effects of a low temperature (3°C) and a high temperature (30°C) on it were concerned. (a) At the low temperature : At 3rd stage of flowering, the highest potential of about 90 mV. was observed at the stigma. At other flowering stages, it was found to drop gradually towards the base along the style. At 7th stage of flowering, the potenial of the style decreased very sharply. showing about 6mV. at the middle part of it.(b) High temperature : At the whole stage, the potential of the style was lower with some irregularity as shown in Fig.1. From physiological viewpoints, the pistil of rape was thonght not to be affected by low temperature (3°C) but affected by high temperature (30°C). It may by suggested, therefore. there should be some relation between the physiological mechanism of the pistil and electrical potential of it.
  • 清水 正治, 久野 勝治, 武岡 洋治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1966年 34 巻 4 号 465-471
    発行日: 1966/06/25
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    The study was performed to investigate the effects of X-ray irradiation or/and gibberellin on the spikelet morphogenesis in rice plants. X-ray irradiation was carried out at the differetiating stage of spikelet at the dosages of 1kr, 5kr, 10kr and 20kr, and gibberellin was applied in the nutrient solution at the concentration of 100 ppm on the day after the X-ray treatment. Various abnormalities, these are, appearance of malformed spikelets, development of additional glumes, variation in stamen initiation, increase of stigmata in number, development of multiple pistils in a spikelet etc., have been induced by X-ray irradiation. These phenomena are closely similar to those induced by gibberellin in many faces. When gibberellin application was added to X-ray treatment, it was found that the morphogenetic effects of gibberellin had been promoted strongly by the pre-treatment of X-ray and every abnormality caused by gibberellin had been strengthened remarkably. Based on the results above mentioned, it is considered that the physiological changes as influenced by X-ray may not be inhibitory to exhibition of gibberellin activity but strongly promotive ones. A few considerations were tried on the relationship between gebberellin and auxin, regarding to the spikelet morphogenesis from the standpoint of auxin economy, since a level down of auxin had been reported by a number of investigators to be caused by X-ray irradiation.
  • 清水 正治, 武岡 洋治
    日本作物学会紀事
    1966年 34 巻 4 号 457-464
    発行日: 1966/06/25
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    The study was carried out to compare the effects of gibberellin with those of auxins on the morphogenesis of spikelets in rice plants. Gibberellin, α-indoleacetic acid, β-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid were applied just after the time of young panicle differentiation, in the nutrient solution at various concentrations as seen in table 1. It was reconfirmed that gibberellin had some important effects on the spikelet morphogenesis, as had been reported previously by the writers and not only induced various malformed spikelets but also tended to increase the number of glumes, stamens, stigmata and pistils, causing several kinds of abnormal sexual organs and multi-floral spikelets. On the other hand, as shown in table 2, since such phenemena as found in the plots of gibberellin treatment have not been caused by the application of auxins at all, it is considered that the modes of action of the exogenous gibberellin and auxins on the spikelet morphogenesis are different or contrastic with in many faces especially on the differentiation of lateral organs, among all the staminate one in the spikelet. With regard to sex expression, it is said that auxin level at the differentiating apex determines the sex balance and the concentration promoting maximal stamen growth is lower than promoting maximal pistil growth. In this case of rice plants, exogenous auxin is considered to elevate the auxin level at the spikelet apex up over the maximal concentration, and to suppress the maleness, following no marked promotion in the development of female organ. Recently, gibberellin has been reported by a number of investigators to have promotive effects on the staminate organ, suppressing the pistilate one, but the results obtained in this study are not necessarily agree with them completely, the development of both male and female organs having been promoted by gibberellin application. It was indicated that further extensive studies should be done in order to clarify the real relationship between gibberellin or auxins and sex expression, using various methods of application or concentrations of them, followed by the more critical observations on the effects, not only from the quantitative or morphological but also qualitative or functional standpoints of view, analysing them on differentiation and on growth of primordia.
  • 染谷 徳五郎
    植物学雑誌
    1889年 3 巻 28 号 212-215
    発行日: 1889年
    公開日: 2007/04/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 中村 眞巳, 中山 治〓
    日本作物学会紀事
    1950年 19 巻 1-2 号 122-125
    発行日: 1950/08/30
    公開日: 2008/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. A main cause for the enervative sterility of buckwheat under cultivation at high temperature are defined. 2. The enervative sterility depend on high temperature of buckwheat are described that it is impotence by incomplete-development of female, in the flowering flower organ. 3. These incomplete-development of females increased very high at above 28 C. day temperature, and it revaration-ratio and the sterility has been a very possitive correlation. 4. The male organ of such flower could not see a variation like female. The pollen of incomplete flower has, partially, decrease of the starch content, but it has a fertile-power. 5. By alternating temperature, this female deficience could give normal type. For it is, during at summer season, the flower of buckwheat at cooler night and cooler day are normal developed female flower. 6. The revaration-ratio of incomplete flower was few at cooler night than coller day. 7. As a result of our observations it is believed that the enervative sterility of buckwheat under high temperature are depend on assimilation-respiration ratio.
  • 山﨑 聖司, 真鍋 和人
    Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science
    2009年 78 巻 2 号 195-199
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/04/22
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    キュウリは同一個体上に雌花と雄花を分化する雌雄異花同株植物である.キュウリの性分化は,がく,花弁,雄蕊,
    雌蕊
    の各原基を形成する両性花的な発育段階を経た後,雄蕊または
    雌蕊
    原基の選択的な退化によって起こる.そのため,雌花には雄蕊原基の痕跡が,雄花には
    雌蕊
    原基の痕跡が認められる.近年,キュウリ子葉からマトリックス・メタロプロテアーゼ(MMP)をコードする遺伝子 Cs1-MMP が単離され,その発現は子葉においてプログラム細胞死(PCD)がおこる直前に強いことが示された.MMP は,動物において,細胞外マトリックス(ECM)を分解する主要な酵素として知られている.キュウリの性分化における生殖器官の退化と PCD の関係を分子レベルで明らかにするために,花器官における Cs1-MMP 遺伝子の発現を解析した.その結果,Cs1-MMP は,雄花では,がくと,
    雌蕊
    原基が退化した領域で強い発現を示した.また,雌花では,がくと,雄蕊原基が退化した領域で強い発現を示した.これらの発現は,雄花と雌花において,蕾の段階から開花期まで認められた.以上のことから,Cs1-MMP は,キュウリの花において,PCD をともなう生殖器官の退化に重要な役割を果たすかも知れない.キュウリの完全な性決定には,
    雌蕊
    または雄蕊原基における恒常的な PCD が開花期まで必要な可能性がある.
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