Drones are expected to revolutionize transportation of goods to geographically isolated areas, especially in natural disasters, such as typhoons or earthquakes. In designing safety measures for drones, designers should evaluate risks of accidents, and determine the level of risk that the society would regard as acceptable. However, it is often difficult to predict how the society would react to an accident. A mock trial may provide guidance for designers because mock trail judges, who are experienced lawyers, could reflect general expectation of the society for safety of new technologies.
In 2011, in the aftermath of the collapse of Gaddafi regime in Libya promoted by the aerial bombardment of NATO, President Rousseff of Brazil proposed “Responsibility while Protecting” (RWP) in UN General Assembly. Brazil submitted the detailed concept note of RWP constituted of numerous proposals that are to complement “Responsibility to Protect” (R2P): among them, to place the three pillars of R2P under the strict political subordination and chronological sequencing, to impose strict conditions on the use of force, and to establish a proactive mechanism of monitoring and evaluation of military activities by Security Council so as to assure accountability.
The principles of “non-interference” and “non-use of force” had been long-held diplomatic traditions of Brazil as they were in other Latin American countries. However, in the 21th century, under Lula da Silva’s administration, Brazil expressed a new attitude of “non-indifference” in addition to the traditional non-interference and participated in United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), with the view to promote its presence as a candidate of new permanent member of Security Council. Nonetheless, Brazil was skeptical about R2P, assuming it as a new form of right of interference and maintaining traditional idea of “sovereignty as shield”. RWP was the way to reconcile the traditional idea and Brazil’s new role in UN as an emerging power.
Brazilian proposal of RWP had major repercussions in international community because the overthrow of Libyan government had caused considerable concerns about R2P among emerging powers and developing countries. They concern for possible “misuse” of R2P as a tool to achieve regime change with armed force reflecting particular interest of the West. The implementation of R2P became the focus of controversy between the supportive West and skeptical South. While the West criticized RWP preferring to keep operational flexibility of military activities in implementing R2P, the emerging powers, especially South Africa and India, and some developing countries supported RWP to prevent selective invocation of R2P and misuse of the mandate. Failing to reach consensus, Brazil virtually withdrew RWP proposal.
Almost as if to inherit this proposal, in 2012 China proposed “Responsible Protection” (RP) similar to RWP. However, in contrast to Brazilian RWP invented to bridge the gap between the supporters and the skeptics of R2P, Chinese RP is like a “long wall” or seawall to guard the cohesion of skeptical countries against R2P from the erosion by global tides of the idea of ‘sovereignty as responsibility’.
RWP was an important attempt where non-Western country had played a significant role as a norm-shaper in international norm-making process in which the West had been dominant. Brazilian efforts to bridge the global gap would continue to give instructions in global norm-making on humanitarian issues and intervention.
p.08 世界が注目する医療福祉ロボット「パロ」（柴田崇徳 産業技術総合研究所）
p.10 人に代わって役立つ ドローンが危険区域を調査
p.12 ロボットの知能はいつか人を超える？（松尾豊 東京大学大学院）
p.14 「人間との境界」に敏感な欧米社会（清水健 科学ジャーナリスト）
p.16 外れても未来を皆で考え尽くす授業（長神風二 東北大学）
p.18 未来を生きる若者たちへ 父・手塚治虫からの伝言 手塚るみ子さんインタビュー
p.24 「何回失敗してもくじけない」 感染症の予防薬を開発した大村智さん
p.26 神岡流物理の先頭に立つ 「自然派」支えるリーダー・梶田隆章さん
This paper presents a novel drone system used for in-situ measurement of carbon dioxide (CO2), which is one of greenhouse gases. To obtain a vertical profile of atmospheric CO2 concentration, a Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) analyzer was equipped on an off-the-shelf industrial drone. We designed and assembled an original mount which consists of carbon plates, hollow aluminum pipes, and resinous adapters created using a 3D printer. We obtained vertical CO2 profiles up to the 500m level through a flight test of five different dates after getting the flight permissions at an altitude of more than 150m above the ground and Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLOS) from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport. It is shown that CO2 concentration generally increases with altitude, though the feature of CO2 profiles varies with observation dates. Based on the five profiles from September 2017 to January 2018, we revealed a seasonality of CO2 concentration over Akita. We suggest that this system is useful for in-situ CO2 measurement and enables to conduct frequent and easy observations.
The use of bio-logging, which involves collecting ecosystem data by attaching a small sensor and/or wearable camera to a part of the body of wild animals, is increasing in mammal ecology. Image information taken from an animal's own point of view can provide valuable insights into their behaviors, including their preferred habitats, diet, breeding, and competition. Moreover, wild animal studies using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) also referred to as drones, are increasing especially in recent years. UAS is useful in places inaccessible or inhospitable to researchers, such as deep mountains or above the sea. The presence of species and the number of individuals can be confirmed using the UAS data. However, there are few reports using these methods in primate studies. This review explains what kind of useful information can be obtained in the future for primate researchers studying in the field with reference to previous research and explains the problems and future possibilities of these methods. In the future, technical development and progress is likely to increase the application of animal-borne camera systems and UAS in primate research.