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  • 黒田 長久
    山階鳥類研究所研究報告
    1972年 6 巻 5-6 号 551-568_1
    発行日: 1972/12/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Winter (Kuroda 1969) and autumn (1970) bird censuses of the Ryu Kyu Is. have already been reported. The present paper is the result of the survey planned by the Ornithological Society of Japan, principally for analysis of the status of Sapheopipo noguchii of Okinawa I. This will be reported elsewhere.
    The bird census was made on Okinawa I. 24-28 May in the northern mountain zone, on Ishigaki I. 31 May and 5 June and on Iriomote I. 1-4 June. The weather was fine except on 5 June.
    In total, 51 species, 30 land, 16 water or waterside, and 5 sea birds, were recorded. The land bird species were 24 on Okinawa, 15 on each of Ishigaki and Iriomote. These land birds are residents and show the reduced number of breeding species in these subtropical islands where palearctic species (such as thrushes, flycatchers, warblers and tits, etc.) decrease or disappear and tropical elements are represented only by few species. The number of individuals is also generally low, especially in the montane zone in spite of the excellent and extensive forests. This may be due to the distributional periphery for both palearctic and tropical species.
    The most generally abundant species was Hypsipetes amaurotis with the dominance of 21% in totalized avifauna, followed by Streptopelia orientalis of 18% of dominance. This species was particularly abundant on Iriomote where it gathered on a few small coastal islets (Hatopanare, Usagi (newly named islet), etc.) for breeding (and roosting). They nested on the ground under dense grass and all had laid two eggs, with the density of a true colony, and flew out to perch on rocks or dead shrubs by small flocks. The environmental safety and potential habit of oversea dispersion of the pigeons and doves may, among others, be attributed to this peculiar island concentration. Three birds were seen flying low over the sea surface from the main island to the offshore island of Hatomajima, km apart.
    The next was Zosterops palpebrosa of the general dominance of 8%, but more may have been missed in the census. Cettia diphone was even more abundant with the dominance of 22% than Hypsipetes on Okinawa, but was not recorded on the other two islands. Next were dominant Passer montanus (common on Ishigaki but absent from Iriomote), Corvus macrorhynchos and Parus major and the subtropical nature of the avifauna of Ryu Kyu Is. was well characterized by such species with medium dominance, as Terpsiphone atrocaudata, Pericrocotus roseus, Parus varius (not encountered on Ishigaki and Iriomote this time), Cisticola juncidis, Halcyon coromanda, Otus scops, Sphenurus sieboldii and Turnix suscitator, etc.
    Coastal and marsh birds were not plentiful, egrets and waders having already passed north, and only a few remained. On extensive saltflats small flocks of Tringa brevipes, Tringa nebularia and one Tringa totanus were recorded. An Ardea purpurea and Sterna hybrida were found on Iriomote at the same places where they were seen in 1970. Ixobrychus cinnamoneus was common on rice fields with Gallinula chloropus. Alcedo atthis is said to have decreased due to the recent use of insecticides, and only one was seen in a mangrobe of Iriomote.
    Sea birds recorded were five species, Sterna sumatrana was arriving north to Okinawa and was seen in pairs. Its breeding places on small coastal rocky islets, Hatopanare off the north coast and other two islets off the western coast of Iriomote were first confirmed, but they were not laying eggs yet. Some flocks of Sterna fuscata were seen north of Iriomote, probably with the seasonal migration of the bonito to this sea area where schools of small fish were seen chased to the surface and a flying fish was observed.
  • 倉田 篤
    山階鳥類研究所研究報告
    1966年 4 巻 5 号 358-370
    発行日: 1966/06/30
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    1.四日市南高校山岳部を主体として,八重山群島西表島の調査が実施され,1965年8月15日から25日にかけて,西表島及び仲ノ神島の鳥類を調査した。
    2.今回の調査により,本島産新記録種7種を含めて22科38種の鳥類を記録した。これらのうち本邦との共通種は32種,台湾とのそれは37種であり,亜種まで一致するものは,本邦について19種,台湾について21種である。これは本島産の鳥類の構成が地理的に近い台湾との共通性の深いことを示しているといえる。
    3.南西諸島は東洋区,旧北区との境界として,動物地理学上重要な地域であり,本島においても地理的及び生態的分布上の注目種として,スズメ,シマアカモズ,リュウキュウツバメ,アオツラカツオドリ,オオアジサシ,リュウキュウキジバトがみられた。
    4.西表島南方の仲ノ神島には,クロアジサシ,セグロアジサシ,オオミヅナギドリ,及びカツオドリの4種の海鳥が繁殖しており,総個体数約20,000羽を記録した。それらのうち,クロアジサシ,セグロアジサシの両種間にはすみ分けがみられた。
    5.仲ノ神島では毎年産卵期に採卵が行なわれており,今後貴重なる海鳥の大繁殖地として保護対策が早急に必要であると考える。
  • 安部 直哉, 真野 徹
    山階鳥類研究所研究報告
    1980年 12 巻 3 号 183-192_2
    発行日: 1980/09/15
    公開日: 2008/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    The range of the Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus is widespread throughout in the tropic and subtropic regions of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic Oceans and, however, the species was regarded as a rare straggler in Japan.
    We discovered the breeding of the Bridled Tern on Nakanokami-shima, Sakishima Archipelago southernmost district of Japan during our stay for ringing sea-birds from 28 to 30 June 1980. Nakanokamishima, another common vernacular name Uganjima, is situated at 24°11'N, 123°34'E, 15km SW of Iriomote-jima and small (length c. 1800m, width c. 300m, alt. 102m) uninhabited island. Here is one of famous sea-birds islands of Japan, yet the conservation is so poor that the sea-birds colonies are often destroyed by Formosan who steal the eggs for food. The breedings of Calonectris leucomelas, Sula leucogaster, Sula sula, Sterna fuscata and Anous stolidus have been known here.
    We observed the Bridled Terns at three areas, A, B and C, of the island (Fig. 1) and it seemed that all of them were breeding. The areas A and B were near the shore-line, and large rocks fallen from steep slope heaped up all over there. We could count about 60 pairs of the Bridled Terns at the area A (c. 30 × 100msq.), and only the species were breeding in the colony. In the area B, about half of the area A, the Bridled and Sooty Terns were settled, and a number of the Bridled Terns were about 20 pairs. The area C was rocky place near west end of narrow ridge of the island, and several pairs were breeding.
    We searched the breeding status of the Bridled Tern a little intensively in the colony of area A. All ten clutches found there contained one egg, like in other foreign colonies. Their eggs were laid on either inner floor or open flat surface of the rocks more or less covered with large rocks (Photographs 1 and 2 of Plate 6). As described by Warham (1958), the Bridled Tern colonies on Nakanokami-shima were much smaller than those of the Sooty Tern, and most of the Bridled Terns were incubating while all of the Sooty Terns were taking care of their chicks.
    Two species of Sterna and one Anous breeding on the island were apparently segregated from their nest-sites. The Sooty Tern was most numerous and some thousands of pairs bred. Most of them made a colony on the plateau of short grass on the center of the island. On the other hand, the Bridled Tern selected such rocky place as mentioned above. The Common Noddy Anous stolidus settled on the ledge.
    Analizing other data after this discovery, it became known to us that probably the Bridled Tern had bred Nakanokami-shima and Hamano-shima, 5km NW of Taketomi-jima, few years ago, and that the species might be breeding on Hude-Rock, 12km NE of Seto-zaki, Miyako-jima.
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