The recent emerging 'Net Right-Wing' became an important variable in the new trend of conservative swing and hate speech in both Japan and South Korea. This study analyzed “2Channel (rebranded as“5Channel”in October 2017)1)” and “ILBE” bulletin boards, which have recently created a threatening and hostile atmosphere in both countries. The results of the study show that at the root of conservative swing and hate speech lies the frustration of Japan's post-war democracy and of Korea's 1987 system.
In today’s Korea, articles on misogyny and misandry are often found in the media. Also, many Koreans consider misogyny and misandry to be a serious problem. In this paper, I will focus on Korean masculinities in order to clarify the cause of misogyny.
Section 1 reviews Korean masculinity studies. Through the review, it becomes clear that Korean masculinity has been analyzed using the concepts of “militarism” and “militarization.”
Section 2 will clarify the change of Korean masculinities from their relation with militarization. Firstly, there have been points in common between the military regime’s masculinities and the prodemocracy masculinities. Secondly, the masculinities called for by the military regime and the IMF Era were similar. Thirdly, since the 2000s, the difference between men and women has been maintained by a way of thinking that men who serve military service are victims of society.
Section 3 examines the reasons why men are hostile to women using the framework of Messner and Ito. Firstly, a general sense of deprivation felt by today’s young men makes it difficult for them to feel superior to women. Secondly, because of the socialization of male-dominated values in the militarized society, young men’s anger is directed at women.
In other words, the reason for the spread of misogyny is recent women’s social advancement despite the fact that a debasing attitude toward women still exists in society. In order to break out of the negative cycle of misogyny and misandry, people should realize the following: Firstly, Korean society is a militarized one. Secondly, there is a possibility that people are being socialized by militarization. And lastly, there are differences and inequalities between men.
This study explores the relation between sports mega-events and the making of Gangnam in South Korea after the 1980s. This paper comprises a historical examination of urban planning processes and a case study focusing on the strategies and experiences of residents who has been purchasing apartments. The hosting of 1986 Asian Games and the 1988 Olympics triggered construction business, such as urban infrastructure and increasing housing supply. In particular, Jam-sil, Seoul was the site of huge construction projects that entailed the main stadium, Olympic parks, and athletesʼ villages. The structure of housing supply has a shift from state-led development to property-led development, namely, the Joint Redevelopment Program (JRP). The term Gangnamization is a concept used to describe a strong relationship among apartment, education fever, and shopping center for the urban middle class. However, the research results suggest that speculative urbanization in urban middle class will lead to a financial crisis.