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全文: "Alcoholism"
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  • ファルマシア
    1987年 23 巻 10 号 1079-
    発行日: 1987/10/01
    公開日: 2018/08/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Oki Nakano, Atsunori Tsuchiya, Satoshi Yamagiwa, Shuji Terai
    Internal Medicine
    2016年 55 巻 24 号 3679-3680
    発行日: 2016/12/15
    公開日: 2016/12/15
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • Satoshi ITO, Teiji IZUMI, Masaaki ARAKAWA
    Internal Medicine
    1999年 38 巻 9 号 751
    発行日: 1999年
    公開日: 2006/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 中村 隆, 中村 省三, 河村 悦子, 金子 長次, 菅原 香苗, 片倉 吉昭, 磯野 恒雄, 鈴木 敏巳
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    1958年 67 巻 4 号 365-371
    発行日: 1958/04/25
    公開日: 2008/11/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. There are significant correlations between the mortality from liver cirrhosis and that from alcoholism and between the mortality from liver cirrhosis and alcoholic consumption per capita in the countries of the world. The mortality from liver cirrhosis in the countries of the world seems to depend on the degree of alcoholic intake of the populations.
    2. There is also significant correlation between alcoholic consumption and mean annual temperature in the countries of mean annual temperature below 16°C, whereas there is no significant correlation in the countries of temperature over 16°C.
    3. In the prefectures of Japan, the correlations between the mortality from liver cirrhosis and that from alcoholism, between the mortality from liver cirrhosis and alcoholic consumption, and between alcoholic consumption and mean annual temperature are not significant statistically.
  • 谷川 浩隆, 平林 一政, 林 正徳
    中部日本整形外科災害外科学会雑誌
    2000年 43 巻 5 号 1163-1164
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2008/03/27
    ジャーナル 認証あり
  • 金沢 正一郎, Victor HERBERT
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
    1986年 32 巻 3 号 251-257
    発行日: 1986年
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Twenty-seven alcoholic patients were studied for folate status. Twenty-two (81%) had neutrophil hypersegmentation and were detected as folate deficient by also having low serum folate, erythrocyte folate, lymphocyte folate and/or an abnormal peripheral blood lym-phocyte deoxyuridine suppression test. Seventeen (63%) had an abnormal lymphocyte deoxyuridine suppression test and all 17 were corrected by the addition of methyltetrahydrofolate or pteroylglutamate.
    Comparison of these 63% abnormal (corrected by folate) results using the peripheral blood lymphocyte deoxyuridine suppression test with the lower percent abnormal (corrected by folate) bone marrow deoxyuridine sup-pression tests found in folate-deficient alcoholics by others suggests that the peripheral blood deoxyuridine suppression test may be more useful than the bone marrow deoxyuridine suppression test for laboratory diagnosis of folate deficiency responsive to folate therapy in alcoholism. Hidden iron deficiency is common in alcoholism, and in the concomitant presence of deficiencies of hemoglobin synthesis and of folate, the serum and erythrocyte folate and deoxyuridine suppression test in bone marrow are frequently normal, despite the suppression test being abnormal in lymphocytes and corrected by folate.
  • HIROSHI MUKASA, KATSUYOSHI ARIKAWA
    The Kurume Medical Journal
    1968年 15 巻 3 号 137-143
    発行日: 1968/11/20
    公開日: 2009/08/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    Three hundred and thirty alcoholic patients were treated over a 6 year period with the drug Cyanamide using a new method of administering the drug called the double medication technique in which the family administers the drug without the patient's knowledge. One hundred and eighty patients still continued to take the medication and are considered cured by their families and are now able to function well. Psychotherapy involving the families was an useful adjunct to the drug therapy. The prognosis for cure is better if the patient can be treated while he is still living with his family and working at his job. The efficacy of using Cyanamide in the treatment of alcoholism using the double medication technique is proven with this study.
  • Winston W Shen
    The Keio Journal of Medicine
    1991年 40 巻 1 号 9-12
    発行日: 1991年
    公開日: 2009/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper is a brief review which deals with research findings, clinical issues, and strategies in the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism. The pharmacotherapy is presented according to different clinical phases of the alcoholic process. The acute intoxicated patient receives supportive treatment, to be clinically observed to prevent severe respiratory depression, aspiration of vomitus, and severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Benzodiazepine therapy is the mainstay in treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Disulfiram is the only chemical used in the United States to deter the alcoholic patient from further alcohol drinking. Although there is not a specific agent for alcoholism per se during the sobriety state, the alcoholic patients' concurrent underlying psychiatric conditions (such as schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression) should be treated properly and adequately.
  • HIROSHI MUKASA, TAKASI ICHIHARA, AKIRA ETO
    The Kurume Medical Journal
    1964年 11 巻 2 号 96-101
    発行日: 1964/10/31
    公開日: 2009/08/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    The most important and difficult problems in the treatment of alcoholism are how to relieve alcoholics from addiction, and how to keep them from addiction for a long time until they are completely cured.Practically, however, in many cases, the abstinence forced on heavily-addicted alcoholics ends in failure even though it may be successful temporarily. This shows how difficult abstinence is for alcoholics. Therefore, we must try to find some other effective therapy. If it is possible to reduce the alcohol tolerance of the patient and if allowed to drink as much as ordinary people do instead of depriving him of the pleasure of drinking entirely, such a therapy probably is the most reasonable one.For this purpose, the authors worked out a new therapy for reforming the problematical drinking habit by administering cyanamide to alcoholics, and named it “Sesshu Ryoho” or the temperance therapy.
  • Tadashi KOIDE, Katsuhiko OZEKI, Shigekoto KAIHARA, Akihito KATO, Satoru MURAO, Hiroaki KONO
    Japanese Heart Journal
    1981年 22 巻 2 号 151-166
    発行日: 1981年
    公開日: 2008/12/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Etiology of QT prolongation and T wave high voltage was studied in 90 chronic alcoholics in relation to history of alcoholism, blood chemical values, heart rate and QRS voltage with a technic of multiple regression analysis. Incidences of QT prolongation (22%), T wave high voltage in lead V2 (9%), hypopotassemia (23%), hypocalcemia (26%) and hypomxagnesemia (28%) were high, despite these examinations were done after relatively long abstention period (35 days on average). Sinus tachycardia (19%) and QRS high voltage (Sv1+Rv5 exceeding 4mV, 41%) were also frequent. Unexpectedly, QT interval did not correlate to serum electrolytes, including calcium. Major factors associated with QT prolongation were sinus tachycardia, longer abstention period and larger amount of daily alcohol consumption. Although the reason of each association was not quite clear, alcoholic myocardial damage may be a cause of QT prolongation. Voltage of T wave in lead V2 was sensitive to serum potassium level, but the observed tendency of hypopotassemia acted to the direction against high voltage of T wave. The sole factor positively associated with high voltage of Tv2 was high QRS voltage, which may be a manifestation of left ventricular hypertrophy.
  • Yasuko FUNABIKI, Hirotaka TATSUKAWA, Ko ASHIDA, Kinya MATSUBARA, Yasushi KUBOTA, Hirohisa UWATOKO, Kazuto KITAMURA
    Internal Medicine
    1998年 37 巻 11 号 958-961
    発行日: 1998年
    公開日: 2006/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    A 69-year-old man with chronic alcoholism was admitted to our hospital due to disturbance of consciousness and oliguria. Emergency laboratory examination revealed metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, mild liver dysfunction, acute renal failure and rhabdomyolysis. After administration of fluids and nutrients and continuous hemodiaflltration, he recovered from all signs and symptoms except for disturbance of consciousness after 7 days. Since severe hypophosphatemia persisted, we administered adequate phosphates, and then his level of consciousness normalized. We discuss the relationships among alcohol abuse, hypophosphatemia and disturbance of consciousness, and recommend that hypophosphatemia be considered a potential cause of disturbance of consciousness in alcoholic patients.
    (Internal Medicine 37: 958-961, 1998)
  • SOMSONG NANAKORN, KATSUHIRO FUKUDA, TAWEE TANGSEREE, SUCHART TREETHIPTIKHUN, JUN NAKAMURA, ITSURO OGIMOTO, HIROKI INUTSUKA
    The Kurume Medical Journal
    1998年 45 巻 4 号 313-319
    発行日: 1998/12/15
    公開日: 2009/08/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study was aimed to validate the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Thai version (MAST-T) which was compared to the psychiatric diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria, as a gold standard, among the northeast population of Thailand . Sixty-one pairs of male cases with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and controls were collected through routine examination of psychiatric outpatients, 18-65 years old, who visited the Khon Kaen Psychiatric Hospital or the Northeast Drug Dependence Treatment Center which is located in Khan Kaen province, northeast Thailand between November, 1996 and February, 1997. Controls were matched for each case by sex-age (±5 years)-province-urbanization . They were interviewed using the MAST-T and a structured questionnaire. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the optimum cutoff point≤11 on the MAST-T yields the best sensitivity and specificity (98.4% for each), along with an area under the curve of 0 .998, indicating that it was sensitive and specific in discriminating AUD from non-AUD patients. This validation study of the MAST-Thai version underlines its applicability as a screening test for AUD among the northeast male Thai population .
  • Tatsuya Kikuchi, Masamoto Funaki, Toru Yamabe, Hiroshi Oiwa
    Internal Medicine
    2016年 55 巻 5 号 551
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/03/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • Antonio J. Chamorro, Miguel Marcos-Martin, Jorge Martin-Polo, Luis Carlos Garcia-Diez, Guillermo Luna
    Internal Medicine
    2009年 48 巻 13 号 1187-1189
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/07/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Wernicke encephalopathy is caused by thiamine deficiency in the central nervous system, and is defined by the triad of confusional symptoms, ocular alterations and ataxia. Some other factors may also predispose alcoholic patients to this deficiency. We report two patients with hyperglicaemia and ketoacidosis due to diabetes mellitus decompensation and chronic alcoholism who developed Wernicke encephalopathy before their hospital admission. The outcome was successful after intravenous thiamine administration and insulinotherapy. The presence of Wernicke encephalopathy in alcoholics with diabetic ketoacidosis, suggests that metabolic decompensation is essential in the onset of the disease.
  • Oben Baysan, Kürsat Kaptan, Kürsad Erinç, Yesim Öztas, Tayibe Coskun, Hakan Kayir, Mehmet Uzun, Tayfun Uzbay, Cengiz Beyan, Ersoy Isik
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    2005年 206 巻 2 号 85-90
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/05/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although moderate alcohol consumption seems to be protective against atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease rate increases with its higher doses. Platelet aggregation is an important process which contributes to the atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether heavy ethanol consumption stimulates or inhibits platelet aggregation. Fourteen adult male Wistar rats were used. Ethanol (7.2%, v/v) in a modified liquid diet was given to eight rats for 21 days, which mimicked characteristics similar to human chronic alcoholism. Six rats constituted the control group. Adenosine diphophate (ADP) and collagen-induced platelet aggregation was measured in whole blood. We found reduced ADP-induced mean maximal aggregation in the alcoholic rat group compared to the control group at dose of 5 μM (p < 0.005). We also found decreased platelet aggregation responses to collagen in the alcoholic group (p < 0.006 for 2 μg/ml collagen, and p < 0.05 for 5 μg/ml collagen). In conclusion, chronic heavy ethanol consumption results in the decreased platelet aggregation in a rat model of alcoholism. Therefore, increased mortality from coronary artery disease in chronic alcoholism may be explained by other factors such as dietary imbalances and coexisting conditions, which include hypertension and depression.
  • 武田 綾, 鈴木 健二, 白倉 克之
    心身医学
    2002年 42 巻 8 号 513-519
    発行日: 2002/08/01
    公開日: 2017/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    アルコール依存症を合併した摂食障害(合併群)の転帰について摂食障害単独群(単独群)との比較研究である.1990〜1998年に受診した30歳以下で半構造化面接のできた摂食障害患者130名に対し,2000年10〜12月にアンケートと電話で追跡調査を行った.対象者のうち102名(78%)が回答し,平均追跡期間は4.6年であった.2つの群は初診時において,初診年齢,パーソナリティ障害,AN-Rの割合,結婚・離婚経験など多くの点で違いがあった.調査時点で合併群は非常に高い死亡率(25%)があり,離婚経験は38%,問題飲酒も42%がもっており,症状消失とED-NOSが半数を占めた単独群と比較して,合併群の長期転帰は非常に悪かった.両群に共通した転帰良好因子は嘔吐が少ないことであった.
  • David W. Crabb
    The Keio Journal of Medicine
    1999年 48 巻 4 号 184-188
    発行日: 1999年
    公開日: 2009/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    The understanding of how alcohol damages the liver has expanded substantially over the last decade. In particular, the genetics of alcoholism, the genesis of fatty liver, the role of oxidant stress, interactions between endotoxin and the Kupffer cell, and the factors that control activation of the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) have been the focus of a great deal of research. Genetic mechanisms for increasing the risk of alcoholism include alterations in alcohol metabolizing enzymes as well as neurobiological differences between individuals. The development of fatty liver may involve both redox forces, oxidative stress, and alterations in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor function. Oxidative stress is now known to involve both microsomal and mitochondrial systems. Recent studies implicate stimulation of Kupffer cells by portal vein endotoxin as a cause of release of cytokines and chemokines, hepatocyte hyper-metabolism, and activation of HSC. These actions appear to be in part gender-dependent and may explain the susceptibility of women to alcoholic liver disease. Activation of HSC underlies liver fibrosis and cirrhosis of all types; control of this activation might permit control of the progression of fibrosis. These advances suggest a number of new approaches as therapy for alcoholic liver injury.
  • Jyrki PENTTINEN
    Journal of Occupational Health
    2001年 43 巻 3 号 107-110
    発行日: 2001年
    公開日: 2006/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Risk of Suicide and Accidental Death among Subjects Visiting a Doctor because of Mental Disorder: A Matched Case-Control Study in Finnish Farmers: Jyrki PENTTINEN. Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health—Background: Various mental disorders, especially depression, precede suicide. According to some authors, also victims of accidental death in many cases have suffered from mental problems. In most former studies the study design has been retrospective. In this prospective study the risk of suicide or accidental death among patients visiting a primary health care doctor was evaluated. Subjects and methods: 20 suicides, 24 accidental deaths and 176 controls (four matched controls for each case) were included in a cohort comprising 3, 172 male farmers who were followed up for 13 yr. Results: Generally speaking, persons visiting a doctor because of some mental problem had a clearly increased risk of committing suicide: odds ratio (OR)=5.6; 95% confidence limit (CL): 1.7, 18.5. The corresponding OR for accidental deaths is 1.5 (95% CL: 1.1, 2.1) Alcohol abuse was the most usual mental disorder preceding suicide (OR=13.2, 95% CL: 1.4, 121) and accidental death (OR=10.9; 95% CL: 1.3, 91.4). Visits to the doctor because of depression preceded suicide in 5 of 20 cases. Not one of 80 controls of suicide cases had visited a doctor because of depression during the follow-up, so it was not possible to calculate the OR. Those having used psychotropical drugs during the follow-up had a 14.5fold risk (95% CL: 3.1, 68.3) of dying from suicide and 3.8-fold risk (95% CL: 1.3, 10.3) of dying accidentally. Conclusions: Alcohol abuse is the most usual mental disorder associated with accidental death. Suicide is often preceded by alcoholism or depression. (J Occup Health 2001; 43: 107-110)
  • 田村 豊幸, 井上 博, 飯田 高史, 大野 洋光
    The Journal of Nihon University School of Dentistry
    1969年 11 巻 4 号 149-151
    発行日: 1969年
    公開日: 2011/03/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    Vitamin C in its various preparations is one of the most commonly administered drugs in dentistry. In connection with many researches related to the poisoning of many pharmaceuticals, research endeavors are also active in the antidotal action of these drugs.
    TAMURA, one of the present authors, published his experimental studies on the elimination of an injurious by-effect of promine [1, 2] and also those dealing with leucine against caffeine [3], substances having antidotal effects on morphine and nicotine [4] and anti-alcoholic agent [5].
    Although the possibility of vitamin C poisoning has drawn the attention of medical and dental profession for a long time, almost nothing is known about its effect when administered conjointly with some form of amino acid.
    In the present report, the authors are concerned with the antidotal mechanism of vitamin C and glucose-cysteine against acetaldehyde responsible for the alcoholism and nicotine, a potent factor in the nicotinism.
  • Helen G. TAO, Hazel M. FOX
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
    1976年 22 巻 4 号 333-337
    発行日: 1976年
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Malnutrition is often associated with alcoholism. Nutri tional deficiencies found in alcoholic patients are mostly related to pro tein and B-vitamins. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pantothenic acid nutrition is altered in patients with prolonged intake of alcohol.
    Urinary pantothenic acid was measured in alcoholic patients during three intervals in a 10-week rehabilitation period. Pantothenic acid excretion of alcoholic patients revealed a lower excretion in an acute phase of the disease (2.7mg/day) than reported excretion of normal individuals (3.9mg/day). Inadequate intake of nutrients may have been a contributing factor. In chronic alcoholic patients who participated in a 10-week rehabilitation program, excretion approximated intake at the beginning of the period (6.6 mg/day) and decreased to less than one half this amount (2.7mg/day) at the end of the rehabilitation. It may be speculated that alcoholic patients, in general, are unable to utilize pantothenic acid from the diet efficiently, but as they are rehabilitated, more of this vitamin is retained in the body for useful functions.
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