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全文: "Asperger syndrome"
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  • Liqiong Liu, Van Vo, Marcus Ware, Zhenggang Xiong
    Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
    2012年 1 巻 2 号 92-94
    発行日: 2012/05/31
    公開日: 2014/04/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    A case of Asperger's syndrome with unusual cerebral pathological changes is reported. A 22-year-old male had been having diagnostic Asperger's syndrome since the age of eight and had epilepsy during the past two years. Radiological studies revealed a focal intra-axial cortical and subcortical cerebral lesion with hyper-intensity and non-enhancing contrast in the left frontal lobe. Histological and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the lesion consisted of cortical laminar disorganization, neuronal dysmorphism and increased heterotopic neurons in sub-cortical white matter. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Asperger's syndrome with focal cerebral pathological abnormalities rather than mini-columnar changes and the gyrial malformation reported in the literature.
  • 高橋 智
    特殊教育学研究
    2008年 45 巻 6 号 527-541
    発行日: 2008/03/31
    公開日: 2017/07/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Inadequate support and neglect of children with developmental disabilities often engenders "secondary symptoms", such as school non-attendance, withdrawal, and criminal acts. Through a questionnaire survey of resource rooms in elementary and lower secondary schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area, the present study assessed the actual conditions that students with developmental disabilities confront, focusing on maladjustment problems of and problems of educational support for students with mild developmental disabilities. The survey results revealed many possible reasons for these students' school maladjustment. Suggestions for improvement were also described. Furthermore, the results revealed that cooperation among guardians, schools, resource rooms, counseling organizations, and medical institutions is extremely insufficient. It is strongly urged that schools and related organizations promote guardians' understanding of their children's disabilities.
  • Koji Adachi, Yasuo Murai, Akira Teramoto
    Journal of Nippon Medical School
    2012年 79 巻 3 号 228-231
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    The etiology of autism remains unclear, but relationships to cerebellar factors have been reported. We report 2 cases of infantile cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma in children with autism spectrum disorder. Cerebellar tumors may be related to the pathogenesis of autism.
  • 今野 義孝
    特殊教育学研究
    2005年 42 巻 6 号 467-481
    発行日: 2005/03/31
    公開日: 2017/07/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study attempted to identify behavioral and movement characteristics of children with autism or attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), using factor analysis. Participants were 30 children with autism (26 boys and 4 girls; 5 years 7 months to 10 years 3 months; mean CA=6:2), and 22 children with ADHD (18 boys and 4 girls; 5 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months; mean CA=6:8). The mean IQ was 76 (range 71-89) for the children with autism, and 74 (range 71-83) for the children with ADHD. A behavior checklist (21 items) and a movement checklist (22 items) were administered. Factor analysis of the behavior checklist revealed 4 factors: "lack of active relating to others" (Factor I), "persistent interest in objects" (Factor II), "psychological tension and suppressed emotional expression" (Factor III), and "lack of sympathy with others" (Factor IV). The following factors were obtained from the movement checklist: "lack of active control of bodily movement" (Factor I), "insufficiency of movement skill and movement coordination" (Factor II), "impulsivity" (Factor III), and "hyperexcitability in mind and body" (Factor IV). For the children with autism, comparison of factor scores from the behavior checklist revealed that Factor I, Factor III, and Factor IV were their dominant characteristics, while comparison of the movement checklist factor scores indicated that Factor I was a salient characteristic for them.
  • Moe Eto, Saeko Sakai, Tomoka Yamamoto, Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike
    感情心理学研究
    2014年 22 巻 1 号 28-39
    発行日: 2014/09/01
    公開日: 2014/12/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder have difficulties recognizing emotional information, especially from facial expressions. The present study investigated facial expression recognition ability among 17 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and 26 typically developing children. Three facial expression tasks were used: the Eyes Task, the Morphed Faces Task, and the Movie Stills Task with and without faces. Children were asked to adapt emotional words for stimuli (eye stimuli and emotional scenes) or rate emotional intensity from facial expressions. Results showed that children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder had difficulties perceiving subtle fear, complex emotions, and using contextual information appropriately in the absence of faces. These findings suggest that difficulty in recognizing emotional information from not only facial expressions but also contextual cues could provide a basis for understanding to social deficits among children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.
  • Hiroki Tanaka, Sakriani Sakti, Graham Neubig, Tomoki Toda, Satoshi Nakamura
    The Journal of Information and Systems in Education
    2013年 12 巻 1 号 19-26
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2014/01/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The number of people with social skills and communication difficulties is now greater than ever for a variety of reasons. Our objective is to measure these difficulties, and enable people with these difficulties to improve their social and communication skills for use in the real world. This paper examines the relationship between non-verbal communication skills and the autism spectrum quotient among members of the general population. We also propose a training framework for these skills. Pre- and post- learning results were examined to find the effects of the training. The results showed an improvement after a 20-minute learning session, indicating that training could help enhance non-verbal communication skills for members of the general population.
  • 鈴木 勝昭, 尾内 康臣, 中村 和彦, 杉原 玄一, 竹林 淳和, 武井 教使, 森 則夫
    脳と精神の医学
    2009年 20 巻 4 号 281-286
    発行日: 2009/12/25
    公開日: 2011/02/02
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 高橋 智, 生方 歩未
    特殊教育学研究
    2009年 46 巻 6 号 525-543
    発行日: 2009/03/31
    公開日: 2017/07/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present study, people with developmental disabilities (LD, ADHD, Asperger syndrome, high functional autism, intellectual disabilities, and so on; N=79) completed a questionnaire. The aim was to clarify the response and support for problems that they had had in adjusting to school life, human relations, and daily life while they were in school. This had been specifically requested by the respondents. On the basis of an analysis of notes written by people with developmental disabilities and parties in charge, as well as published research, a checklist was developed to measure understanding and support for difficulties and problems in adjustment to school life, human relations, and daily life in the school. Many of the free comments indicated that the support required by the respondents was diverse, and that careful consideration was necessary in relation to individuals' difficulties and needs. To support people who are in charge of those with developmental disabilities, many of the respondents requested a way to relate to them. Heeding comments of the respondents provides clues to the support that they need.
  • Shino OGAWA, Miwa FUKUSHIMA, Ayana TAMURA, Hiroyasu ITO
    PSYCHOLOGIA
    2009年 52 巻 4 号 235-244
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2010/01/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Children with developmental disorders are assumed to have a delay in reaching an age at which they can succeed in Theory of Mind tasks compared with their verbal mental age. However, the methods of the Theory of Mind tasks, picture story books or demonstrations for example, are not well suited to those who have difficulties in concentration, selective attention, reading, hearing correctly and understanding. This research used the picture story show as the method for three Theory of Mind tasks and showed that children who were thought to be unable to pass the tasks based on preceding studies could pass the tasks. The form “picture-story show” might be a better way for children with developmental disorders to understand the meaning of tasks. In addition, not the verbal mental age but the ability to understand task contents might be most important for children with developmental disorders to succeed with Theory of Mind tasks.
  • Nobuo MASATAKA
    PSYCHOLOGIA
    2009年 52 巻 4 号 221-223
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2010/01/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Outline of “Learning Science” is briefly overviewed.
  • 森脇 愛子, 伊藤 良子, 藤野 博
    特殊教育学研究
    2011年 48 巻 6 号 593-604
    発行日: 2011/03/31
    公開日: 2017/07/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study aimed to compare the characteristics of empathy as scaffolding for constructing friendships. Participants were 24 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and, for comparison, 24 typically developing children (TYP). The children were matched on age (7-11 years) and gender (each group included 6 girls). The empathic responses that were analyzed included Parallel Empathy (P-E), which refers to reproduction of another person's feelings, and Reactive Empathy (R-E), which refers to one's emotional reaction to another person's feelings. The children's empathic response to their closest friend was measured with the Affective Situation Test (AST). The children with autism spectrum disorders achieved the same level of Parallel Empathy scores as the typically developing children; however, the Reactive Empathy scores of more than a third of the children with autism spectrum disorders were noticeably lower than those of the typically developing children. This suggests that a weakness in Reactive Empathy in children with autism spectrum disorders may be an important factor in the difficulty that they have in constructing reciprocal relationships with friends.
  • 荻野 竜也, 服部 旬里, 浅野 孝, 安東 節子, 岡 〓次
    認知神経科学
    2000年 2 巻 Special 号 41-44
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2011/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Rie ISHIDA, Yoko KAMIO, Sachio NAKAMIZO
    PSYCHOLOGIA
    2009年 52 巻 3 号 175-187
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/12/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examined perceptual distortion of visual illusions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-, sex- and IQ-matched typically developing children to determine whether local bias exists in low-level visual processing in ASD as the weak central coherence (WCC) theoretical account predicts. To explore whether higher-level contextual information can be integrated with low-level information in ASD, the perception with and without perspective cues was also examined. The children with ASD succumbed to illusions to a lesser degree than did the comparison group, and the degree of perceptual distortion was negatively correlated with Block Design score, a marker of WCC. The presence of perspective cues did not increase perceptual distortion among both groups to a statistically significant degree. The results support the WCC account suggesting abnormalities in integrating visual information in low-level processing in individuals with ASD when they perceived illusory figures.
  • 土田 幸男, 室橋 春光
    認知心理学研究
    2009年 7 巻 1 号 67-73
    発行日: 2009/08/31
    公開日: 2010/11/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は自閉症スペクトラム指数(AQ)とワーキングメモリの各コンポーネントが関わる記憶容量との関係を検討した.自閉症スペクトラムとは,自閉性障害の症状は社会的・コミュニケーション障害の連続体上にあり,アスペルガー症候群は定型発達者と自閉性障害者の中間に位置するという仮説である.自閉性障害者においては音韻的ワーキングメモリには問題が見られないが,視空間的ワーキングメモリには問題が見られるという報告がある.高い自閉性障害傾向を持つ定型発達の成人のワーキングメモリ容量においても,同様の傾向が見られる可能性がある.そこで本研究では定型発達の成人において音韻的ワーキングメモリ容量,視空間ワーキングメモリ容量,そして中央実行系が関わるリーディングスパンテストにより査定される実行系ワーキングメモリ容量とAQの関係を検討した.その結果,AQ高群では低群よりも視空間ワーキングメモリ容量が小さかった.全参加者による相関係数でも,AQと視空間ワーキングメモリ容量の間には負の相関が認められた.しかし,音韻,実行系ワーキングメモリ容量とAQの間には関係が見られなかった.これらの結果は,自閉性障害者で見られる認知特性が,定型発達の成人の自閉性障害傾向でも同様に関わっていることを示唆している.
  • YUJIRO KAWATA, MASATAKA HIROSAWA, NOBUYOSHI HIROTSU, EIJI KIRINO
    順天堂醫事雑誌
    2014年 60 巻 6 号 559-567
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2015/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Objective: “Mind reading” is the ability to understand another individual’s mental states. In particular, individuals with developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, have a deficit in mind reading abilities. Similarly, individual differences in mind reading also exist among the healthy population and are often the cause of misunderstandings. Although the Empathizing and Systemizing Theory (E-S theory) has been used to explain individual developmental differences, its applicability to mind reading among Japanese adolescents has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the E-S theory explains individual differences in mind reading among Japanese adolescents.
    Participants: Participants were 240 Japanese university students (M=20.58, SD=0.51).
    Methods: We administered questionnaires based on Japanese versions of the Empathy and Systemizing Quotients, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.
    Results: Empathizing, but not systemizing, was found to be related to mind reading. Additionally, relative differences in empathizing and systemizing, rather than its combination, were associated with mind reading.
    Conclusion: Since relative differences in empathizing and systemizing affect mind reading, we concluded that the E-S theory explains individual differences in mind reading among Japanese adolescents.
  • 中土井 芳弘, 渡部 幸奈, 細川 麻衣, 住谷 さつき, 大森 哲郎
    日本生物学的精神医学会誌
    2013年 24 巻 4 号 235-240
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2017/02/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    広汎性発達障害(pervasive developmental disorders ; PDD)における社会的相互関係の障害を代表するものとして,顔認識や表情処理の障害があげられる。 我々のグループでは,これまでに健常者を対象に,感情価の異なる表情刺激を呈示した際の前頭前野活動性を近赤外線スペクトロスコピー(near-infrared spectroscopy ; NIRS)を用いて調べ,恐怖表情では喜びの表情と比べ酸素化ヘモグロビン変化量の増加が大きいことを示した。また,恐怖表情における血流量変化と自閉症傾向を示す自閉症スペクトラム指数との間で有意な負の相関が認めることを見いだした。 ついで我々は PDD 14名と年齢,性別の一致した健常対照群14名を対象とし,恐怖表情処理過程における前頭前野活動性を検討し,酸素化ヘモグロビン変化量は健常対照群と比べPDD群で有意に小さいことを示した。 NIRSは非侵襲性と簡便性を併せもち,心理的および身体的負担が少ないことから,発達障害の病態研究において有用なツールになりうると考えられる。
  • 守口 善也
    心身健康科学
    2011年 7 巻 1 号 10-16
    発行日: 2011/02/10
    公開日: 2011/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 若林 明雄, 東條 吉邦, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sally Wheelwright
    心理学研究
    2004年 75 巻 1 号 78-84
    発行日: 2004/04/25
    公開日: 2010/07/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, and Clubley (2001) constructed brief, self-administered instruments named the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a Japanese version of this new instrument. Three groups of Japanese subjects were assessed. Group 1 (n=57) consisted of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA). The other two groups were control groups. Subjects of Group 2 (n=194) were normal adults and those of Group 3 (n=1050) were students selected from five Universities in Tokyo and Chiba. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score of 37.9 (SD=5.31), which was significantly higher than the two control groups (Group 2: X=18.5, SD=6.21, and Group 3: X=20.7, SD=6.388). While eighty-eight percent of the adults with AS/HFA scored more than 33 points, only 3% of subjects in the two control groups indicated those points. Among the controls, males scored slightly but significantly higher than females. The reliability of the AQ in both test-retest and inter-rater measures were significantly high.
  • Tomoyuki Honda, Kozue Sofuku, Hidenori Matsunaga, Masaya Tachibana, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike, Keizo Tomonaga
    Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
    2017年 70 巻 2 号 225-227
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/03/24
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2016/10/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Soichiro Matsuda, Junichi Yamamoto
    Journal of Special Education Research
    2015年 4 巻 1 号 1-8
    発行日: 2015/08/31
    公開日: 2016/07/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit contrasting forms of emotion comprehension; however, few studies have directly compared the two. In this study, we directly compared six children with ASD, chronological age 3–7, with six children with WS, chronological ages ranging 4–11, but were matched with the ASD children in terms of developmental age. The children’s development of emotion comprehension was assessed by intramodal (visual stimulus–visual stimulus) and cross-modal (auditory stimulus–visual stimulus) matching. Facial expressions were used as visual stimuli, and affective prosodies were used as auditory stimuli. Children with ASD were less accurate than those with WS on cross-modal matching, but equally accurate on intramodal matching. The results suggest that deficits in emotion comprehension among children with ASD may be related to difficulties in understanding the relationship between auditory and visual stimuli and the deficits may be greater at younger ages.
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