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全文: "Ban Ki-moon"
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  • Derek Elias
    Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture
    2009年 4 巻 1 号 1-6
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article points out the challenges to food security and agriculture and reveals how ESD plays an important role in education for sustainable agriculture. The current global financial turmoil is exacerbating concerns about rising food and fuel costs. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon has termed this ‘the new face of hunger'. More than 850 million people are starving and the food crisis is even threatening the stability of already fragile democracies like Afghanistan. The dilemma between affluence and poverty is distinct taken into consideration that the main problem is not the lack of food, but the surge of food prices which makes basic sustenance unaffordable for millions.
    At the same time the world population continues to grow. Food production needs to rise by 50% by the year 2030 to meet the needs of population growth and changes in consumption patterns. The tendency is clear: the more countries have economic development, the more they consume animal protein. However, meat production is a major source of greenhouse gases and the typical land use attached to it is generally inefficient and prone to cause soil degradation. Resource use related to agriculture and food production is highly unsustainable.
    Agriculture is still the most common occupation globally. Thus attention is needed in linking education and food security. Knowledge of the current state can lead to empowerment of people to take responsibility for their actions which is one of the primary aims of ESD. The thrusts of the ESD are providing and improving quality basic education, re-orienting existing education programmes, building public understanding and awareness and providing practical training. ESD brings sustainable issues to the forefront, and uses that perspective to address educational change which enables everyone to adapt behaviours and make informed decisions that can contribute to a sustainable future. ESD aims to provide all learners with support to develop skills to adapt to changing food security needs in their local context—for example, to seek out innovative farming methods and change consumption patterns.
    Today's agricultural and trade practices are failing to feed the poor and have detrimental effects on the environment. Current cultivation of ‘cash crops’ such as cotton and coffee for export purposes contribute to the prevalence of food insecurity and create a strain on the ecosystem. These practices need to be re-considered with the holistic approach to education and development that ESD advocates. It seeks to enable individuals to view issues of food security as connected to their personal choices. For example through incorporating Education for Sustainable Development in vocational education programmes and agricultural practices, farmers can be transformed into ‘farmers of tomorrow’ who are better able to safeguard our ecosystems and preserve them for future generations. The way to this is exchanges in expertise between indigenous knowledge and future farmers. Community knowledge of local contexts must be integrated into sustainable approaches in order to address local needs and opportunities for farmers on maximizing agricultural production on a larger scale.
  • 唐木 英明
    学術の動向
    2010年 15 巻 8 号 8_82-8_85
    発行日: 2010/08/01
    公開日: 2010/09/17
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Journal of Pesticide Science
    2010年 35 巻 1 号 81-83
    発行日: 2010/02/25
    公開日: 2011/02/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Kimimasa KATO, Hikaru NISHIZAKA, Kouken KOUNOTO, Masataka KUDO
    Journal of JSCE
    2017年 5 巻 1 号 298-304
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/08/20
    ジャーナル フリー
     Minami-Gamo Wastewater Treatment Plant (MGWTTP) is the most important facility for the Sendai City sewerage system. The plant treats about 70 percent of the municipal wastewater from Sendai City. On March 11th, 2011, the plant was devastated by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the ensuing tsunami. Its foundation was heavily damaged. Sedimentation and aeration tanks were bent. Most of the mechanical and electrical equipment became flooded by seawater and were washed away. MGWTTP completely lost its wastewater treatment function. Due to this damage, the Sendai City Government decided that MGWTTP could not be repaired and instead should be rebuilt as a brand-new wastewater treatment plant (WTTP). In order to maintain a sanitary environment in Sendai during the construction of the new WTTP, a temporary municipal wastewater treatment was required to meet the effluent standard BOD of 60 mg/l as proposed by the National Sewerage Disaster Countermeasures Committee of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Therefore, the government implemented a mid-level treatment employing a contact oxidation with string media. MGWTTP became the largest WTTP that adopted this method in Japan. Operating the mid-level treatment facility, the new MGWTTP was completed five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. In this paper, the process until the completion of the new MGWTTP is outlined. The Sendai Declaration of Sewerage Works Disaster Risk Reduction, which was adopted at the 2015 Sendai Symposium, is also introduced.
  • 石上 文正
    人間と環境 電子版
    2011年 2 巻 1-20
    発行日: 2011/08/15
    公開日: 2018/04/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    WHOの事務局長であるDr Margaret Chanが、2009年6 月11日に、新型インフルエンザの"the level of influenza pandemic alert"をレベル5 からレベル6 に引き上げたことを伝える演説をおこなった。この演説は、すぐさまニュース記事となって、世界を駆けめぐった。これをステイトメント・ジャンルからニュース・ジャンルへのジャンル連鎖と考え、その考え方を紹介した批判的談話分析のN. Faircloughの理論を用いて、あるジャンルから、別のジャンルに移行することによって、何が変化し、何が排除され、何が追加されているのかを考察した。テクスト構造の変化、事務局長の意志表示の排除、表象の複雑化、表象の強化、表象の追加・補強、再コンテクスト化、アイデンティティの混合、アイデンティティの消去、人称代名詞の使い方の変化等、ジャンルの移行に伴うさまざまな現象を見出すことができた。
  • 黒崎 伸子
    国際女性
    2008年 22 巻 22 号 17-20
    発行日: 2008/12/20
    公開日: 2011/04/19
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Frank DELMARTINO
    日本EU学会年報
    2009年 2009 巻 29 号 1-18
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2011/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The environmental issue is at the very heart of present-day global concern. However, a consistent paradigm on environmental governance has not yet been agreed upon. More particularly, the effective role of transnational/‘regional’ actors has hardly been integrated in the overall model. We are giving attention to the EU's policy strategy in this particular field and how it affects the EU's political-institutional profile and the reflection on multi-level governance as a relevant conceptual framework.
    Considering the issue in a global perspective, most of the attention towards environmental governance has been caught by the global challenges and the implementation of policies on the domestic, i.e. national and local, level. It has been called the two-levels game and, despite all efforts, no generally accepted taxonomy on vertical linkages exists at this stage. Norichika Kanie approaches global environmental governance in terms of vertical linkages, highlighting the multiple forms of interaction and the barriers between the international and the local levels. This interactive diplomacy is conceptualized as interaction between like-minded countries and NGO's, business and industry communities. As empirical analysis has proven (Kanie and Haas), not only a wide array of new actors has emerged, but also a variety of governance functions can be distinguished.
    The EU has come to the fore with its ‘20—20—20 plan’, aiming at reducing carbon emissions by at least 20% within the time horizon of 2020. All EU efforts refer to the UN principles, priorities and institutional setting. In European eyes, the UN system is indeed the legitimate and effective overarching sphere of action in this policy field.
    Although the EU is ‘constitutionally’ defined as an emanation of Member States, it is also, especially from the outside world, perceived as a global actor. We are arguing that from an organizational viewpoint, the EU should be seen as an intermediate actor, mediating between state interests and worldwide regulation. Since grand theorizing is not appropriate (yet), we suggest an elaborated version of the paradigm of multi-level governance (Gary Marks) as a meaningful conceptual framework. It refers to the growing interdependence between governments and non-governmental actors at various territorial levels.
    The paradigm of multi-level governance is not only offering a scheme of reference vis-à-vis the many actors detected via empirical analysis. It could add an important dimension to the profile of the EU, complementing the internal integration process with its current ambitions as a global actor.
  • 高橋 謙造, 野村 真利香, 堀内 清華, 三浦 宏子
    保健医療科学
    2017年 66 巻 4 号 395-401
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/10/31
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    2015年,それまでの世界的なアジェンダである「ミレニアム開発目標(MDGs: Millennium Development Goals)」が終焉を迎え、新たなアジェンダとして「持続的な開発目標(SDGs: Sustainable Development Goals)」が国連総会において批准された.本論文では,MDGs時代に母子保健分野が成し遂げた進捗とSDG時代の課題を概観し,日本の過去の母子保健の経験を参照しつつ,世界的な母子保健の方向性を検討することを試みた.MDGs時代には,学術誌Lancetの一連のSystematic Reviewの成果,およびインドからの無作為化比較試験(RCT: Randomized Controlled Trial)の成果等が反映され,エビデンスに基づいた介入の必要性が提言されるに至った.一方で,MDGsの感染症対策等と比して進捗が遅れ気味であった母子保健は,SDGs時代には「残された課題」として国連レベルで議論されるようになり,"Global strategy for women's, children's and adolescents' health (2016-2030)"なる戦略書が出版された.この戦略書においては,母子保健分野の3つの目的として,Survive(生存),Thrive(健全な成長),Transform(社会の転換)が提示された.また,SDGs においては,サービス財源の確保と,サービスの質向上を同時に志向する「ユニバーサルヘルスカバレッジ(UHC: Universal Health Coverage)」の実現も提唱され,母子保健への寄与が期待された.しかし,世界で最も早く国民皆保険を実現した日本の経験によれば,国民皆保険導入以前より乳児死亡率等の母子保健指標の改善は始まっており,その改善の背景には保健師,開業助産師によるアウトリーチ活動を始めとするコミュニティ・レベルでの活動が寄与していた.国民皆保険は,保健師の雇用財源に関して主として寄与した.これらの背景を踏まえて,SDG時代の母子保健では,エビデンスに基づいた母子保健対策が必要となる.また,日本の経験を反映して,UHCの推進だけではなく,プライマリ・ヘルス・ケア(Primary Health Care)に代表されるコミュニティ・レベルでの活動とボランティアの活用も見直すべきである.

  • 堀内 健司
    風力エネルギー
    2012年 36 巻 3 号 463-466
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2014/12/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • AJAMES Editorial Committee
    日本中東学会年報
    2010年 26 巻 2 号 231-248
    発行日: 2011/01/05
    公開日: 2018/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Martin Oteng-Ababio
    Journal of Natural Disaster Science
    2014年 35 巻 1 号 21-34
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2015/05/13
    ジャーナル フリー
      The purpose of the paper is to introduce qualitative methods as providing unique and critical contributions for developing risk reduction strategies at the local level. It summarises the principles and practices in study design, data collection and analysis and presents a synthesis of standards for ensuring rigor and enhancing credibility in qualitative research. The methodology involves a comprehensive literature review, which culled information from risk reduction research-related fields and years of field research experience. The findings reveal how the method can be used to understand complex social processes and capture more nuanced aspects of a phenomenon through the lens of the study community. Such qualitative studies are often exploratory and seek to generate novel insights using inductive rather than deductive approaches. They help uncover the beliefs, values, and motivations that underlie participants’ actions and behaviours, which are crucial in implementing DRR strategies at the local level. Disaster risk reduction research seeks to inform the development and evaluation of policy guidelines that foster effective interventions and these aspects of risks may be most appropriately examined using the qualitative research methods.
  • 舛本 直文
    体育・スポーツ哲学研究
    2010年 32 巻 1 号 1-11
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2012/12/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    According to the view point of the peaceful philosophy of Olympism, it is one of the very important tasks to examine how the peace movements were developed on the occasion of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, especially in relation to the global torch relay and the UN Olympic Truce Resolution. The purpose of this study is to clarify the validity and problems of these peace movements of the 2008 Beijing Games.
    1. The Olympic Truce Resolution by the General Assembly of United Nations was approved as usual, and the appeal for the observance of this resolution was proclaimed by the Secretary General of the UN, Ban Ki-moon on the occasion of the 2008 Beijing Games. Nevertheless, the resolution was not observed again, because of the outbreak of the Georgia conflict on the day of the opening ceremony, the on-going Iraqi war, and so on.
    2. The global torch relay of the Beijing Games could not play an important role as the messenger for the transmission of the world peace, because it met route changes and the restriction on the torch viewers in some cities, mostly due to conflicts between the anti-Chinese movement and the advocates of free Tibetans against the sacred fire defense runners supplied by the Chinese Government.
    3. The International Olympic Truce Center had the artistic exhibition, “From Ancient Olympia to Beijing: Greek and Chinese artists discuss truce, fair play, war and peace” at the Hellenic House in central Beijing, and placed the signature board for the approval of the Olympic Truce at the Olympic Village as the joint peace movement of the IOC and BOCOG.
    4. As to the peace appeal at the Opening Ceremony of the Beijing Games, several activities took place including: the Olympic Truce appeal by the secretary-general of the UN, Ban Kimoon was mentioned, doves were symbolically released, the appearance of children's smiles of the whole world were broadcast, and so on. Though these performances were well known in recent opening ceremonies, they were overshadowed by the impressive performances of the historical and pictorial aspects of Chinese culture at the Opening Ceremony.
    5. As for actual international politics, the resolution of the “Olympic Truce” was not observed again, and the outbreak of the Georgia conflict, continuous Iraqi war, the war in Afghanistan, and the trouble in Tibet and Uighur still remained. The IOC could not operate any strategies to address these international problems, and the UN only appealed to countries to keep the observance of the Olympic Truce resolution.
    In order to develop these peace movements effectively according to the lofty peace ideal, a more advanced strategy would be needed by the critical organizations including the IOC and the UN. It would be probably necessary that the peace movement be formally linked with Olympism and be recognized more deeply. To help accomplish this, activities to publicize the peace movement and Olympic Education should be supported by the mass media. Especially, expecting the effective execution of the Olympic Truce, it would be necessary for the IOC to adapt more strict decisions so that it would be able to bar from the Olympic Village those countries and districts which would not observe the resolution, or even to refuse those NOCs to participate in the next Olympic Games. Nevertheless, this last suggestion is actually a very big issue to consider since, for example, the IOC would currently have to reject the USA which is one of the countries at the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. It will be a very important task for the IOC, UN and the peace movement organization to be able to enhance their influence in this 21st century.
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