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全文: "Caenorhabditis elegans"
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  • The Journal of Biochemistry
    2004年 136 巻 3 号 407
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2008/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Nobuaki Tominaga, Shinya Kohra, Taisen Iguchi, Koji Arizono
    Journal of Health Science
    2003年 49 巻 6 号 459-463
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used for a multiple-generation toxicity bioassay of phenols. We examined the sublethal toxicity (fecundity and reproduction) of bisphenol A (BisA), 4-(1-adamantyl) phenol (Adp), and 4,4′-(1,3-adamantanediyl) diphenol (AdDP) over five generations using a Nematode Growth Medium (NGM) 1.7% agar plate. In the fourth generation, the phenols affected the fecundity rate of C. elegans at doses 100- to 10000-fold lower than the LC50s. In particular, at 1 nM BisA, the number of worms decreased significantly to about 50% of control (p < 0.05). A comparison of the number of viable worms and eggs suggested that the phenols exert hatching toxicity. In addition, individuals with an abnormality in the vulva, which could not ovulate, appeared on the phenol-containing plates. We confirmed that phenols disrupt reproduction in C. elegans and that the method using NGM agar plates facilitates multi-generational toxicity tests of chemicals that are poorly soluble in water.
  • Kazuhiro Ura, Toshinori Kai, Sachiko Sakata, Taisen Iguchi, Koji Arizono
    Journal of Health Science
    2002年 48 巻 6 号 583-586
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2002/12/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    To evaluate the toxicity of environmental chemicals to invertebrates, a static bioassay was developed in the laboratory using the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). First, reproducibility of this aquatic acute toxicity test system was confirmed. In order to estimate chemical toxicities in C. elegans, worms were subsequently exposed to eleven different xenobiotics. Mortality after 24 hr was adopted as the endpoint of toxicity. We found that benzo[a]pyrene, nonylphenol, benzophenone, bisphenol A and cadmium chloride affected viability of C. elegans. These data suggest that C. elegans is a suitable toxicity test organism for environmental xenobiotic chemicals, and that lethality can be used as a testing endpoint.
  • Shinya Kohra, Kazuko Kuwahara, Yuji Takao, Yasuhiro Ishibashi, Ho Chul Lee, Koji Arizono, Nobuaki Tominaga
    Journal of Health Science
    2002年 48 巻 1 号 93-95
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2002/02/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    We observed and evaluated the feeding behavior of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) after exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP). Exposed organisms were transferred to chemical-free culture medium and their attainment levels (the number of worms reaching the food source divided by the total number of worms on the Petri plate) were recorded after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hr. Results showed a significant decrease in the attainment level of worms exposed to 10 μM and 0.1 μM BPA. However, there was a slight increase in the attainment level of nematodes treated with 1 μM NP. These results differ from previous studies showing NP as being more lethal to nematodes than BPA.
  • Tsuyoshi KAWANO, Kyoko TAKUWA, Masaji ISHIGURO, Terumi NAKAJIMA, Yasuo KIMURA
    Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
    2003年 67 巻 12 号 2678-2682
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2004/01/09
    ジャーナル フリー
      A Caenorhabditis elegans cDNA encoding a new insulin/IGF-like peptide was cloned and examined. The predicted peptide shows significant sequence similarity with the peptide Ceinsulin-1 reported previously and contains a characteristic insertion consisting of three residues in the putative B domain as with the Ceinsulin-1. The gene expression pattern during development is almost identical to that of Ceinsulin-1. The predicted tertiary structure of the peptide is quite similar to that of Ceinsulin-1, and their predicted receptor-recognition surfaces also closely match. These facts suggest that both peptides could recognize the same receptor.
  • Nobuaki Tominaga, Kazuhiro Ura, Masato Kawakami, Tomoaki Kawaguchi, Shinya Kohra, Yoshinori Mitsui, Taisen Iguchi, Koji Arizono
    Journal of Health Science
    2003年 49 巻 1 号 28-33
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/02/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is proposed as a model organism for studying chemical effects over multiple generations. We investigated whether C. elegans responds to vertebrate steroid hormones. We found that estrogenic steroids, especially estradiol (E2), have a cholesterol-like potency in supporting the reproduction of C. elegans. In contrast, testosterone (TS) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) did not display this potency. On the other hand, E2, TS and DES supressed the fecundity rate of C. elegans, when culture carried out with cholesterol. Moreover effect of TS accumulated over generation, in contrast to the other chemicals tested. These data suggested that with convenient biomarkers such as fecundity, C. elegans might be an effective model organism for studying chemical actions, including the disruption of reproduction.
  • Harry Schachter
    Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
    2009年 21 巻 119 号 131-148
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/09/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    線虫には約 150 種類の N 型糖鎖の存在が判明している。本稿では,無脊椎動物に多く存在し,脊椎動物にないパウチマンノース型 N-グリカンの合成と機能について考察する。線虫の糖鎖はフコシル化とホスフォリルコリン付加により,多様性を呈しており,ホスフォリルコリンは多くの病原菌において抗原決定基として知られている。パウチマンノース型 N-グリカンの合成には,UDP-GlcNAc:α3-D-マンノシド β1,2-N-アセチルグルコサミン転移酵素(GnTI, Mgat1 遺伝子によってコードされる)反応が先行する。線虫では,GnTI に 3 つのアイソザイム(GLY-12, GLY-13, GLY-14)がある。それぞれのアイソザイムは標的蛋白質が異なっており,線虫の病原菌に対する防御において異なった機能を持つ。線虫における GnTI 標的蛋白質の同定により,無脊椎動物及び脊椎動物の感染防御における GnTI 標的糖蛋白質の機能が明らかになるものと期待される。
  • Nobuaki Tominaga, Shinya Kohra, Taisen Iguchi, Koji Arizono
    Journal of Health Science
    2004年 50 巻 5 号 545-550
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2004/10/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Toxicity studies using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a model organism have shown that perfluoro organic compounds have sub-lethal toxicity at the 10 pM-100 nM range on multi-generation assays. We examined the acute lethal toxicity and multi-generational sublethal toxicity (fecundity and reproduction) of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and salts of perfluoro-1-octansulfonic acid (PFOS) using 1.7% agar Nematode Growth Medium (NGM) plates. The fluorine compounds affected the fecundity of C. elegans at concentrations 105- to 108-fold lower than the median effective concentrations (EC50). In particular, worm abundance during the first generation did not differ significantly from controls, while in contrast, the number of worms in the fourth generation at 10 pM PFOS-tetraethylammonium (TEA) decreased significantly to about 50% of control (p < 0.01) and the number of eggs and worms in the fourth generation at 1 nM PFNA decreased significantly to about 30% of control (p < 0.01). However, no dose-response relationship was observed in this study. We confirmed that perfluoro organic compounds strongly disrupt fecundity in C. elegans.
  • Shuhei Yamada, Shuji Mizumoto, Kazuyuki Sugahara
    Trends in Glycoscience and Glycotechnology
    2009年 21 巻 119 号 149-162
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/09/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    コンドロイチン硫酸/デルマタン硫酸が代謝される際の最初の段階では,エンド型の加水分解酵素によって多糖鎖が低分子化を受けると考えられている。しかし,この反応を触媒するコンドロイチン硫酸/デルマタン硫酸に特異的なエンド型の糖分解酵素はこれまでに見つかっておらず,ヒアルロン酸分解酵素であるヒアルロニダーゼが代わりに作用すると考えられてきた。線虫 Caenorhabditis elegans は多様な基本的生命現象を研究するうえで理想的なモデル生物であり,これまでに線虫を利用して,グリコサミノグリカンの生合成と機能に関する多くの研究が行われてきた。しかし,C. elegans におけるグリコサミノグリカンに関する代謝経路の研究は殆ど行われていない。C. elegans はヒアルロン酸を含まず,硫酸化されていないコンドロイチンを含むため,ヒアルロニダーゼの関与しないコンドロイチン/コンドロイチン硫酸の代謝の研究には理想的である。我々は,C. elegans においてコンドロイチンに特異的なエンド型の加水分解酵素を初めて同定した。この酵素の発見は,哺乳動物においてもコンドロイチン硫酸/デルマタン硫酸に特異的なエンド型の糖分解酵素が存在する可能性を示唆している。
  • Nobuaki Tominaga, Mineko Tomoeda, Shinya Kohra, Yuji Takao, Masaki Nagae, Kazuo Ueda, Yasuhiro Ishibashi, Toshinori Kai, Koji Arizono
    Journal of Health Science
    2002年 48 巻 6 号 555-559
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2002/12/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was adopted as a multicellular biosensor of biological toxicity from alkylphenols and organotin compounds. Alkylphenols were found to affect reproduction at lower doses than indicated by the acute toxicity assay. In particular, nonylphenol altered the reproduction rate of C. elegans at a dose 10- to 100-fold lower than the 50% lethal concentration (LC50). A comparison of the number of viable worms and eggs suggested that alkylphenols and organotin compounds possess hatching toxicity. A 0.1 μM dose of organotin compounds caused a significant decrease, in the order of 20-50%, in reproduction of the worms, and an abnormal male: hermaphrodite ratio was observed. C. elegans therefore appears to represent a potent and sensitive organism with which to evaluate the biological effects of chemicals. In particular, the sensitivity of reproduction as an endpoint is highly useful for assessing the sublethal effects of chemicals.
  • Shinya Kohra, Nobuaki Tominaga, Yuji Takao, Masaki Nagae, Yasuhiro Ishibashi, Kazuo Ueda, Koji Arizono
    Journal of Health Science
    2002年 48 巻 3 号 269-272
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2002/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We describe a novel approach to evaluating the respiratory toxicity of chemicals in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using DOX-96KT, a general purpose, multi-channel dissolved oxygen (DO) measuring system, we measured the DO concentration in culture media containing C. elegans exposed to chemicals to assay for respiratory toxicity. The current value, which is an index of the dissolved oxygen concentration in culture media, was measured every 10 sec for 30 min at 24°C. We focused on the respiration levels of the exposed worms between 500 and 1800 sec. This method produces results that are similar to the computer tracking system measuring behavioral toxicity. Since it can do multiple dilution series tests at a given time, it is useful for concentration-activity correlation studies. This novel technique is not only an alternative to the computer tracking system for measuring behavioral toxicity but also a rapid sublethal toxicity test for chemical hazard assessment.
  • Tsuyoshi KAWANO, Naoya KATAOKA, Sunao ABE, Mari OHTANI, Yoko HONDA, Shuji HONDA, Yasuo KIMURA
    Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
    2005年 69 巻 12 号 2479-2481
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/12/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans yields a substance(s) inducing the larval diapause, called dauer-inducing pheromone. We discovered that the crude pheromone extract extends the adult lifespan in the animal. This extension does not occur in the mutant animal, in which expansion of the lifespan caused by other mutations reducing insulin signaling is suppressed. This is the first description concerning the relevancy of the pheromone to the longevity in the animal.
  • Masaru Kurauchi, Hisashi Morise, Toshihiko Eki
    Journal of Health Science
    2009年 55 巻 5 号 796-804
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/10/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Nematodes are highly abundant organisms found in soil or sedimentary habitats. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has been used as an excellent model for monitoring ecotoxicity in soil. We have previously demonstrated that the lifespan of C. elegans can be used as an endpoint for detecting the ecotoxicity of heavy metals and detergents, and have developed a novel ecotoxicity assay based on their shortened lifespan. Herein we used a daf-16(mu86) mutant CF1038 strain, which has a deficient transcription factor DAF-16 regulating a variety of genes involved in longevity and stress response, for ecotoxicity assays. We carefully examined the effects on reproduction, larval growth, and lifespan in the short-lived CF1038 strain and wild-type N2 strain in the presence of a perfluoro organic compound (pentadecafluorooctanoic acid) and an organophosphate insecticide (dichlorvos) in addition to heavy metals (CuSO4 and CdCl2) and detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate and a commercially available household detergent). Unexpectedly, both strains exhibited comparable reductions in these endpoints including lifespan by exposure to these ecotoxicants, indicating that DAF-16 does not largely contribute to tolerance to these agents. By virtue of a shorter assay period, the lifespan-based assay using the daf-16 mutant can be useful for assessing the ecotoxicity of a variety of ecotoxic chemicals.
  • 星野 香織, 安井 智佳子, 池田 高紀, 有川 健太郎, 戸嶋 ひろ野, 西川 禎一
    日本食品微生物学会雑誌
    2008年 25 巻 4 号 137-147
    発行日: 2008/12/30
    公開日: 2009/02/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    細菌食性の土壌線虫であるCaenorhabditis elegans(線虫)が,ヒト病原体の代替宿主として認められつつある.本研究の目的は,食中毒細菌が線虫に病原性を示すか否か検討することにある.ペプトンを含まない寒天上に各種の病原細菌を塗りつけた後,若い成虫を移して摂取させた.24時間ごとに線虫の生死を確認し,生残率を経時的に調べた.供試した14種の病原体のうちセレウスと腸管侵入性大腸菌を除く12菌種(各種下痢原性大腸菌,黄色ブドウ球菌,腸炎ビブリオ,サルモネラ,リステリア,エロモナス,エルシニア)が,線虫の生残率を対照群に比べて有意に低下させた.既に報告されたペプトンを含む寒天上で実施された線虫の感染実験と同様に,線虫に病原性を示す菌は,ペプトンを含まない寒天上でも線虫に感染し,その体内で増殖していることが明らかとなった.しかしながら,ヒトに病原性を示さない大腸菌HS株や,マウスに対する病原性を失ったリステリアの変異株が線虫に病原性を示した.線虫は食中毒菌の病原性を検討するうえで有用であるが,線虫に対する病原性がヒトへの腸管病原性を必ずしも反映するわけではない.線虫を代替宿主として利用するに当たっては,病原菌の種類や解析する病原遺伝子を注意深く選定し実験することが求められる.
  • K. Nakata, T. Igarashi, M. Hayakawa, T. Kaminuma
    Genome Informatics
    1996年 7 巻 200-201
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2011/07/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have developed a database of receptors, which gather data from information sources on the Internet. The source of this database is a variety of genomic and biological information on the internet; PIR, Swiss Prot, PDB, GenBank, EMBL, GDB, etc…The system provides the detail structure and functional information on receptors, such as ligand binding site and DNA binding site, which were picked up from the references, and the three dimensional structures. The system was implemented on the unix workstation (IRIS, INDIGO 2), using an object oriented database management system ACEDB (A Caenorhabditis elegans Data Base).
    ACEDB is an object oriented database management system, which has been developed as part of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome research. This database is a generalized genome database, and can be used to create new database without the need for any reprogramming or in fact any sophisticated computer skills.
    The system provides various viewing tools that effectively display different types of receptor data; DNA sequences, amino acids sequences, DNA binding sites, ligand binding sites, gene and disease information, and the protein structural information. It can also display three dimensional structure of molecules using a freeware molecular graphics RASMOL. The detail information for ligand and signal transduction, which are picked up from references, are also included. The system has also a browser interface so that database can be accessed via World Wide Web. The information regarding the sites of action on the receptor are highly interesting in biologically, medically and pharmacologically. The database may be useful for quick reference for ligand-membrane receptors and signal transduction in the drug design. We may use the database for the functional and structural analyses of receptors.
  • 田島 誉久, 滝口 昇, 加藤 純一, 大竹 久夫
    化学工学会 研究発表講演要旨集
    2003年 2003f 巻 X1P54
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/08/18
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • Akira ONODERA, Sumino YANASE, Takamasa ISHII, Kayo YASUDA, Masaki MIYAZAWA, Philip S. HARTMAN, Naoaki ISHII
    Journal of Radiation Research
    2010年 51 巻 1 号 67-71
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2010/02/20
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2009/10/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    The time spent as a dauer larva does not affect adult life span in Caenorhabditis elegans, as if aging is suspended in this quiescent developmental stage. We now report that modest doses X-irradiation of dauer larvae increased their post-dauer longevity. Post-irradiation incubation of young dauer larvae did not modify this beneficial effect of radiation. Conversely, holding dauer larvae prior to irradiation rendered them refractory to this X-radiation-induced response. We present a model to explain these results. These experiments demonstrate that dauer larvae provide an excellent opportunity to study mechanisms by which X irradiation can extend life span.
  • 鍋谷 卓司, 田伏 洋, 次田 晧
    日本プロテオーム学会大会要旨集
    2003年 2003 巻 2B9
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2015/10/01
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • Tokumitsu WAKABAYASHI, Takashi OSADA, Ryuzo SHINGAI
    Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
    2005年 69 巻 9 号 1767-1770
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/09/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Serotonin has been implicated in numerous behaviors in a wide variety of animals. We examined the effect of serotonin deficiency, induced by genetic perturbations and cell ablations, on the duration of Caenorhabditis elegans forward movement. Mutants with defective serotonin biosynthesis or worms with ablated serotonergic neurons showed a markedly decreased duration of forward movement, suggesting involvement of this neuromodulator in the regulation of the duration of worm locomotion.
  • Tetsuya Sakashita, Michiyo Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hamada, Yoko Shimozawa, Kana Shirai-Fukamoto, Yuichiro Yokota, Sakura Hamada-Sora, Takehiko Kakizaki, Seiichi Wada, Tomoo Funayama, Yasuhiko Kobayashi
    Biological Sciences in Space
    2012年 26 巻 7-11
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/07/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the functions of the nervous system is a potential risk in interplanetary manned space missions. However, little is known about how the nervous system is protected against high-LET radiation exposure. The analysis of high-LET radiation resistant animals would be therefore important for space missions. Here, we investigated the resistance to high-LET radiation exposure for two behaviors of the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, which is known as a model organism for the nervous system. Tested behaviors were locomotion and chemotaxis to NaCl. In addition, egg hatchability was examined as an indicator of high-LET radiation sensitivity. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET radiation (12C, 18.3 MeV/u, LET = 113 keV/μm) relative to low-LET radiation for hatchability was 4.5, whereas RBEs for locomotion and chemotaxis were 1.4 and 1.1, respectively. This study shows that the behavioral system for locomotion and chemotaxis of C. elegans is highly resistant to high-LET radiation exposure.
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