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全文: "Cartesian dualism"
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  • Makoto YAMAMOTO
    Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science
    1971年 4 巻 1 号 46-48
    発行日: 1971/03/31
    公開日: 2009/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 岸 泰宏, 黒澤 尚
    日本救急医学会雑誌
    2010年 21 巻 4 号 147-158
    発行日: 2010/04/15
    公開日: 2010/06/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    日本におけるコンサルテーション・リエゾン精神医学と救急医療との関係は非常に深く,救急医療の発展とともに産まれ,発展してきたといっても過言ではない。その救急医療との関わりには様々なスタイルがある(一般的に精神科リエゾンは病棟に精神科医が常駐し,精神疾患に対応する方法を指すことが多い。それに対し精神科コンサルテーションは身体科医からの依頼により精神疾患に対応する方法をいう)。bio-psycho-socialな問題を抱えた複雑な症例が多い救命救急センターでは,リエゾン精神医療が推奨され実践的と捉えられている。臨床場面において,自殺企図患者のケア,せん妄をはじめとした精神症状の緩和など多くの課題があるが,確立した効果的な介入方法は,いまだない。いくつかの身体救急疾患においての臨床研究では精神科介入による様々な利益が示されており,今後臨床に導入されていくであろう。総合病院における精神科医のマンパワー不足も深刻化しており,とくに救急領域では高齢化を含めてpsycho-socialな面で複雑な症例が増加しているため,多職種を巻き込んだ効果的なコンサルテーション・リエゾン・チームの構築が必要である。救急医療現場では,臨床ならびに研究において,自殺患者の再企図予防,急性身体疾患に伴う様々な精神症状の治療など課題が多い。精神医療が救急医療にさらに強く関与していく必要がある。
  • Masahiko Yamada, Kenji Ishii, Yasutomo Oda, Sei Emura, Shunzo Koizumi
    General Medicine
    2006年 7 巻 1 号 9-14
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2010/06/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    BACKGROUND: Prior research indicates that patients with medically unexplained symptoms and doctorshopping behavior are more likely to have psychological distress. In patients with somatic symptoms, we hypothesized that high scores on COOP/WONCA Functional Assessment Charts, in addition to the presence of medically unexplained symptoms and doctor-shopping behavior, might have an important role in diagnosing psychological distress.
    METHODS: Between November 2002 and March 2003, the patients who presented themselves to the hospital for the first time with somatic symptoms were enrolled in this study. In this study, we defined psychological distress as disease conditions, including Mood disorders, Anxiety disorders, Adjustment disorders, and Somatoform disorders, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition (DSM-IV) . Symptoms that, in the doctor's judgment, could not be medically explained were regarded as medically unexplained symptoms. Doctor shopping was defined as those patients with a complaint of sustained and unsolved symptoms for more than one month who had visited two or more medical facilities prior to visiting our hospital and arrived without any physician's referral.
    RESULTS: One hundred and six patients out of 496 were diagnosed as having psychological distress. Among these 106 patients, 49 (46.2%) had doctorshopping behavior, 86 (81.1%) had medically unexplained symptoms, and 95 (89.6%) showed high scores on COOP/WONCA charts. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of medically unexplained symptoms and doctor shopping were 24.12 (11.91-48.84) and 4.18 (2.16-8.07), respectively. High scores on COOP/WONCA charts 2, 3 and 6 were significantly associated with the presence of psychological distress, and the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of these three items were 1.41 (1.01-1.98), 1.41 (1.02-1.94), and 2.88 (1.68-4.95), respectively.
    Positive and negative likelihood ratios for 4 items (i.e., age of not less than 45 years; duration of symptoms of not less than 6 months, ; doctorshopping behavior; and, medically unexplained symptoms) were 1.16 and 0.85; 1.43 and 0.55; 3.16 and 0.63; and, 3.96 and 0.24, respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios for high scores on COOP/WONCA charts were 1.42 and 0.28. Under ROC curves for the diagnosis of psychological distress, the information of COOP/WONCA charts, in addition to that of clinical data, medically unexplained symptoms, and doctor shopping behavior, increased the accuracy in diagnosing psychological distress.
    CONCLUSIONS: In patients with somatic symptoms, COOP/WONCA charts increased diagnostic accuracy in predicting psychological distress when patients showed sustained symptoms for more than 6 month, doctor shopping, and medically unexplained symptoms.
  • Mikio Iguchi
    前橋工科大学研究紀要
    2017年 20 巻 33-40
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/03/14
    研究報告書・技術報告書 オープンアクセス
    第二言語習得における学習動機(L2 motivation)の理論的フレームワークを支えている社会心理学の研究方法を考察した。第二言語習得における学習動機の研究は1960年代からGardner等によって提唱されている統合的動機(integrative motivation)と道具的動機(instrumental motivation)の研究が中心である。この研究方法は社会心理学に裏打ちされており、後続の研究に至るまで脈々と受け継がれている。社会心理学は実証主義のパラダイムに根ざしており、研究成果は量的データで発表されている。一方、構成主義のパラダイムに立脚し、質的データで第二言語習得における学習動機を研究する流れも形成されてきている。本研究は質的研究による第二言語習得における学習動機を研究することの重要性と可能性を提唱した。
  • Friedrich Beck, John C. Eccles
    認知科学
    1998年 5 巻 2 号 2_95-2_109
    発行日: 1998/06/01
    公開日: 2008/10/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The question whether neural activities in the brain can be correlated with conscious action is as old as brain research itself. Even in view of the remarkable progress of neuroscience in recent years, the question is far from being settled. The difficulties arise from the fact that the qualia of consciousness connected with thoughts, emotions, free decisions, can hardly be reconciled with the concept of a causal, computer-like neural net. A new and intriguing view of the relation between brain and consciousness arises, however, if quantum processes play a decisive role in brain activity. The quantum state reduction, or selection of amplitudes, offers a doorway for a new logic, the quantum logic, with its unpredictability for a single event. Brain activity consists of a constant firing of neural cells, regulated by synaptic switches which establish the connections between neurons. Conscious action, e.g. intention, is a dynamical process which forms temporal patterns in some areas of the brain. We discuss how synaptic activity in the form of exocytosis of transmitter molecules can be regulated effectively by a quantum trigger based on an electron transfer process in the synaptic membrane. Conscious action is hereby essentially related to quantum state reduction.
  • 岸 泰宏
    日本医科大学医学会雑誌
    2008年 4 巻 4 号 175-180
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/01/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Psychiatric disorders are more commonly seen in the general medical outpatient and inpatient settings than in community samples. This group is at particular risk for resistance to general medical and psychiatric treatment, increased complications of disease, high use of health care services, and disability. Several randomized, controlled studies have shown that integrated medical and psychiatric treatment is clinically and economically effective. For this reason, "integrated" physical and mental-health primary care models and inpatient models should receive greater attention as we attempt to improve the quality of care and health outcomes for patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders. Because there are too few consultating psychiatrists to deliver services to the many medically ill patients with psychiatric disorders, we should consider new efficient and effective proactive approaches in the future rather than relying on the current reactive psychiatric consultation system. For cost-effective treatment in these budget- and manpower-limited environments, a multidisciplinary team approach, which coordinates psychiatric service delivery under specially trained psychiatrists, should be used. Specially trained psychiatrists should be multidisciplinary team leaders who support and encourage interventions by other behavioral health specialists with selected skills.
  • 松田 克進
    哲学
    1995年 1995 巻 46 号 60-69,3
    発行日: 1995/10/01
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Many contemporary philosophers disagree to Cartesian Dualism (CD) saying that it results in solipsism, but the author shows that this is not the case. Their argument against CD is based on the belief that we could not know another person has a mind if we accepted CD, and one of the essential reasons for this belief is the view that the connection between mental workings and corporeal behaviors is at best contingent. However, Descartes himself denies this view when he proposes the 'argument from language', which says that the impossibility of mechanical explanation of speech behavior enables us to attribute minds to others.
  • Lee JaeYoung
    Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering
    2014年 13 巻 1 号 33-40
    発行日: 2014/01/15
    公開日: 2014/01/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    This research seeks to evaluate the experience of nature in the architectural instruments as created by Le Corbusier, in terms of the phenomenology of corporal experience. The architecture of Le Corbusier is active in viewing the spectacular landscape of nature through frontal localization, windows, ramps, and roof gardens. His architecture has the attitude of separating from earth and opposing and viewing nature as an autonomic machine. The nature experience of Le Corbusier is largely divided into seeing from on high and seeing while walking. Considering the senses of the body and the aspects of movement responding to each situation, the experience of seeing and contemplating nature on a large scale has an abstract quality. Seeing nature as an object from afar basically limits the experience in the information of the senses and the abstraction of nature. For the concrete experience of nature, what is needed is the idea that the body takes part in the diverse sensorial worlds and is simultaneously taken in by the situation. This research also aims to reconsider the qualities of experiences of nature, based on the modernity characterized by the separation of human from nature and sprit from body.
  • 榧根 勇
    日本水文科学会誌
    2004年 34 巻 2 号 103-110
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2019/01/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    A facilitator of the groundwater session of the Third World Water Forum commented that ‘Water is culture.′ Though water is a natural substance, it does not exist independently of humans because humans interact with nature. If we define culture as everything substantiated by human interaction, water is surely a part of culture. Nowadays a center of water issues is shifting from the realm of science to the realm of humans. Including environmental problems, issues that involve the value could not be treated by contemporary science based on Cartesian dualism. New science is necessitated, which would step into the problem of value. ‘Water is culture′ is raised here as an example to step into the problem of value in water issues.

  • 島津 俊之, 福田 珠己, 大城 直樹
    人文地理
    2012年 64 巻 6 号 474-496
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2018/01/24
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper discusses research trends in the history of geography and social and cultural geography in Japan since the late 1970s with attention to their institutional contexts. The 24th International Geographical Congress held in Tokyo led to the emergence of several informal and formal research groups concerning the history of geography and social and cultural geography. These groups acted as incubators in which the articulation between new trends in the Anglophone world and conventional research agendas shared by Japanese geographers triggered an interconnected renovation of the historiography of geography and social and cultural geography. Japanese historians of geography increasingly paid attention to non-academic as well as academic geographical thought and practices in Japan, in addition to the traditional tendency to deal with the thought of distinguished geographers in the West. New themes such as “critical history of geography” and “historical geography of geography” were also being taken seriously. Japanese geographers’ concern with humanistic geography developed diversely, on the one hand articulating with traditional research topics, and on the other, generating new interests in themes such as “geography and literature” or “sensuous geographies.” Since the late 1980s, younger social and cultural geographers have been more than ever tackling issues around the “cultural turn” in Anglophone human geography, the “spatial turn” in social science and the multiple aspects of modernity. These research trends are not fully based on “imported scholarship,” nor should they be replaced by “indigenous development.” Texts produced by Japanese geographers may retain the same intertextuality and hybridity as those produced by Western geographers do.

  • 今里 悟之
    人文地理
    2007年 59 巻 6 号 508-532
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2018/01/06
    ジャーナル フリー

    本稿では,日本と英語圏における人文主義(人間中心主義)地理学の歴史を,批判的に再検討した。

    日本での事例研究は,主に村落地理学と歴史地理学で展開され,国内で伝統的に培われてきた独自の人文主義的視点も保持されていた。しかしながら,実証科学としての人文主義地理学の核心は,国内外においてしばしば誤解されてきた。

    そのため著者は,トゥアン,レルフ,レイそれぞれの元来のアプローチ,およびフッサールとシュッツの現象学に立ち戻って,基本的な概念と視点を再考し,人文主義地理学をより厳密に再定義した。すなわち,人間の実存空間やその表象にみる共同主観的秩序への注目,人間の理性と感性における普遍性の探究,内部の人間の視点に立った人文学的資料や現場調査資料の利用,人間科学の方法論の哲学的反省である。

    この再定義からみた場合,日本の地理学においても,集落空間の民俗分類の記号論,計量的なテクスト分析,空間や景観に対する認識論の再検討,「人間」対「自然」という西洋流二元論の根本的再考といった形で,方法論上の挑戦が積み重ねられてきたといえる。

  • 石津 宏
    心身医学
    2003年 43 巻 12 号 869-882
    発行日: 2003/12/01
    公開日: 2017/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 池見 酉次郎
    心身医学
    1980年 20 巻 2 号 102-109
    発行日: 1980/04/01
    公開日: 2017/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Our approach is to integrate both psychosomatic and somatopsychic approaches like the two wheels of a cart for reaching the goal of healthy self-realization in the true sense of the term by introducing new concepts and techniques of humanistic psychology. in addition to traditional somatic treatment. To my understanding, the Oriental approach to life can contribute to the development of psychosomatic medicine in three major ways, revolving around its realization of the illusion of mind-body dualism, it's development of practical somatopsychic techniques for learnnig self-control, and it's orientation towards realizing our true nature. Students of psychosomatic medicine have long propagated the unity of the mind and body, and unitary concepts are nice ways of speaking, but in fact, the Cartesian dualism is still with us and is the basis of our thinking in psychopathology, psychophysiology, psychopharmacology and even in psychosomatic treatment. In Western culture, the development of which has rested on the foundation of Cartesian mind-body dualism, the spirit (psyche) has been separated from the body, the human body being degraded to the level of animal body or machine. In Oriental thought, the body has been considered to be the sacred seat of the soul or spirit, and the "wisdom of the body" has been highly appreciated. Mind and body have been viewed as two phases of a single process, not as independent entities. The basic principle of traditional Oriental Medicine is the maintenance or stimulation of the natural "wisdom of the body". According to Oriental thought, self-identification is a process that is based upon an awareness of body feeling which is directly in touch with nature under it's command. Such a self-identification helps the maintenance of lucid sensory awareness and an actual feeling of the law of nature in one's own body, an understanding which is qualitatively different from conceptual understanding. This attitude does not contradict the concepts of natural science.
  • Tsuyoshi Shigehisa
    Annals of Cancer Research and Therapy
    1995年 4 巻 1 号 5-19
    発行日: 1995/08/10
    公開日: 2009/01/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Kazuhisa SHINOZAWA
    Interdisciplinary Information Sciences
    2009年 15 巻 1 号 25-35
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to make a conceptual analysis on the value of information from a philosophical point of view. In the paper, confining myself to a short philosophical comment, I take the following steps. (1) By referring to the Shannon’s classical paper on communication theory, I reconfirm one of the philosophically basic problems about the value of information, namely, the twisted relation between the elimination of meaning and our common-sense understanding of the value. (2) To elucidate the relation from a philosophical point of view, I take advantage of the Aristotle’s schematic overview called semantic triangle. The schema shows itself to have a systematic and wide-ranging conception. (3) Through analyzing the Aristotelian semantic triagle, I revaluate his philosophical insight that, in order to have a penetrating view of the value of information, we need more light on the value system from the viewpoint of human time, which is contrasted with physical or engineering time. What essentially matters is the relation between human time and Aristotelian common sense. (4) In temporary conclusion, I propose that to focuse attention on human time lead us to an adequate assessment on the crucial divide between quality and quantity in the value of information.
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