Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical procedure to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). DBS modulates neurological function of the target region using implanted medical devices to deliver electrical stimulation to the brain. The most common target for PD is the subthalamic nucleus (STN). STN DBS improves motor function in the medication-off state, motor fluctuations and dyskinesia with reduction of dopaminergic medication. Long-term outcomes are favorable for cardinal motor symptoms. However, refractory axial symptoms concerning speech, swallowing, gait and postural stability gradually deteriorated with progression of disease. New strategy to treat these axial symptoms is the future subject.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat symptoms by modulating the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop in the central nervous system (CNS), and attempts to research loop circuit disorders have been globally initiated among the intractable neurological and psychiatric disorders. DBS treatment has been evaluated for all these newly found CNS loop circuit disorders. In 2011, neurosurgical treatments for psychiatric disorders were renamed from “psychosurgery” to “neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders (NPD)” by the World Society for Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (WSSFN). Moreover, in 2014, “Consensus on guidelines for stereotactic neurosurgery for psychiatric disorders” was published by the WSSFN to address the differences in correspondence of stereotactic NPD. Globally, two multicenter prospective randomized control trials regarding DBS of the subcallosal cingulated gyrus and ventral anterior internal capsule/ventral striatum for intractable depression have been terminated after futility analysis. However, DBS for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), unlike for intractable depression, is showing steady development. In Japan, NPDs have not been performed since 1975 following the adoption of “Resolution of total denial for psychosurgery” by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology. Nevertheless, a trend to adopt new neuro-modulation techniques for psychiatric disorders, including DBS, are emerging. We have created a clinical research protocol for the use of DBS in intractable OCD, which has been approved by the ethical committee of Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, with the hope of commencing DBS treatment for intractable OCD patients in the near future.