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全文: "Delphinapterus leucas"
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  • Etsuko KATSUMATA, Yoko UEDA, Kazutoshi ARAI, Hiroshi KATSUMATA, Miori KISHIMOTO, Gen WATANABE, Kazuyoshi TAYA
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2012年 74 巻 3 号 293-300
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/04/03
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2011/10/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study is the first report on circulating testosterone and inhibin levels in a species of whales, the beluga. Circulating testosterone and immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin levels in two captive male belugas ("Nack", originally from Canada and "Duke", from the Okhotsk Sea) were measured every month for 9 years between 1995 and 2003. Assuming that clearly increased testosterone levels in the circulation indicates that the belugas had reached sexual maturity, at the ages of 10 ("Nack") and 11 years old ("Duke"). Their testosterone levels before the significant increase (pre-pubertal) were 0.42 ± 0.07 ng/ml (n=18) and 0.35 ± 0.10 ng/ml (n=18) and, those of after the increase (maturity) were 1.65 ± 0.14 ng/m l (n=74) and 2.06 ± 0.14 ng/ml (n=74). Circulating ir-inhibin levels before sexual maturity were 0.78 ± 0.04 ng/ml (n=18) and 0.64 ± 0.04 ng/ml (n=15) and, after sexual maturity were 0.52 ± 0.02 ng/ml (n=56) and 0.43 ± 0.02 ng/ml (n=67). Seasonal changes were observed in the testosterone levels after sexual maturity and the levels increased during March and April in Canadian origin "Nack", and peaked in February in Okhotsk origin "Duke". Circulating ir-inhibin level gradually decreased as they aged. A negative correlation between the circulating testosterone and ir-inhibin was observed. No seasonal changes were observed in the ir-inhibin levels after sexual maturity. These data will surely correspond to clarification of endocrinology and the successful reproduction of the beluga.
  • Etsuko KATSUMATA, Chie FURUTA, Hiroshi KATSUMATA, Gen WATANABE, Kazuyoshi TAYA
    Journal of Reproduction and Development
    2006年 52 巻 1 号 59-63
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2006/03/11
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2005/11/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    The relationship between basal body temperature and circulating progesterone levels were investigated in a female beluga. Body temperature and serum concentrations of progesterone were measured daily and at 2-4 week intervals respectively, in a female beluga that was in captivity for 7 years between 1996 and 2003. The beluga first ovulated in April, 2000 (13 years old). Thereafter, serum concentrations of progesterone showed cyclic changes, indicating that the ovulatory cycle had started. Serum concentrations of progesterone ranged from 0.1 ng/ml to 15.7 ng/ml. Body temperature also showed cyclic changes during the estrous cycle. Body temperature ranged from 34.9 to 35.9 C, and tended to reach the peak during the high progesterone phase. Mating behavior was observed during the low body temperature phase. The changes in body temperature positively correlated with the circulating progesterone levels. The length of the estrous cycle was 36.7 ± 3.9 (mean ± SEM) days based on the intervals between the days of mating behavior. This is the first report demonstrating that body temperature clearly changes during the estrous cycle in a captive female beluga. The present finding suggests that measurement of body temperature is a useful method for detecting the ovarian cycle of the beluga in captivity.
  • TSUKASA MURAYAMA, HITOMI KOBAYASHI, MANABU ITO
    Fisheries science
    2002年 68 巻 sup1 号 302-305
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2008/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Dolphins are expected to possess a highly developed visual information processing system. However, there are few studies investigating how they perceive the outer world by vision. In the present study, we examined the capability of solving complex problems that were visually guided, in terms of counting ability of items. A male beluga was trained to use Arabic numerals (1, 2) to name the number of items such as one or two fins and balls. The subject was able to discriminate the number of objects and he could name them using those numerals. Though it was not verified that those numerals were used as symbols in the present study, our results revealed that the dolphin was capable of solving complex problem visually guided and supported that it had a highly developed visual information processing system.
  • MIWA SUZUKI, HAJIME ISHIKAWA, SEIJI OTANI, TERUO TOBAYAMA, ETSUKO KATSUMATA, KEIICHI UEDA, SENZO UCHIDA, MOTOI YOSHIOKA, KATSUMI AIDA
    Fisheries science
    2002年 68 巻 sup1 号 272-275
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2008/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cortisol is a member of the corticoid family and is known as a stress hormone. In cetaceans, cortisol is frequently measured as a stress indicator. However, inappropriate estimation of cortisol concentration frequently occurs due to a lack of fundamental knowledge of corticoids in cetaceans. We carried out several experiments to establish standard methods of cortisol measurement in cetaceans. 1) Cortisol biosynthesis was confirmed in Antarctic minke whales Balaenoptera bonaerensis. Corticoids including cortisol, progestins, adrenal androgens and many other intermediates were synthesized from 14C-pregnenolone. 2) Serum cortisol concentrations in 15 cetaceans species were measured. Average cortisol concentrations in each species showed a wide range from 2.9 ng/ml in killer whale Orcinus orca to 39.9 ng/ml in striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba. A negative correlation between cortisol and body length was confirmed. 3) Diurnal changes in cortisol concentrations were investigated in well-trained Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins Tursiops aduncus and in killer whales. Cortisol concentrations in both species exhibited episodic fluctuations with decreases in the evening and increases in the early morning. Annual cortisol changes in killer whales were also investigated, and pattern varied according to sex. 4) Changes in serum cortisol concentrations following transport into captivity in a male rough-toothed dolphin Steno bredanensis were investigated. Cortisol concentrations were high on the day of transport, and continued to decline until stabilizing about four months later. 5) Twenty-one-deoxycortisol concentrations increased with time after transport, and a significant negative correlation between cortisol and 21 -deoxycortisol was demonstrated in a rough-toothed dolphin. This suggested that 21 -deoxycortisol is useful as a negative indicator of stress.
  • Kosuke Hayashi, Shin Nishida, Hideyoshi Yoshida, Mutsuo Goto, Luis A. Pastene, Hiroko Koike
    Mammal Study
    2003年 28 巻 2 号 89-96
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2004/01/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Putative nucleotide sequences for DQB exon 2 alleles of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were amplified and determined in the 16 cetacean species using the PCR technique. The 172 bp sequences amplified showed no multiple alleles more than two in each of the examined individuals. The sequences of the 31 cetacean DQB alleles detected were monophyletic with the HLA-DQB1, and were separated from the lineages of HLA- DQB2 and DQB3. These results suggest that the locus is the homolog to the human DQB1 gene. The observed frequency of nonsynonymous substitutions in the cetacean DQB sequences was significantly higher than that of synonymous substitutions. The amino acid variation at the putative peptide binding region (PBR) was considerably high. These results imply that positive selection has promoted its variability at the cetacean DQB gene as other mammalian MHC. The DQB gene tree showed that four Mysticeti alleles branched off from the clade consisted of Mysticeti alleles only and were included in the clade consisted of Odontoceti alleles. This suggests trans-species polymorphism in the cetacean MHC gene.
  • Satoshi KUSUDA, Terumi WAKIMOTO, Tetsuya SATO, Kazuhisa NISHIMURA, Shigehisa KAWAKAMI, Kazuo OKUDA, Eriko SAITO, Takuji SHIMADA, Hidefusa SAKAMOTO, Hiroshi YANAGIMOTO, Seitaro WADA, Kaneyoshi NISHIO, Hideyuki FUJI, Tetsuya SUZUKI, Hisashi HASHIKAWA, Hiroshi KUSUNOKI, Osamu DOI
    Journal of Reproduction and Development
    2007年 53 巻 5 号 1099-1105
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/10/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2007/06/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether changes in body temperature are related to the ovarian cycle in elephants. Rectal, tongue or fecal temperature was measured for 2 Asian and 5 African elephants using an electric thermometer. Evaluation of ovarian cycles was based on the changes in serum or fecal progestin. The mean ± SD values of the rectal, tongue, and fecal temperatures were 36.3 ± 0.3 (2 Asian), 36.2 ± 0.5 (1 African) and 36.5 ± 0.3 C (4 African), respectively; the fecal temperature was the highest of the 3 temperatures (P<0.01). The longitudinal changes in body temperatures correlated with the ovarian cycle, with higher temperatures occurring during the luteal phase. The fecal temperatures of one acyclic African elephant did not change cyclically. These results suggest that measurement of body temperature can be used to easily evaluate the ovarian cyclicity of an individual animal, although it might not be able to determine the ovarian cycle length.
  • 村山 司, 庵地 彩子, 鳥羽山 照夫
    日本水産学会誌
    2001年 67 巻 4 号 745-746
    発行日: 2001/07/15
    公開日: 2008/02/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    イルカ類の視覚による認知特性を考察するため, シロイルカによるだ円と円の弁別を調べ, 同じ方法を用いて得られたヒトの結果と比較した。予め円を選択するよう条件付けしたシロイルカとヒトに, だ円(長径に対する短径の割合が0.44,0.67,0.78,0.83,0.89,0.92,0.94,0.97の8種類)と円(直径18cm)を対にして呈示し, 円を選択する割合と反応時間を求めた。その結果, 全体としてシロイルカもヒトもだ円の短径が長径に近くなるほど円と混同し, 判断に時間を要するという共通の特性が認められた。
  • 佐々木 進, 箸方 麻希子, 吉田 剛, 香山 薫, 渡辺 秀秋, 太田 智章, 山田 格, 細野 明義
    ミルクサイエンス
    2006年 55 巻 1 号 37-41
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2014/03/15
    ジャーナル フリー
     平成17年 7 月 9 日,静岡県沼津市我入道海岸付近で仔クジラとともに座礁し,死亡が確認された泌乳中のコブハクジラ(Mesoplodon densirostris)(メス)の乳腺を切開して乳汁を採取した。この乳汁を冷却(4–6℃)して(財)日本乳業技術協会(東京都千代田区九段北 1-14-19)に運び,直ちに分析に供した。
     組成は水分48.4%,脂肪34.8%,タンパク質15.8%,炭水化物0.2%,灰分0.8%であった。ミネラルとしてカルシウム,ナトリウム,カリウムの含量が高いことが認められた。アミノ酸としてグルタミン酸,ロイシン,アスパラギン酸,リジン,プロリンの含量が高かったのに対し,メチオニン,シスチン,トリプトファン,グリシンの含量が低かった。構成脂肪酸としてオレイン酸(C18:1)の含量が高く,全構成脂肪酸の約50%を占めていた。また,ミリスチン酸(C14:0),パルミチン酸(C16:0),パルミトオレイン酸(C16:1),ステアリン酸(C18:0)ならびにアラキオレイン酸(C20:1)の含量が高いことが認められた。
  • Chiaki Saito, Kazue Ohishi, Yuka Kakizoe, Masafumi Saito, Hideki Mishima, Yuki Hongo, Yoshimitsu Nakamura, Masatoshi Nakazawa, Takao Yoshida, Tadashi Maruyama
    JAMSTEC Report of Research and Development
    2018年 27 巻 119-126
    発行日: 2018/09/01
    公開日: 2018/11/06
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    To better understand cetacean immunology, it is important to develop markers that identify specific leukocyte populations. We created a monoclonal antibody (mAb) library against leukocytes of the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), and established five hybridoma clones that produce mAbs. Three of these mAbs (ID: BW-3C3, BW-2G4, and BW-2G6) react with mononuclear leukocytes including lymphocytes and monocytes. mAb BW-3C3 react to a fraction of the lymphocytes. The mAb-positive cells were identical to cells that also stained with polyclonal anti-whale IgM antibodies, indicating that the mAb BW-3C3 specifically reacts to B lymphocytes. mAb BW-2G4 specifically binds to monocytes that possess a reniformed nucleus. mAb BW-2G6 was found to bind to heterogeneous lymphocytes, namely, anti-whale IgM antibody-positive and -negative lymphocyte populations. This indicates that this mAb reacts with B and non-B lymphocyte fractions. The other two mAbs (ID: BW-4B10 and BW-4G12) react with polymorphonuclear granulocytes. Double staining with Giemsa-eosin showed that mAb BW-4B10 and mAb BW-4G12 specifically identify neutrophils and eosinophils, respectively. This panel of mAbs will be a useful tool for classifying leukocytes and for determining their localization in different tissues, which in turn would contribute to our understanding of cetacean immunology and allow evaluation of leukocyte function in infectious diseases.

  • Kazue OHISHI, Erika ABE, Masao AMANO, Nobuyuki MIYAZAKI, Andrei BOLTUNOV, Etsuko KATSUMATA, Tadashi MARUYAMA
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2018年 80 巻 11 号 1696-1701
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/11/09
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    A serologic survey of Brucella infection was performed in Caspian seals (Pusa caspica, n=71), Baikal seals (P. sibirica, n=7), ringed seals (P. hispida hispida, n=6), and beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas, n=4) inhabiting Russian waters, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Brucella abortus and B. canis as antigens. The sera of 4 Caspian seals (4%) tested positive for B. abortus. The same sera samples demonstrated weaker yet detectable affinity for B. canis antigens. Several discrete bands against B. abortus and B. canis antigens were detected on Western blot analysis of the ELISA-positive seal sera; the bands against B. canis were weaker than those against B. abortus. The sera of 3 beluga whales (75%) were positive for B. abortus antigens but showed no binding to B. canis antigens in the ELISA. The positive whale sera showed a strong band appearance only against B. abortus antigens in the Western blot analysis. Many detected bands were discrete, while some of them had a smeared appearance. The present results indicate that Brucella infection occurred in Caspian seals and beluga whales inhabiting Russian waters, and that the Brucella strains infecting the seals and the whales were antigenetically distinct.

  • 田島 木綿子, 山田 格, 小池 裕子, 粕谷 俊雄
    哺乳類科学
    2015年 55 巻 1 号 89-91
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Fusao Yamasaki, Hajime Satomi, Toshiro Kamiya
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
    1976年 53 巻 2-3 号 77-91
    発行日: 1976/08/20
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    We observed two tongues of Pontoporia blainvillei (body length 98.5 and 171 cm, females) macro- and light microscopically. The Pontoporia's tongue is divided into two different parts: the front and the rear. The front part, the anterior one-third in the adult and the anterior one-fourth in the young, is nearly semicircular in outline having a completely smooth dorsum and a marginal free surface without an anterior free tip. The lateral free edges are scalloped in appearance but in the young many projections, about 3 mm long, can be seen at that position. The rear part continues from the front part at nearly the same level with irregular fissures and a remarkable longitudinal fissure present on the mid-line. But these features were unclear in the young. No trace of the sulcus terminalis and foramen caecum can be found on the tongue. Neither lingual papillae nor taste buds exist over the entire tongue. Many small pores are found on the dorsum from the mid-region of the front part to the base of the epiglottis. These pores also can be seen at the caudo-lateral free surface of the front part and on the continuing oral wall of the rear part. The pores are the orifices of the excretory canals of well developed salivary glands which are especially crowded at the rear part and are mucous in nature. Very scarce lymphatic nodules are observed in the lamina propria mucosae of the tongue and the neighboring part. Lingual tonsils can The tongue of Franciscana (La Plata Dolphin), Pontoporia blainvillei 85not be observed in Pontoporia. These findings obtained from our Pontoporia were compared with those of the other two kinds of Platanistidae (Platanista and Inia) we observed.
  • 船坂 徳子, 吉岡 基, 植田 啓一, 柳澤 牧央, 宮原 弘和, 内田 詮三
    哺乳類科学
    2010年 50 巻 1 号 1-11
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2010/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    ミナミバンドウイルカ(ミナミハンドウイルカ)Tursiops aduncusの成熟オス4個体を対象として,日長が大きく異なる冬至,春分,夏至に3時間間隔で24時間の連続採血を行い,血液学的検査7項目(冬至,春分,夏至)および血液生化学的検査17項目(冬至,夏至)の日内変動を調べた.ヘマトクリット(HT),尿素窒素(BUN),尿酸(UA),中性脂肪(TG),ヘモグロビン濃度(HGB),赤血球数(RBC),白血球数(WBC),総コレステロール(T-CHO),アルカリフォスファターゼ(ALP),カリウム(K)に日内リズムが認められ,このうちHT,BUN,UA,TGのリズムは特に明瞭であり(P<0.01),HTは18時に低値を示し,BUN,UA,TGはいずれも夕方から夜間にかけて高値を示した.これらの日内リズムの頂点平均時刻は,いずれの季節においても日長とは無関係にほぼ同時刻であったことから,そのリズムは内因性の概日時計に制御されている可能性が示唆された.他の項目の日内変動は,不規則なパルス状(好酸球分画,Eos;アルブミン,Alb;グルタミン酸オキサロ酢酸トランスアミナーゼ,GOT;グルタミン酸ピルビン酸トランスアミナーゼ,GPT;総ビリルビン,T-Bil:クレアチンフォスフォキナーゼ,CPK;ナトリウム,Na;クロール,Cl),経時的上昇あるいは下降(クレアチニン,Cre;血糖,Glu),ほぼ不変(好中球分画,Neut;リンパ球分画,Lym;総タンパク,TP;乳酸脱水素酵素,LDH)に区別できた.
  • Katsura NODA, Hideo AKIYOSHI, Mica AOKI, Terumasa SHIMADA, Fumihito OHASHI
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2007年 69 巻 4 号 379-383
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/05/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Dolphins in a captive environment are exposed to various kinds of stresses. Handling and transportation are stressful events for terrestrial mammals, and such stress may affect immune system function and increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The same phenomenon could occur in dolphins, however, few studies have reported this in dolphins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stress and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell function of dolphins during transportation. Four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were transported for 6 hr by truck. Serum cortisol levels, leukograms, phagocytosis, and superoxide production of PMN cells were evaluated during handling and transportation compared to resting values. The mean serum cortisol level was significantly increased during handling and transportation (p<0.05) when compared with the resting values. White blood cell (WBC) counts, eosinophil counts, phagocytosis, and superoxide production of PMN cells during handling and transportation stages decreased significantly in comparison with the resting stage (p<0.05). The concentration of serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the results of the WBC counts, eosinophil counts, superoxide production, and phagocytosis (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). The present results indicate that handling and transportation are stressful events for dolphins and could affect their PMN cell functions, thereby leading to the impairment of the immune system.
  • Kyunglee LEE, Hye Kwon KIM, Sung-Kyun PARK, Hawsun SOHN, Yuna CHO, Young-Min CHOI, Dae Gwin JEONG, Ji Hyung KIM
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2018年 80 巻 6 号 1041-1046
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/06/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー

    Although several Edwardsiella tarda infections have been reported, its pathogenic role in marine mammals has not been investigated at the genome level. We investigated the genome of E. tarda strain KC-Pc-HB1, isolated from the false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) found bycaught in South Korea. The obtained genome was similar to that of human pathogenic E. tarda strains, but distinct from other Edwardsiella species. Although type III and VI secretion systems, which are essential for the virulence of other Edwardsiella species, were absent, several virulence-related genes involved in the pathogenesis of E. tarda were found in the genome. These results provide important insights into the E. tarda infecting marine mammals and give valuable information on potential virulence factors in this pathogen.

  • I-Hua CHEN, Lien-Siang CHOU, Shih-Jen CHOU, Jiann-Hsiung WANG, Jeffrey STOTT, Myra BLANCHARD, I-Fan JEN, Wei-Cheng YANG
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2018年 80 巻 4 号 601-605
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/04/18
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    Cetacean health may be potentially affected by anthropogenic sound. We have initiated investigations on the effect of low-frequency underwater sound on immunological gene transcript profiles of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) using a probe-based quantitative gene expression assay. Six immunologic genes (IL-2Rα, -4, -10, -12, TNFα and IFNγ) were selected for analysis using two validated housekeeping genes (PGK1 and HPRT1) as reference genes. Twenty-four blood samples from six clinically healthy individuals and six blood samples from individuals after sound exposures were available. The gene transcript profile of sound-exposed dolphins was consistent with a stress-induced TH2 shift profile as compared to controls. This study may lead to better understanding of the effects of anthropogenic sound on immune responses of cetaceans.

  • Etsuko KATSUMATA, Sukanya JAROENPORN, Yoko UEDA, Kazutoshi ARAI, Hiroshi KATSUMATA, Gen WATANABE, Kazuyoshi TAYA
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2017年 79 巻 11 号 1899-1905
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/11/17
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/10/07
    ジャーナル フリー

    To reveal the reproductive biology in male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), circulating gonadotropins (follicle stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) and testicular hormones (testosterone and inhibin) were monitored for 8−12 years in 2 captive bottlenose dolphins (Mars and Regulus). During the study period, Mars was undergoing sexual maturation, whereas Regulus was already mature at the beginning of the study. Assuming that Mars had reached sexual maturity when the significant increase in circulating testosterone levels was observed, serum concentration of inhibin was higher in the sexually immature stage than in the mature stage, whereas the serum concentration of FSH was higher in the sexually mature stage than in the immature stage. No difference was observed in the LH levels between pre- and post-sexual maturation. There was a significant increase in serum concentration of testosterone during spring in both animals. These results suggest that the mechanism responsible for regulating FSH secretion by inhibin functions during the sexually immature stage in this species.

  • Tetsuya SHIMOKAWA, Issei NAKANISHI, Eiichi HONDO, Toshihide IWASAKI, Yasuo KISO, Takashi MAKITA
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2002年 64 巻 6 号 509-512
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2002/07/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    To accumulate histological information of cetaceans and basic information about metabolic systems of marine mammals, the thyroid gland of Risso's dolphins was examined by gross anatomical and light and electron microscopic observations. Gross anatomically, right and left lobes of the thyroid were not clearly discriminated, and no isthmus was observed. By light microscopy, irregular or oval follicular lumens were seen, and surrounded by follicular epithelial cells. By electron microscopy, the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) was seen adjacently to mitochondria at the basal and lateral regions of the follicular epithelial cells. RERs at the basal side of the cells sometimes contained flocculent material with the same electron density as the follicular lumen component. Microvilli were poorly developed at the apical surface of the cells. In the apical regions of the cells, there were typical Golgi complexes, multivesicular bodies, and granules with various size and electron density. The parafollicular cells were recognized among the follicular epithelial cells and in the interstitial regions but never protruded into the follicular lumen. These cells were present singly and/or formed clusters among the follicular epithelial cells, and often located adjacent to capillaries. They were obviously discriminated from follicular epithelial cells by higher electron density of their granules. In their cytoplasm, well-developed rERs, primary lysosomes, secondary lysosomes, multivesicular bodies, and phagosomes were recognized.
  • JKAN YANG, TAKASHI KUNITO, SHINSUKE TANABE, NOBUYUKI MIYAZAKI
    Fisheries science
    2002年 68 巻 sup1 号 256-259
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2008/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Tissues of Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli) collected off Sanriku coast of Japan were analyzed for investigation on bioaccumulation of total mercury (∑Hg) (n=22; male:11, female:11) and methyl mercury (MeHg) (n=1, adult female) by cold vapor AAS. High ∑Hg level was in the liver and kidney. Moderate levels were observed in cerebrum, muscle, heart, stomach, cerebellum, pancreas, spleen, lung, skin and intestine, and low concentrations in bone and blubber. MeHg level was also highest in the liver, followed by muscle, heart, cerebrum, skin, stomach, spleen, cerebellum, kidney, pancreas, intestine, lung, blubber and bone. Comparing with previous studies, ∑Hg levels in tissues of present study tended to be similar to those of Dall's porpoise from Pacific areas, but higher than those of individuals from Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan. Hepatic ∑Hg concentrations suggested that Hg contamination level in this species is relatively lower. MeHg proportion to ∑Hg implied demethylation might be stronger in some visceral organs, such as liver, kidney, and lung.
  • Mari OHTA, Kaoru NAKAMURA, Tomokazu KUBO, Tetsuya SUZUKI
    Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
    2001年 65 巻 1 号 14-21
    発行日: 2001年
    公開日: 2002/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    In our previous paper, we reported the restoration promoting effects of mineral-encaging zeolite-processed water, especially of a Fe-encaging one, on tributyltin chloride (TBTCl)-intoxicated Euglena gracilis. This present study extends the investigation on the behavior of TBTCl and a xenobiotic enzyme, cytochrome P-450, in Euglena cells incubated with or without Fe-encaging zeolite-processed water (FeZW). Subcellular fractionation of TBTCl-intoxicated Euglena cells, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and GC analyses showed that TBTCl was rapidly incorporated into the cells to halt cell motility. GC-MS showed that FeZW promoted conversion of TBTCl to dibutyltin (DBT) as the major metabolite in the microsomal fraction of the cells. An in vitro incubation system with heat-treated microsomes did not convert TBTCl to DBT. The contribution of cytochrome P-450 in the microsomal fraction was suggested by an immunochemical method. The results suggest that the improvement of detoxification by FeZW in the TBT-intoxicated Euglena cells should be due to activation of biotransformation system of the Euglena cells by FeZW.
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