Biosimilar products of therapeutic antibodies have been launched all over the world. They can relieve some of the economic burden of medicines. Although clinical trials have demonstrated the equivalency of biosimilar products with their reference product, biosimilar products are not commonly used in clinical practice. One reason is that the structural difference between the reference product and a biosimilar one remains unclear. We analyzed glycoforms and amino acids of an infliximab biosimilar product approved in Japan compared to that of the reference product (Remicade®). By combination of papain digestion and LC/ time-of-flight (TOF)-MS, we established a valuable method to analyze these therapeutic antibodies. Nine glycoforms were detected in infliximab, and a difference in amino acids was observed. In the glycoforms of MMF, MGnF/GnMF, GnGn, GnGnF, AGnF/GnAF, and AAF, the relative intensities were significantly different between the reference and biosimilar product. Furthermore, we elucidated that the content rate of the C-terminal lysine was different among glycoforms. In conclusion, our analytical method can analyze not only amino acids but also carbohydrate chains of therapeutic antibodies, and will provide a useful strategy to evaluate bio-medicines including biosimilar antibodies.
We create a practical method to set the segment size of the Welch FFT for wideband and long-term spectrum usage measurements in the context of hierarchical dynamic spectrum access (DSA). An energy detector (ED) based on the Welch FFT can be used to detect the presence or absence of primary user (PU) signal and to estimate the duty cycle (DC). In signal detection with the Welch FFT, segment size is an important design parameter since it determines both the detection performance and the frequency resolution. Between these two metrics, there is a trade-off relationship which can be controlled by adjusting the segment size. To cope with this trade-off relationship, we define an optimum and, more easy to analyze sub-optimum segment size design criterion. An analysis of the sub-optimum segment size criterion reveals that the resulting segment size depends on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the DC. Since in practice both SNR and DC are unknown, proper segment setting is difficult. To overcome this problem, we propose an adaptive segment size selection (ASSS) method that uses noise floor estimation outputs. The proposed method does not require any prior knowledge on the SNR or the DC. Simulation results confirm that the proposed ASSS method matches the performance achieved with the optimum design criterion.
Equine influenza (EI) vaccine has been widely used. However, the causative EI virus (H3N8) undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and the vaccine strains must be periodically reviewed and if necessary, updated to maintain vaccine efficacy against circulating viruses. In 2016, the Japanese vaccine was updated by replacing the old viruses with the Florida sub-lineage Clade (Fc) 2 virus, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10). We investigated the virus neutralization (VN) antibody response to Fc2 viruses currently circulating in Europe, after booster or primary immunization with the new vaccine. These European viruses have the amino acid substitution A144V or I179V of the hemagglutinin. In horses that had previously received a primary course and bi-annual boosters with the old vaccine booster, immunization with the updated vaccine increased the VN antibody levels against the European Fc2 viruses as well as Y10. There were no significant differences in the VN titers against Y10 and the Fc2 viruses with A144V or I179V substitution in horses that had received a primary course of the updated vaccine. However, a mixed primary course where the first dose was the old vaccine and the second dose was the updated vaccine, reduced VN titers against the European viruses compared to that against Y10. In summary, the new vaccine affords horses protective level of VN titers against the Fc2 viruses carrying A144V or I179V substitution, but our results suggest that the combination of the old and new vaccines for primary immunization would not be optimum.
Japan established a vaccine selection system, in which a committee evaluates veterinary influenza vaccines to determine if the vaccine should be updated. In 2013, it was concluded that the present equine influenza vaccine strains did not have to be updated, but clade 2 (Fc2) viruses of the Florida sublineage should be included. We collected three Fc2 viruses as candidates and conducted comparative tests. Results indicated that A/equine/Carlow/2011 (H3N8) is not suitable, because of its unstable antigenic characteristics. A comparison between A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8) (Richmond/07) and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (H3N8) (Yokohama/10) in eggs showed that they shared equal growth properties. Immunogenicity test in mice showed that Yokohama/10 induced higher HI antibody titers than Richmond/07. Therefore, we concluded that Yokohama/10 was the most suitable strain.