Background:The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is used to assess early ischemic stroke damage. This study compared bilateral ASPECTS (ASPECTS-b) with the gray:white matter ratio (GWR) and quantitative regional abnormality (QRA) to evaluate the prognostic utility of early computed tomography (CT) findings in post-cardiac arrest patients.
Methods and Results:Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) who underwent brain CT (<6 h after onset) and therapeutic hypothermia were recruited from a university hospital over a 2-year period. General demographics, ROSC characteristics, ASPECTS-b (total score=20 points), GWR, and QRA were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to predict neurologic outcome using cerebral performance category (CPC) at 1 month. The study population was divided into good (n=20; CPC 1–2) and poor (n=47; CPC 3–5) outcome groups. The good (vs. poor) outcome group was younger (mean [±SD] age 46.7±11.8 vs. 60.3±17.2 years; P=0.002) and had more initial shockable rhythms (40.0% vs. 8.5%; P=0.002). In addition, the good outcome group had a higher mean ASPECTS-b score (15.3±2.7 vs. 9.0±4.9; P<0.001), despite no differences in QRA and mean GWR. Age and ASPECTS-b were independent predictors of outcome after adjusting for potential confounders.
Conclusions:These findings suggest that an initial CT score (ASPECTS-b) could help estimate early neurologic outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia.
We measured the lengths of some parts of the right and left hemispheres (HEs) in 70 formalin-fixed brains and on 15 computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) images (7 left-handed and 8 right-handed cases) to clarify the morphological changes indicating which HE developed earlier and handedness. In many cases of the fixed brains, 1) the distance from the frontal pole to the occipital pole was longer in the left HE than in the right HE, 2) the distance from the middle plane to the lateral-most portion of the HE was wider in the right HE than in the left HE, 3) the left occipital pole elongated more posteriorly and covered the right occipital pole, and 4) the volume of each HE was nearly the same. The results indicate that the left HE develops and grows slightly earlier in the larger semi-cranium (half of the cranium) than the right HE which develops later in the smaller semi-cranium. The whole brain was more spherical in the female cases than in the male cases. The morphological changes in both HEs for handedness were not evident on the CT/MRI images.
We used dance video game (DVG) training as a mean of improving elderly's cognitive function and investigated whether the elderly with MCI could overcome the once affected cognitive function via continuous DVG training. Nine elderly participated in 6-weeks of DVG training for almost 3 months on 2015 and 2016 with 6 months break. Their cognitive ability (MoCA-J scores) and the prefrontal activity during DVG play were evaluated throughout the intervention. The cognitive ability and the performance of the DVG showed improvement especially in the elderly with MCI. The prefrontal activity showed increase through initial training of DVG and decrease at the end of the intervention, suggesting the cognitive load required for DVG play. Our results suggest that DVG is a promising intervention for elderly people with MCI to maintain their cognitive ability, and that we can utilize the prefrontal activity during DVG play to determine an appropriate difficulty of the DVG training.