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  • Tatsuro Suehara
    農林業問題研究
    2002年 37 巻 4 号 337-341
    発行日: 2002/03/25
    公開日: 2011/09/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 地域言語の展開にみるアルザス地方
    三木 一彦
    日本地理学会発表要旨集
    2003年 2003f 巻
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2004/04/01
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    1 はじめに 言語は、一般に近代国民国家の重要な統合原理となってきた。しかし、西ヨーロッパを二分するラテン(ロマンス)系言語とゲルマン系言語の境界線は、必ずしも国境とは一致しておらず、ベルギーとスイスはこれら両系統の言語をあわせもつ多言語国家である。ここでとりあげるアルザス地方は、今日、政治的にはフランスに属しているものの、言語的には長らくドイツ語系の地域であった。本報告は、アルザスの地域言語(以下、アルザス語とする)をめぐる諸問題を検討し、国境のもつ意味の変遷とその現状をとらえようとするものである。2 歴史的展開 神聖ローマ帝国領であったアルザスがフランス領に組み込まれたのは、三十年戦争後の1648年のことである。これ以降、公用語としてフランス語が導入され、徐々に浸透していったとはいえ、民衆の間では依然としてアルザス語が日常的な言語であった。そのことは、普仏戦争後(1871年)にアルザスがドイツ領に編入されたときの状況を描いたドーデの「最後の授業」からも読みとることができる。しかし、1918年の第一次世界大戦終結以降、ナチ統治下の数年間を除くとフランス領であり続けたアルザスでは、フランスの中央集権的な政策と相まって、大半の住民の日常言語がフランス語となり、アルザス語の地位は相対的に低下してきている。とくに、第二次世界大戦後は、ナチ統治への反動もあって、フランス語を重視する傾向が強まった。3 現状と展望 こうした中、アルザスの地域文化を見直し、フランス語とアルザス語の二言語併用を目指す動きが、学校教育やマスメディアなど、さまざまな場で広まりつつある。近年、アルザスの中心都市であるストラスブールに開通した路面電車の駅名には、一部でアルザス語とフランス語の二言語併記が採用されている。また、アルザス語の普及活動を行なう拠点として、アルザス言語・文化事務所(略称OLCA)といった機関も設立されている。 正六角形になぞらえられるフランスの国土は、おおよそその各頂点に固有の地域言語をかかえている。そして、近年、アルザスのみならず、各地で地域言語が見直されてきている。そうした流れをうけて、フランスの国立統計経済研究所(略称INSEE)は、1999年に全フランスの38万人を対象に、地域言語の使用状況に関する調査を行なった。その結果、アルザスにおける地域言語使用が、地域言語が存在する他の地方(ブルターニュやバスクなど)よりも比較的盛んであることが指摘されている。その一因として、EU統合にともなうドイツ側との交流の進展をあげることができよう。つまり、国境のもつ性格の変化が、アルザス語の運命に影響を与えているといえる。 本報告では、INSEEの調査結果などを用いつつ、アルザスにおける地域言語の現状について、フランスの他の地域言語とも比較しながら述べていきたい。
  • 高橋 重郷, 石川 晃, 加藤 久和, 小松 隆一, 岩澤 美帆, 三田 房美, 池ノ上 正子, 守泉 理恵, 辻 明子
    人口学研究
    2002年 30 巻 126-
    発行日: 2002/05/31
    公開日: 2017/09/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 村山 祐司
    地学雑誌
    2000年 109 巻 3 号 427-444
    発行日: 2000/06/25
    公開日: 2010/10/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses the recent spatial changes in the Lille Metropolitan Area under EU Integration. Lille was once a dull industrial city in northern France with low transport accessibility. However, the opening of the TGV and Channel Tunnel has greatly enhanced Lille's proximity to other European large cities, and Lille is now enjoying its excellent position in the heart of Europe. Low-level functions are being dispersed in surrounding areas, while high-level functions such as finance and corporate headquarters are being concentrated in central Lille. Though Lille has succeeded in transforming itself into a major international node of the European system of cities, it is, on the other hand, now in the thick of intense cross-border inter-city competition brought about by the unification of the EU
  • Nearkasen CHAU, Marie CHOQUET, Bruno FALISSARD, LORHANDICAP group
    Industrial Health
    2009年 47 巻 3 号 319-325
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/06/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study assessed the relationships of lifetime smoking and initiating smoking with job demands among 2,888 randomly selected workers, aged 15 yr or over, using a post-mailed questionnaire. Cumulated job demands (CJD) was defined as the number of: using pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, hammer, tasks at height, working in adverse climate, pace of working, cold, heat, and noise exposure. Lifetime smoking was reported by 63.8% of subjects, and 5.9% initiated smoking during present job. Logistic model shows that lifetime smoking related to the CJD: OR adjusted for years with job 2.47 (95%CI 1.69-3.60) for CJD≥4, 1.50 (1.21-1.85) for CJD2-3, and 1.20 (1.00-1.44) for CJD1, vs. CJD0. Initiating smoking also related to the CJD: ORs 3.72 (1.95-7.11), 1.51 (0.96-2.39) and 1.47 (0.97-2.24), respectively. These associations were partly confounded by gender, income, obesity and job. Smoking related to job demands and their limitation should help preventing smoking.
  • 山崎 亮一
    農業経済研究
    1997年 69 巻 1 号 24-33
    発行日: 1997/07/11
    公開日: 2017/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 森脇 丈子
    日仏社会学会年報
    2006年 16 巻 19-46
    発行日: 2006/12/31
    公開日: 2017/06/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Le taux de chomage de la France est un des plus eleves d'Europe. Celui des jeunes (preciser la tranche d'age; 15-24 ans) depasse meme la moyenne nationale. Par ailleurs, cette categoric d'age, et les femmes, sont frequemment en situation de precarite dans le monde du travail: CDD, Contrats jeunes, Interim, CNE. Tous ces contrats, a duree determinee, les fragilisent tout particulierement. En janvier 2006, le gouvernement de Monsieur De Villepin proposa un projet de loi qu'il presenta comme une alternative au chomage des jeunes. Pourtant, ce CPE ne fut pas accepte par une large categorie de francais. Des etudiants, des syndicalistes et des salaries estimaient que ce nouveau contrat de travail serait generateur d'emplois precaires. Une mobilisation a l'echelle nationale s'organisa contre ce projet de loi. Elle se traduisit par d'importantes manifestations et des actions no n-violentes comme le blocage de toutes les universites francaises. Contre vents et marees, le gouvernement adopta pourtant ce projet de loi et annonca son application prochaine. Apres trois mois d'intense mobilisation anti-gouvernementale, Monsieur De Villepin renonca finalement a mettre en vigueur ce projet de loi. Les grands mouvements sociaux ont donc defendu avec succes les droits acquis des travailleurs. Apres le retrait du CPE, l'avenir reste pourtant incertain: les francais parviendront-ils a preserver leurs conditions de travail? Ou bien, vont-ils connaitre, a leur corps defendant, une globalisation a l'americaine? A l'ere de la mondialisation economique, Tant de questions se posent! Comment inverser cette tendance en defaveur des travailleurs et de leurs droits acquis?
  • Eve Bourgkard, Pascal Wild, Nicole Massin, Jean-Pierre Meyer, Carmen Otero Sierra, Jean-Marc Fontana, Lahoucine Benamghar, Jean-Marie Mur, Jean-François Ravaud, Francis Guillemin, Nearkasen Chau, Lorhandicap Group
    Journal of Occupational Health
    2008年 50 巻 1 号 31-40
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study assessed the relationships of physical job demands (PJD), smoking, and alcohol abuse, with premature mortality before age 70 (PM-70) among the working or inactive population. The sample included 4,268 subjects aged 15 or more randomly selected in north-eastern France. They completed a mailed questionnaire (birth date, sex, weight, height, job, PJD, smoking habit, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire)) in 1996 and were followed for mortality until 2004 (9 yr). PJD score was defined by the cumulative number of the following high job demands at work: hammer, vibrating platform, pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, screwdriver, handling objects, awkward posture, tasks at heights, machine tools, pace, working on a production line, standing about and walking. The data were analyzed using the Poisson regression model. Those with PM-70 were 126 (3.81 per 1,000 person-years). The leading causes of death were cancers (46.4% in men, 57.1% in women), cardiovascular diseases (20.2% and 11.9%), suicide (9.5% and 7.1%), respiratory diseases (6.0% and 4.8%), and digestive diseases (2.4% and 4.8%). PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 1.71 (95% CI 1.02-2.88), 1.76 (1.08-2.88), and 2.07 (1.31-3.26) respectively for all-cause mortality. Manual workers had a risk ratio of 1.84 (1.00-3.37) compared to the higher socio-economic classes. The men had a two-fold higher mortality rate than the women; this difference became non-significant when controlling for job, PJD, smoker and alcohol abuse. For cancer mortality the factors PJD3, smoker, and alcohol abuse had adjusted risk ratios of 2.00 (1.00-3.99), 2.34 (1.19-4.63), and 2.22 (1.17-4.20), respectively. Health promotion efforts should be directed at structural measures of task redesign and they should also concern lifestyle.
  • 中澤 港
    人口学研究
    2002年 30 巻 125-126
    発行日: 2002/05/31
    公開日: 2017/09/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 立見 淳哉
    地理学評論 Series A
    2015年 88 巻 1 号 1-24
    発行日: 2015/01/01
    公開日: 2019/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    本稿は,フランスのショレ・アパレル縫製産地が,1990年代以降のアパレル製造業の劇的衰退の中で高級品ブランドの下請生産へとシフトして生き残りを図ることができた要因を,制度・慣行概念を手掛かりに明らかにした.市場と高級品ブランド企業の戦略変化に適応する産地企業の能力は,以下の3点から理解することができる.第1に,高級ブランド企業とショレ産地の生産者の「生産の世界」が相互に接近し,「品質の慣行」の共有によって取引の調整がなされた(「可能世界」の親和性).第2に,パリとの地理的近接性や賃金水準などの諸条件に加えて,地域主義的なメンタリティや協調的な労使関係などの地域的な諸慣行が,産地企業の技術力と産地内協力を可能にした(諸慣行の構築).第3に,それらの諸慣行はそれぞれ単独で機能するのではなく,相互に補完し合い,一つのシステムとしてショレ産地の発展を維持していたといえる(制度補完性).

  • 遅塚 忠躬
    土地制度史学
    1970年 12 巻 2 号 1-25
    発行日: 1970/01/20
    公開日: 2017/10/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    In comparison with the "stagnation" before the war, the development of French economy after the war is very remarkable. In the couse of its economic growth, the structural change of French economy has involved the diminution of labour forces engaged in agriculture, of number of small holdings. The author attempts to analyze the structural change of French farming caused by her economic development after the war. According to the results of agricultural censuses of 1955 and 1963, diminution rate of total holdings is 16.9%, and, the contrast between the rapid diminution of smaller holdings not exceeding 20 ha and the remarkable increase of larger holdings over 50 ha is very clear. Returns relating to the number of holdings owned and rented show that owner-operated holdings are dominant in smaller size and that rented farms are relatively large. So that, the diminution of small peasant holdings, or, exactly speaking, of too small holdings owned and operated by peasants is evident. But, the growth of large farming after the war dose not mean necessarily the increase of rented area, because the most developping mode is the enlargement of mixed tenure. An important problem of French agriculture has been the disparity of developped region (Northern part) and underdevelopped region. After the war, this regional disparity begins to diminish by the rapid decrease of small holdings and the growth of large holdings in the under-developped region where archaic small peasant holdings had been dominant since the 19th century. Thus, summing up, we can say that, the structure of French farming is in the way of changing: too small holdings owned by peasant proprietors being in rapid diminution, self-sustaining middle class of about 50 ha and large tenant farming of about 100 ha should be main components of today's French agriculture. When we consider the composition of agricultural labour, the relative importance of hired labour is very great especially in Parisian basin where capitalist tenant farming is dominant and where, now-a-days, small holdings are almost negligible. But, reference to the agricultural statistics of the second half of the 19th century reveals to us the fact that, in this Parisian basin, there had been a great deal of too small holdings beside capitalist tenant farmig. This fact suggests a characteristic of French farming in the 19th century. Thus, the author examines the agricultural statistics of 1862, 82, 92, and so on. The result is that, in the second half of the 19th century, the structure of French farming had been characterized by the co-existence of large holdings over 40 ha and a great deal of too small holdings not exceeding 5 ha. Summing up, the structural change of French farming from the end of the last century to our times should be schematized that the co-existence of large farmings and too small holdings has been changed to the co-existence of capitalist tenant farmings and self-sustaining middle holdings of family size. In closing this article, the author presents a problem which should be examined in the next occasion: what are the histosical conditions which had determined the land question of French capitalism in the 19th century?
  • 日本の構造との比較から
    藤本 昌代
    組織学会大会論文集
    2018年 7 巻 1 号 7-12
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/08/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    This report analyzes about the graduates of the French high-level engineering schools who were given the "engineer" qualification (the advanced profession or people who go on senior management career). We surveyed about the industrial field where they work, the industrial field with high income, the tendency of the overtime hours, work satisfaction and norms. They were employed not only in fields where high incomes were obtained, but also in public institutions, government agencies, and international organizations, with less incomes. It was seen that the height of the social position of the organization was given priority over economic rewards. They were not only preferential in status and income, but also worked very long hours. However, young people tend to join in high-income fields such as the financial insurance business. They are in a harsh working situation, except that they can control the work time themselves, and their spirits are not altruistic, they work selfish, and the oblige seems to collapse. It is necessary to reconsider their way of working which is exhausted. In France, there is an educational inflation in the humanities, but educational investment is not rewarded by the way of working like a science profession in Japanese manufacturing industry.

  • Ashis Bhattacherjee, Nearkasen Chau, Carmen Otero Sierra, Bernard Legras, Lahoucine Benamghar, Jean-Pierre Michaely, Apurna Kumar Ghosh, Francis Guillemin, Jean-François Ravaud, Jean-Marie Mur
    Journal of Occupational Health
    2003年 45 巻 6 号 382-391
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/12/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study assessed the associations of job and some individual factors with occupational injuries among employed people from a general population in north-eastern France; 2,562 workers were randomly selected from the working population. A mailed auto-questionnaire was filled in by each subject. Statistical analysis was performed with loglinear models. The annual incidence rate of at least one occupational injury was 4.45%. Significant contributing factors for occupational injuries were job category (60.8%), sex (16.2%), regular psychotropic drug use (8.5%), age groups (7.5%), and presence of a disease (7.0%). The men had higher risk than the women (adjusted odds-ratio 1.99, 95% CI 1.43-2.78). Compared to executives, intellectual professionals and teachers, labourers had the highest risk (6.40, 3.55-11.52). They were followed by farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen (6.18, 2.86-13.08), technicians (3.14, 1.41-6.70), employees (2.94, 1.59-5.48) and other subjects (3.87, 1.90-7.88). The young (≤29 yr) showed an increased risk. Similar odds-ratios were observed for regular psychotropic drug use (1.54, 1.16-2.05) and the presence of a disease (1.50, 1.11-2.02). Univariate analysis showed that smoking habit, overweight and excess alcohol use were also associated with injuries. The loglinear model results showed that there were associations between some of these independent factors. It was concluded that job, sex, young age, smoking habit, excess alcohol use, overweight, psychotropic drug use, and disease influenced the occupational injuries. Preventive measures concerning work conditions, risk assessment and job knowledge should be conducted in overall active population, especially in men, young workers, smokers, alcohol users, overweight workers and in individuals with a disease or psychosomatic disorders.
  • Benjamin MOTTE-BAUMVOL, Leslie BELTON-CHEVALLIER, Laetitia DABLANC, Eleonora MORGANTI, Christine BELIN-MUNIER
    Asian Transport Studies
    2017年 4 巻 3 号 585-600
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although online purchases still make up only a small share of individuals’ purchases, they increasingly represent an alternative to in-store purchases. This alternative seems even more valuable in sparsely populated areas with poorer access to shops. Online purchases may smooth out spatial constraints on access to tangible goods. The efficiency hypothesis postulates that people with low accessibility tend to buy more online. This study examines this hypothesis. The aim is to check whether online purchasing is more developed in suburban areas and whether online purchasing practices for the inhabitants of such areas are a way of overcoming their poor access to shops. Our results show quite different patterns between suburban and urban households. The efficiency hypothesis is partially validated.
  • 興津 正熈
    日本世論調査協会報「よろん」
    1995年 75 巻 86-90
    発行日: 1995/03/31
    公開日: 2017/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Thomas Samoyeau
    医学教育
    2018年 49 巻 4 号 359-361
    発行日: 2018/08/25
    公開日: 2019/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 宏昌
    社会政策学会誌
    2002年 7 巻 89-104
    発行日: 2002/03/31
    公開日: 2018/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper reviews unemployment issues of young workers in France. Since the 1970s, major policy issues in this country have revolved around the high unemployment rates for young workers. Several avenues of policies have been attempted: to give longer schooling to the young population (the average schooling years rose by 3 years from 1982-1983 to 1996-1997) and to provide subsidies (often with the possibility of vocational training) for the employment of young workers. Lately, employment policies tend to focus more sharply on those workers with a vulnerable profile (for instance, school dropouts in areas where industry is declining). Cohort surveys of young workers show that they tend to have a much longer period of transition (often 5 years of more) between school and work (stable employment). This transition is, for many young people, a variegated and longer trajectory composed of periods of fix-term employment, unemployment and training before arriving to a stable open-ended employment. This trend is partly due to the difficulties and conditions of the labour market but also partly due to the desire of young people to find suitable jobs.
  • 伊藤 伸介
    日本統計学会誌
    2018年 47 巻 2 号 77-101
    発行日: 2018/03/30
    公開日: 2018/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー

    一般に,公的統計ミクロデータの作成・提供にあたっては,個体情報の秘密保護に関する統計法制度的な措置および技術的な手法が施される.それは,具体的には,個体情報を統計法で定めた上で,ミクロデータの作成・提供を可能にするための法的な解釈と統計制度上の整備を行い,ミクロデータを提供するための統計技術的な措置を探究することだと言うことができる.本稿では,ミクロデータの作成側と利用側の両面を踏まえた形で,公的統計ミクロデータの作成・提供に関する方法的特徴を明らかにするだけでなく,わが国の公的統計のミクロデータにおける匿名化のあり方について追究する.

  • Madeleine ESTRYN-BEHAR, Lydie VINCK, Jean-Francois CAILLARD
    Journal of Human Ergology
    2001年 30 巻 1-2 号 327-332
    発行日: 2001/12/15
    公開日: 2011/02/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is important to know whether working time schemes offer, following the adoption of the 1990 ILO Night Work Convention, a better use of the actual knowledge in moderating the adverse effects of shiftwork for both sexes. The last two national studies on a representative sample, about working conditions in France (1991, 1998), show an increase of night work among female nursing staff. Long hours of work are becoming more common for nurses. The percentage of women health care workers not working the same number of days every week increased, with work weeks of 7 days or more. Few positive aspects exist such as a reduction in the proportion of those having to work 17 Sundays or more and a reduction of shifts beginning before 7 a.m. for female nurses. New negotiations, starting in 2001, should be an opportunity for improvements.
  • 新島 京, 米川 泰弘, 滝 和郎
    日本レーザー医学会誌
    1987年 8 巻 3 号 163-164
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Nd-YAG laser beam, with the energy of 15 watts and 100 msec, was projected onto a 0.5mm long cut slit edge of rat common carotid artery. An experimental aneurysm was unexceptionally induced 1 week after the procedure.
    This simple and reliable method of inducing aneurysm might be utilized to investigate etiology and/or treatment of it.
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