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全文: "Knowledge argument"
18件中 1-18の結果を表示しています
  • Seiko ARITA
    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    2012年 E95.A 巻 8 号 1390-1401
    発行日: 2012/08/01
    公開日: 2012/08/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    In resetting attacks against a proof system, a prover or a verifier is reset and enforced to use the same random tape on various inputs as many times as an adversary may want. Recent deployment of cloud computing gives these attacks a new importance. This paper shows that argument systems for any NP language that are both resettably-sound and resettable zero-knowledge are possible by a constant-round protocol in the BPK model. For that sake, we define and construct a resettably-extractable conditional commitment scheme.
  • Jae Hong SEO
    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    2012年 E95.A 巻 4 号 776-789
    発行日: 2012/04/01
    公開日: 2012/04/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Zero-knowledge arguments allows one party to prove that a statement is true, without leaking any other information than the truth of the statement. In many applications such as verifiable shuffle (as a practical application) and circuit satisfiability (as a theoretical application), zero-knowledge arguments for mathematical statements related to linear algebra are essentially used. Groth proposed (at CRYPTO 2009) an elegant methodology for zero-knowledge arguments for linear algebraic relations over finite fields. He obtained zero-knowledge arguments of the sub-linear size for linear algebra using reductions from linear algebraic relations to equations of the form z = x *' y, where x, y ∈ Fnp are committed vectors, z ∈ Fp is a committed element, and *' : Fnp × Fnp → Fp is a bilinear map. These reductions impose additional rounds on zero-knowledge arguments of the sub-linear size. The round complexity of interactive zero-knowledge arguments is an important measure along with communication and computational complexities. We focus on minimizing the round complexity of sub-linear zero-knowledge arguments for linear algebra. To reduce round complexity, we propose a general transformation from a t-round zero-knowledge argument, satisfying mild conditions, to a (t - 2)-round zero-knowledge argument; this transformation is of independent interest.
  • John O'DEA
    Annals of the Japan Association for Philosophy of Science
    2007年 15 巻 2 号 81-93
    発行日: 2007/03/25
    公開日: 2009/03/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Higher-order theories of consciousness, such as those of Armstrong, Rosenthal and Lycan, typically distinguish sharply between consciousness and phenomenal character, or qualia. The higher-order states posited by these theories are intended only as explanations of consciousness, and not of qualia. In this paper I argue that the positing of higher-order perceptions may help to explain qualia. If we are realists about qualia, conceived as those intrinsic properties of our experience of which we are introspectibly aware, then higher-order perception might have an explanatory role as the means by which we are aware of these properties. This would also allow us to treat qualia as the inner appearances resulting from inner perceptions, and therefore to treat them as intentional objects.
    It is fair to say that “inner sense” theories of consciousness are not widely accepted. Though Lycan (1987, 1996) and Armstrong (1984, 1993) are heavy hitters in their favour, the arguments against are formidable.1 Some are arguments against the very notion of an inner sense, and others are arguments against the inner sense as a theory of consciousness in particular. In this paper I will argue that whether or not inner sense theories of consciousness are viable, it is worth considering an inner sense theory of the introspectible quality of sensory states-that is to say of qualia. An inner sense theory of qualia faces few of the objections to the former, and solves many of the problems associated with the latter; including, I believe, the explanatory gap. Here I introduce a dispositional inner sense theory of qualia.
  • M. HARADA
    素粒子論研究
    1989年 79 巻 4 号 120-123
    発行日: 1989/07/20
    公開日: 2017/10/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    A fundamental ambiguity is identified in the treatment of the singular vector potential for the Dirac monopole. One possible choice to utilize this freedom leads to the result that the vector potential in question can yield an ideal monopole field, not possessed by a Dirac string.
  • Fumihiko Ikuine
    Annals of Business Administrative Science
    2018年 17 巻 4 号 183-191
    発行日: 2018/08/15
    公開日: 2018/08/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    When a company acquires new knowledge, it expects to create new business by fusing the new knowledge with existing knowledge. At least that is how things appear superficially. However, Fujitsu’s new business development discussed in this paper was not related to any new knowledge but sprung up because of other reasons. Because the company had invested a lot of resources to acquire new knowledge, it was impossible to recover the management resources that it had invested, which then became sunk costs, unless the company did something. We call such a situation “sunk cost pressure.” In the case examined in this paper, this sunk cost pressure induced the combining of disparate knowledge in the company’s possession, thus creating new business.

  • Koji CHIDA, Go YAMAMOTO
    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    2008年 E91.A 巻 1 号 150-159
    発行日: 2008/01/01
    公開日: 2010/03/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper presents batch processing protocols for efficiently proving a great deal of partial knowledge. These protocols reduce the computation and communication costs for a MIX-net and secure circuit evaluation. The efficiency levels of the proposed protocols are estimated based on the implementation results of a secure circuit evaluation with batch processing.
  • Seiko ARITA
    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    2011年 E94.A 巻 1 号 367-382
    発行日: 2011/01/01
    公開日: 2011/01/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    It is known that composable secure commitments, that is, concurrent non-malleable commitments exist in the plain model, based only on standard assumptions such as the existence of claw-free permutations or even one-way functions. Since being based on the plain model, the deniability of them is trivially satisfied, and especially the latter scheme satisfies also adaptivity, hence it is adaptive-deniable-concurrent non-malleable. However, those schemes cannot be said to be practically efficient. We show a practically efficient (string) adaptive-deniable-concurrent commitment scheme is possible under a global setup model, called the Global CRS-KR model.
  • Masato KATO, Atsushi KYONO
    Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences
    2019年 114 巻 1 号 18-25
    発行日: 2019年
    公開日: 2019/03/08
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー

    We report on in situ high–pressure Raman spectroscopic study of hydrogrossular, katoite Ca3Al2(O4H4)3, in a diamond–anvil cell under hydrostatic conditions at room temperature. The variations of vibration modes were analyzed theoretically by factor group analysis. Three characteristic Raman peaks observed at 341, 541, and 3649 cm−1 at 1.3 GPa were obtained continuously up to 8.3 GPa. The Raman peak at 3649 cm−1 was assigned to the O–H stretching vibration modes of A1g + Eg symmetry at 3634 cm−1 and F2g symmetry at 3656 cm−1. The pressure dependence of the two O–H stretching vibration modes showed negative pressure shifts, indicating that hydrogen bond became shorter and stronger with compression. The most striking characteristic was that above 5.1 GPa pressure derivative of the O–H stretching vibration mode of F2g symmetry started to decrease significantly. This change suggests that symmetry of the H4O4 tetrahedron changes at 5.1 GPa, implying the phase transition of katoite to its high–pressure phase. Pressure derivatives of the two O–H stretching vibration modes of A1g + Eg and F2g symmetries are −7.2 and −1.1 cm−1/GPa, respectively, which yields negative Grüneisen parameters. In the frequency region of lattice mode, the lower frequency peak observed at 341 cm−1 was assigned to librational R(O4H4) vibration mode of A1g symmetry, whose frequency increased continuously up to 5.1 GPa with pressure derivatives of 6.5 cm−1/GPa. Meanwhile, the higher frequency peak at 541 cm−1 was assigned to T(OH) motions of A1g + Eg symmetry at 523 cm−1 and F2g symmetry at 545 cm−1, whose frequencies increased with pressure derivatives of 4.4 and 4.9 cm−1/GPa, respectively. These pressure coefficients in the lattice mode lead to the isothermal mode Grüneisen parameters varying from 0.49 to 1.11. Values of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of all observed Raman bands were continuously increased up to 5.1 GPa, but their increasing rates became higher above this pressure. The result is also indicative that katoite transforms to the high–pressure phase above 5.1 GPa.

  • MIWA ISOBE
    ENGLISH LINGUISTICS
    2012年 29 巻 1 号 194-204
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2014/07/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Takeshi FUJITA, Stefan KAISER, Katsuhiko SHIMIZU, Ryoei YOSHIKA
    科学教育研究
    1999年 23 巻 4 号 295-306
    発行日: 1999/09/10
    公開日: 2017/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to compare and describe high school students' view of the environment in Japan and Germany and to give an insight into frameworks of thinking hidden in their view. A total of 308 students at upper secondary level in Japan and Germany were tested for their understanding of the environment concept by five forms of test ; free association test (FA), free definition test (FD), aspectizing test (AT), semantic differential test (SD) and multiple-choice test (MC). In this paper we will focus on the FA, SD and MC results alone. The following findings were obtained ; (1) Awareness of the environment in Japanese schools is relatively low, (2) However, both samples pay some attention to global environmental problems, (3) German students regard changes of the environment as critical for human beings and have a deeper understanding about protecting the environment, (4) Japanese students have a more optimistic view about changes in the environment, and regard the environment as rather durable. The results suggest the hypothesis that differences of awareness, attitude and behavior with respect to the environment are partly due to differences in general frameworks of thinking existing in the two countries.
  • Tüzin Baycan, Özge Öner
    地域学研究
    2013年 43 巻 1 号 89-104
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2014/04/11
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    This paper investigates how accessibility to knowledge is related to the new firm formation in Sweden. Utilizing municipal level data, the paper examines how and to what extent geographic proximity to establishments that are specialized in formal knowledge creation plays a role for the overall entrepreneurial milieu in a city region. While measuring accessibility to knowledge at intra-municipal, intra-regional and extra-regional levels, the paper maps out the clustering patterns of new firms and ranks the municipalities by their performance in creating an entrepreneurial milieu. The clustering patterns of new firms highlight critical factors in new firm formation and entrepreneurial performance of regions.

    JEL Classification: I23, I25, M13, O31, O32
  • 栗原 千恵子
    Second Language
    2005年 4 巻 111-139
    発行日: 2005/05/01
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は, 日本語話者による英語の功there形構文の習得を調査する.there構文は, 英語において唯一, 表層非対格性を表す構文である (Leven and RapPaport Hovav, 1995).本研究の目的は, Belletti (1988) が提案した枠組みを基に, 日本語話者が, 英語の非対格動詞とBe動詞が持つ格付与の特性を習得できるのかどうか, を明らかにすることにある.英語の非対格動詞とBe動詞は随意的に部分格を内項に与えることができる (Lasnik, 1992, 1995).その結果, 内項である名詞句は基底地に留まることができ, そして拡大投射原理を満たすためにthereが主語位置に挿入される.部分格は限定性と相いれぬため, その名詞句は非限定のものでなければならない.これに対比して, 日本語では, 同種の動詞は義務的に主格を動詞の前の内項に与える.また, 拡大投射原理は弱いため, DPは主語の位置に挿入される必要はない (Yatsushiro, 1996, 1999).受け身動詞と非能格動詞に関しては, 両言語は同じ特性を持っている.以上を枠組みとして, Hirakawa (2003b) は先駆的研究を行ったが, 習熟度中級レベルの被験者はBeの部分格は習得したが非対格動詞の部分格は習得していないと主張した.この結論の正当性を吟味するため, ネイティブスピーカーと初級から上級に及ぶ4レベルの習熟度の異なる学習者に文法性判断テストを行った.テスト構文は, 動詞の種類 (非能格動詞, 受け身動詞, 存在や出現を表す非対格動詞1, 他の意味を表す非対格動詞II, Be動詞) と名詞句の限定性によって異なる, 'DP-V'と'thereV-DP'の2タイプである.実験結果から, 学習者が, どの種類の動詞が虚辞のthereと共起可能か, またさらに, 下位分類された動詞群の中でどのグループがthere構文内に生じることができるのか, も分かって来ることが判明した.しかし, 同時に, 上級レベルに到ってさえも, 非能格動詞や, 存在・出現を表さない非対格動詞がthere構文をとることができない, ということは習得されていなかった.さらに, '*there-UnaccusadveI/be-definiteDP'が非文法的な構文と判断されなかった.これらの結果を基に, 非対格動詞やBeといった特定の動詞郡に属する格は, 成人外国語習得者によって習得されないと論じた, 代わりに, 日本語話者は, 母語の語彙に関する意味知識と形態音韻レベルに関する知識を第二言語に応用することによってthere構文を習得する, という説を提案する.
  • 伊藤 友彦
    音声言語医学
    1998年 39 巻 4 号 369-377
    発行日: 1998/10/20
    公開日: 2010/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    聴覚障害児は格助詞の習得が困難であるといわれているが, その習得の困難さの中身を言語学の知見を踏まえて掘り下げて検討した研究はほとんどない.本研究では1) 項構造と句構造, 2) 構造格と内在格, 3) 抽象格と形態格, の3点から聴覚障害児の格助詞の誤用を検討した.対象児は聾学校中学部に在席する生徒21名 (12~15歳) であった.本研究の結果, 格助詞の誤用を含む文の多くは, 項構造が正しく, 句構造もD構造のレベルまでは正しい可能性が示唆された.また, 多くの対象児が構造格と内在格の違いに関する言語知識は有していることがうかがわれた.しかし, 主格, 対格などの抽象格の付与・吸収, または付与された抽象格を「が」「を」などの形態格に具現する知識は十分には獲得されていないことが示唆された.
  • 宮園 健吾
    科学哲学
    2011年 44 巻 2 号 2_83-2_98
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2012/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
        This article explores “Inner Speech Account of Introspection”, according to which inner speech is the source of our introspective self-knowledge. The view hypothesizes that we come to know that we are thinking that p by being aware of the sentence of inner speech “p” accompanying the thought. I argue for Inner Speech Account by showing that it explains six explananda imposed for the philosophical theories of introspection; peculiar access, privileged access, detection condition, the lack of phenomenology, occurent/dispositional distinction, and content/attitude distinction.
  • 松尾 豊
    日本ロボット学会誌
    2017年 35 巻 3 号 174-179
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/15
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 美濃 正
    科学哲学
    1999年 32 巻 2 号 39-51
    発行日: 1999/11/10
    公開日: 2009/05/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    The main aim of this paper is to argue for the following two theses: (1) so-called qualia are irreducibly non-physical properties of certain brain states, and (2) in spite of (1), qualia can be legitimately accommodated into a broadly physicalistic framework. On behalf of (1), what might be regarded as a variation of F. Jackson's 'knowledge-argument' is put forward and also a refutation of P. M. Churchland's objection that qualia are but physical properties (of certain brain states) as they are introspectively accessed is attempted. On behalf of thesis (2), the idea of qualia's supervening and nomologically depending upon brain states' physical properties is deployed. A radical criticism of some sceptical arguments concerning qualia is also included.
  • 龍崎 麻由実, 伊藤 友彦
    特殊教育学研究
    1999年 36 巻 4 号 23-30
    発行日: 1999/01/30
    公開日: 2017/07/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    聾学校に在籍する聴覚障害児90名を対象に、受動文に対する言語知識の特徴を項構造と句構造という視点から検討した。直接受動文、述語が自動詞の間接受動文、述語が他動詞の間接受動文の動詞のみを提示し、名詞句(文節)を自由に記入させた。正答者の割合は著しく低かったが、誤用の生じた反応の中にも項構造(名詞句数と意味役割)は正しい反応が多く存在すること、さらに項構造のみならず、句構造(D構造)も正しい反応が存在すること、などが明らかになった。これらの結果から、受動文の獲得段階として、1)項構造の獲得、2)句構造(D構造)の獲得、3)句構造(S構造)の獲得、4)格助詞の獲得、の4段階が少なくとも存在することが示唆された。
  • 鈴木 貴之
    哲学
    2004年 2004 巻 55 号 193-205,29
    発行日: 2004/04/01
    公開日: 2009/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Some anti-physicalists claim that the conceivability of zombies itself shows in an a priori way that physicalism about consciousness cannot be true. We have to see if this argument is successful before we start to build a physicalistic theory of con-sciousness. There are two popular physicalist objections to the argument. The ob-jection based on necessity a posteriori does not succeed because of the equivocality of the statements in question.Another objection, based on non-ascriptivism about meaning, fails because non-ascriptivism mistakenly thinks that conceivability is a quite empty notion. Despite the failure of these objections, we can object to the con-ceivability argument by emphasizing the possible inappropriateness of concepts. Our present concepts do not necessarily depict reality in an appropriate way. So, conceivability based on our present concepts has no consequences for metaphysical possibility if the concepts used are inappropriate ones. We have reason to think that our current concept of consciousness is inconsistent, so the conceivability of zom-bies is not a reliable guide to their metaphysical possibility. We may see that physi-calism about consciousness is true and zombies are inconceivable when we have the appropriate concept of consciousness.
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