Although the risk of injuring the lingual nerve in the mandibular molar area during dental treatment is high, it can be repaired by nerve grafting. However, from the perspective of clinical dentistry, the pathway and histomorphometric characteristics of this nerve remain to be documented in detail. The purpose of the present study was to morphologically elucidate the pathway of the lingual nerve to clarify its significance in a clinical setting. A histomorphometric analysis was also performed in consideration of nerve grafting. The vertical distance between the occlusal plane and the superior margin of the lingual nerve showed a gradual decrease from the premolar toward the distal molar area. This suggests that the risk of injuring the lingual nerve increases gradually toward the distal area. The average total fascicular area of the lingual nerve was 1.90 mm2, which was larger than that of the sural nerve. It is the first-choice donor nerve for grafting. Therefore, even though the total fascicular area of the donor nerve is a little smaller than that of the recipient nerve, nerve grafting should be successful.