全文: "PFC" Brain
329件中 1-20の結果を表示しています
  • Yoshio TSUDA, Ryoichiro MURASHIMA, Kouichi YAMANOUCHI, Yasuo UEDA, Kazumasa YOKOYAMA
    Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics
    1990年 13 巻 11 号 659-665
    発行日: 1990年
    公開日: 2008/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to study the elimination rate of perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsion from the blood and the PFC contents in the main organs of the tumor-bearing animals, Wistar strain rats were intramuscularly implanted with Walker 256 carcinosarcoma and 9L glioma cells were innoculated into the femoral muscle of Fischer rats. After 7 d the Wistar rats received an injection of 4 g PEC/kg of a PFC emulsion. The Fischer rats received a similar injection after 11 d. The rats injected with the PFC emulsion were periodically sacrificed for a week. There was no significant difference in PFC contents in the blood and main organs between normal rats and the tumor-bearing rats with either Walker 256 carcinosarcoma or 9L glioma. The PFC contents in Walker tumor were about 10 times as much as those of 9L tumor. The innoculated tumors did not substantially affect the PFC retention in the blood and the accumulation of PFC in main organs after intravenously injected with the PFC emulsion.
  • Kaoru Sakatani
    2014年 52 巻 Supplement 号 OS-108-OS-109
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/10/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted the term " active ageing " in the late 1990s to refer to continuing participation in social, economic, cultural, spiritual and civic affairs (WHO, 2002). In order to support active ageing, we have developed health promotion methods of mind and brain of the aged employing 2 channel NIRS, and evaluated the effect of mental stress, relaxation, and the effect of exercise on working memory. We found the right dominant activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed larger stress responses of autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine system compared with the left dominant activity. Relaxation by fragrance reduced the stress response in association with changes in the stress-induced prefrontal cortex activity. Exercise increased working memory performance associated with increases of PFC activity during working memory tasks. Two-channel NIRS may be able to evaluate a stress state and a cognitive function objectively.
  • Shuang Meng, Misato Oi, Godai Saito, Hirofumi Saito
    2017年 2017 巻 E-04
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/10/16
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    手の左右判断課題(HLJ)において1人称視点(1PP)を用いた先行研究は、その左右判断が手の回転への生体力学的制約を受けること(BC効果)を示す。我々は、三人称視点(3PP)からの手の左右判断もBC効果を示すことを検討するために、近赤外分光法(NIRS)を用いて前頭前皮質(PFC)の賦活を計測した。右利きの参加者は、回転された手の図が自分のあるいは他人の左手か右手かを判断した(1PP vs.3PP群)。参加者の誤答率に基づき、両群は誤答下位群(EsG)と非誤答(正答)下位群とに分けられた。3PP群のEsGに対するNIRS分析結果は左PFCで手の左右判断と回転角度とに交互作用を示した。特に1PP群と3PP群間でEsGの左PFCの賦活は左手図形に対して、有意な交互作用を示した。これらの実験の結果は、生体力学的制約が自己視点1PPからと同様に他者視点3PPからHLJに影響することを示す。
  • Yoshio TSUDA, Kohichi YAMANOUCHI, Hiroyuki OKAMOTO, Kazumasa YOKOYAMA, Charles HELDEBRANT
    Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics
    1990年 13 巻 3 号 165-171
    発行日: 1990年
    公開日: 2008/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to clarify the reason why two similar perfluorochemical (PFC) emulsions, namely a mixed PFC (perfluorodecalin : FDC and perfluorotripropylamine : FTPA) and an FDC emulsion, resulted in a very different survival time for the exchange-transfused rats. Supposing that some difference in the intravascular behavior of both emulsions would account for such a difference in efficacy, experiments on behavior of PFC emulsions were carried out focusing on the particle size. It was reconfirmed that larger PFC particles were eliminated from the blood stream much more rapidly than smaller particles with three FMIQ (perfluoro-N-methyldecahydroisoquinoline) emulsions. After the FDC+FTPA emulsion or the FDC emulsion were injected into rabbits, PFC particles in the blood tended to decrease in size. When each of the collected blood samples was incubated at 37°C for 24 h, the FDC emulsion enlarged in size markedly, but the FDC+FTPA emulsion showed no change. The retention of PFC particles appeared to depend on the emulsion stability rather than simply on the emulsifying agent alone. These data showed that some differences were observed in intravascular persistence of the FDC+FTPA emulsion and the FDC emulsion, and suggested that the efficacy of PFC emulsions would reflect their behavior in the circulation.
  • Kaoru Sakatani
    2013年 51 巻 Supplement 号 M-155
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/09/06
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 神谷 清, 麓 正樹, 菊地 宏美, 関山 タマミ, 生澤 右子, 海野 雅浩, 有田 秀穂
    Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
    2010年 57 巻 1 号 35-43
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2016/09/26
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    We have proposed a concept that prolonged rhythmic gum chewing causes a suppressed nociceptive flexion reflex via the serotonergic (5- HT) descending inhibitory pathway. However, the mechanism of activation of the 5-HT system by gum chewing remains undetermined. Several human and animal studies have reported that a direct connection exists between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus; therefore, we hypothesized that activation of the PFC region might be responsible for augmented 5-HT activity. To evaluate this hypothesis, oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentrations in the PFC were measured in the PFC during a 20-min time period of gum chewing using 24-channel nearinfrared spectroscopy. A significant increase in oxyHb level was observed in the ventral part of PFC compared with the dorsal part of PFC. We confirmed the previous results in that the nociceptive flexion reflex was significantly suppressed and the 5-HT level in blood was significantly increased following prolonged gum chewing. These results support the hypothesis that activation of the ventral part of PFC during gum chewing evokes augmented activity of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus, which in turn suppress nociceptive responses.
  • Teruko TAMURA, Kenji MACHII, Katsumoto UEDA, Kôsaku FUJIWARA
    1978年 22 巻 9 号 557-564
    発行日: 1978/09/20
    公開日: 2009/10/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    In nude mice experimentally infected with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), the numbers of early and later plaque forming cells (PFC) to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) generated in the spleen were 7 to 20 times and 2 to 163 times, respectively, greater than those in non-infected nude mice, when SRBC were given at day 0 to day 21 postinfection. Splenic theta-positive lymphocytes in infected nude mice were shown to increase only at day 10 or more postinfection. PFC response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen, was not modified in MHV-infected nude mice.
  • Makoto Fukuda, Makoto Miyazaki, Sunao Uchida
    International Journal of Sport and Health Science
    2008年 6 巻 230-237
    発行日: 2008/12/30
    公開日: 2009/12/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2009/05/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is well known that visual feedback of exerted force enhances muscle force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Based on the previous reports on the force exertion tasks and the other tasks using the visual feedback paradigm, we hypothesized that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is related to the enhancement of voluntary contraction force. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis and to identify the detail active regions in the PFC that correlates with the muscle force enhancement with visual feedback of exerted force, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The cerebral blood flow of 11 male subjects was measured by NIRS during the MVC tasks with visual feedback of exerted torque (VFB) and without visual feedback (nVFB). As a result, both the elbow flexion torque during MVC and cerebral blood flow of the right PFC significantly increased under the VFB condition (p<0.05). In addition, the increased cerebral blood flow of the right PFC was correlated with the torque enhancement (p<0.05). The present results suggest that the right PFC is related to the increase of torque under the VFB condition. Since the PFC has a significant role in motivation, the enhancement of torque with visual feedback may be associated with such a function.
  • 高山 裕史, 阿岸 鉄三, 山形 桂仁, 小林 峯徳, 太田 和夫
    1984年 13 巻 3 号 1260-1262
    発行日: 1984/06/15
    公開日: 2011/10/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    perfluorochemical (PFC)乳剤は人工血液として開発されているが, 体内からの排泄があまり良くない事から, その使用量は1500ml前後に制限されている。しかし, 血中に投与されたPFCが何らかの方法で回収できるとすれば, PFCの応用範囲は大きく広がると考えられる。われわれはすでに, PFCの回収について連続遠心分離器が有効である事を報告した。今回は更に, 体内の血液を一度PFCで置換した後, 新鮮血を輸血しながらPFCを回収する事により, 従来のTotal Body Washoutと同様の効果を見いだし, これをWhole Body Rinse-outと呼んだ。総胆管結紮による黄疸犬を含む3頭のイヌを用いて検討した結果, Bilirubin clearance rateは90.2%と非常に良好で, PFC回収率は平均62.2%であった。
  • Ji Seon Son, Young Chan Jeong, Young Bae Kwon
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2015年 38 巻 1 号 48-52
    発行日: 2015/01/01
    公開日: 2015/01/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
    Our previous studies demonstrated that subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupuncture point, namely BV acupuncture, dose-dependently prevents conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by repeated injection of methamphetamine (METH) in mice. To expand on our observations, the present study was designed to determine the suppressive mechanisms of BV acupuncture in the development of METH-induced CPP by evaluating the changes in expression of ΔFosB, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK), and phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (pCaMKII) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) in mice. Pre-emptive treatment with BV at 30 min before repeated METH injection completely suppressed acquisition of CPP at the day 7 test session. METH-induced upregulation of ΔFosB and pERK in PFC and NAc was significantly reduced by BV pretreatment. Expression of pCaMKII was significantly elevated by METH in NAc and reduced in PFC. BV pretreatment reversed the changes of pCaMKII expression in PFC and NAc. These findings suggest that BV acupuncture may exert a suppressive effect on METH-induced addiction via regulation of signaling cascades of ΔFosB, ERK, and CaMKII in PFC and NAc.
  • Hironori Ohsugi, Shohei Ohgi, Takayuki Kodama
    2014年 5 巻 2 号 69-77
    発行日: 2014/10/01
    公開日: 2014/10/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previous studies have revealed that physical activity can affect brain function and cognitive decline. Additionally, we confirmed that brain activation in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a cognitive task was correlated with cognitive function. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that brain activation also affects cognitive function, which increases due to stimulation from physical activity. The purpose of this study was to verify causal relationships between physical activity, PFC activation, and cognitive function using the statistical method of path analyses in a multi-model approach.Forty-six healthy volunteers (10 males, mean age: 76.1, standard deviation: 6.8) participated in this study. Informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to enrollment. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Seirei Christopher University (approval No. 10067). We assessed physical activity via participants’self-reports, determined PFC activation during a dual task using near-infrared spectroscopy, and measured cognitive function with the Trail-Making Test Part B. To determine the causal relationship between physical activity, PFC activation, and cognitive function, path analyses were conducted using AMOS 16 structural equation modeling. The structural equation model was a good fit (root mean square error of approximation = 0.001). Several significant direct paths were identified: (1) from physical activity to PFC activation (b = 0.37), and (2) from PFC activation to cognitive function (b = 0.32). This study statistically revealed the causal relationships between physical activity, PFC activation, and cognitive function. Path analyses indicated that physical activity affected cognitive function via PFC activation.
  • Takushi TADAKUMA, Takashi MITSUMA, Hiromichi ISHIKAWA, Kazuhisa SAITO
    Japanese Journal of Microbiology
    1975年 19 巻 4 号 287-298
    発行日: 1975年
    公開日: 2008/04/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Restoration of the impaired antibody response to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) in cultures of mouse spleen cells, which were deprived of thymus-derived lymphocytes (T cells) by treatment with antimouse brain-associated θ (BAθ) antiserum and complement, was studied by adding a small portion of syngeneic or allogeneic normal spleen cells in vitro. Allogeneic spleen cells had a far greater effect than syngeneic spleen cells on the restoration, as far as the normal spleen cells added were able to recognize the alloantigens on the anti-BAθ serum-treated spleen cells (bone marrow-derived lymphocytes). Treatment of the allogeneic spleen cells with mitomycin C did not affect their activity in the restoration of the impaired antibody response. The possibility that the role of T cells in the antibody response to SRBC may be replaced by a nonspecific mediator derived from T cells reacting with allogeneic cells was proven by the finding that supernatant of the mixed allogeneic spleen cell cultures restored the impaired anti-SRBC antibody response of the T cell-depleted spleen cells. The effect of such culture supernatant on the restoration of the antibody response was greatest when it was added to the T cell-depleted spleen cell cultures one day after cultivation with SRBC, suggesting that the effectiveness may result from triggering of the proliferation and differentiation of antibody-forming cell precursors, which have already reacted with the antigen, to antibody-forming cells.
  • Teruko TAMURA, Kôsaku FUJIWARA
    1979年 23 巻 3 号 177-183
    発行日: 1979/03/20
    公開日: 2009/10/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    In nude mice which originally had no ability to respond to sheep red blood cells, an enhanced response to the same antigen with IgM-IgG switching was demonstrated during subacute infection with mouse hepatitis virus. IgM antibody-producing cells in the spleen were detected at days 2 to 6 after the antigen injection and IgG antibody-producing cells appeared at day 6 or later. The secondary IgG response, though not remarkable, was recognized after reinjection of the antigen 10 days after the first injection.
  • 中谷 康司, 有田 秀穂
    2010年 28 巻 1 号 161-
    発行日: 2010/03/01
    公開日: 2018/12/18
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 横山 和正, 山内 絋一, 大柳 治正, 光野 孝雄
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    1978年 26 巻 3 号 956-966
    発行日: 1978/03/25
    公開日: 2008/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    The tissue distribution and excretion of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in the mixed PFC emulsion, which were a mixture of 7 parts Perfluorodecalin (FDC) and 3 parts Perfluoro-tripropylamine (FTPA), were studied in rats and dogs hemodiluted to a hematocrit of 5% and monkeys to 1%. The half life of both PFCs in rats given 4g/kg body weight were calculated from their expiratory excretion rate to be about 7 days for FDC and 63 days for FTPA. Both PFCs in the mixed PFC emulsion were excreted according to respective excretion rate, indicating no mutual effect of combined use on respective excretion rate. Both PFCs were taken up into the liver, spleen and bone marrow in the majority and eliminated through expiration as the main route and bile as the minor route, the maximum deposition occurring in 4 days after infusion. FDC localized in the tissues was rapidly eliminated and no longer detected both in dogs at 6 months after hemodilution and in monkeys at 4 months. On the other hand, FTPA was also fairly rapidly eliminated from the tissues, but at a slower rate and it was retained only in the liver and spleen in both of dogs at 6 months and monkeys at 4 months in a very small amount. The absence of excess fluoride ion in urine and the coincidence of mass spectra of FDC and FTPA retained in the liver with those of the standard suggested that both of them were not catabolized in vivo.
  • Manabu Kanno, Machiko Matsumoto, Hiroko Togashi, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Yukio Mano
    Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
    2003年 93 巻 4 号 451-457
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2004/01/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) changes the function of the cortex. This study clarified the effects of acute rTMS treatment on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) concentrations in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) by using in vivo microdialysis methods. Each rat received acute rTMS treatment of the frontal brain at 500 stimuli from twenty trains applied at 25 Hz for 1 s at 1-min intervals between trains. Sham-treated rats received the same handling procedure and sound of the stimulator. Sham treatment increased the extracellular 5-HT levels compared with the non-treated group. However, rTMS treatment using the stimulation intensity of 110% motor threshold eliminated the increase in 5-HT levels induced by the sham treatment. Acute rTMS treatment of the frontal brain is related to the serotonergic neuronal system in the rat PFC, and it may have therapeutic implications for emotional disorders.
  • 小濱 剛, 並河 弘樹, 岡本 亮太, 吉田 久
    2016年 54Annual 巻 28AM-Abstract 号 S273
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/19
    ジャーナル フリー

    In the measurement techniques of cortical activity by using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), the differences between resting state and task-performing state is often evaluated. However, the experimental conditions of resting state are not controlled. In this study, we investigated the effects of the low-passed dynamic random-dot patterns (LPDRDs) on the resting-state activities. We measured fNIRS signals from prefrontal cortex (PFC) and right-lateral temporal cortex (rLTC) during a block design paradigms, which is constructed of resting-state block with a LPDRD or a fixation crosshair (FT) after performing a 3-back task. We compared which condition is to be recovered to resting-state earlier after brain activation by the task. The results suggest that the average activity of PFC in the LPDRD condition was significantly lower than in the FT condition, indicating that gazing at the LPDRD in resting-state could be attenuated cortical activity more efficiently.

  • Naomi TROSTLER, David SKLAN
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
    1978年 24 巻 2 号 105-111
    発行日: 1978年
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    (1) The effect of thiamine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation on lipogenesis in the brain of rat pups was determined.
    (2) Acetate incorporation to brain lipids in thiamine-deficient rats in vivo was no less than in pair fed control rats, apart from slightly reduced fatty acid synthesis in the cerebrum.
    (3) Glucose incorporation to brain lipids in vivo was considerably reduced in thiamine-deficient pups.
    (4) The inducible NADP dependent malic enzyme activity was increased in thiamine-deficient pup brains.
    (5) The synthesis of acetyl-CoA appears to be the rate limiting step in lipogenesis in thiamine-deficient pup brains.
    Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
    1983年 29 巻 2 号 217-225
    発行日: 1983年
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    1. The effects of thiamin deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on brain cholinergic system in rat pups were studied. Dietary rehabilitation for a period of 5 weeks from the 28th day was instituted to study possible ‘catch-up’ in the brain acetylcholine levels. 2. Brain acetylcholine level was found to be significantly decreased on the 21st and 28th days in pups of the dams fed thiamin deficient diet during gestation and lactation, whereas it was decreased on the 28th day in pups of the dams fed thiamin deficient diet during lactation. Activities of Cholinergic enzymes remained unaltered in both the deficient groups. 3. Subsequent dietary rehabilitation was found to reverse the deficits in brain acetylcholine levels.
  • Takashi Matsumoto, Yukikatsu Fukuda, Naohiro Takemura, Kaoru Sakatani
    2014年 52 巻 Supplement 号 OS-110-OS-111
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/10/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    We have recently proposed a new information criterion LIR (Laterality Index at Rest) defined in terms of oxy Hemoglobin concentration changes from the right and left PFC. This information criterion consists of the difference of the right and left oxy Hemoglobin concentration changes summed over the analysis period normalized in such a way that the resulting value falls within the interval [-1,+1]. In a previous study, we demonstrated that there is a positive Correlation between LIR and STAI-1 (State Anxiety of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory). There were at least two issues to be improved:(i) The number of data was small.(ii) Parametric form of the distribution of Pearson Correlation Coefficient was difficult to obtain.In this study, we used the bootstrap algorithm to improve the above issues. We have also examined if there is any distinction between young and old subjects as well as between male and female subjects.