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全文: "PSO2"
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  • 鈴木 孝明, 川田 光三, 相馬 康宏, 今村 洋二, 早川 誠悟, 上田 敏彦, 饗庭 了, 井上 正
    日本心臓血管外科学会雑誌
    1987年 16 巻 4 号 275-277
    発行日: 1987/02/15
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Kimio Itagaki, Akira Yazawa
    Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals
    1982年 23 巻 12 号 759-767
    発行日: 1982年
    公開日: 2007/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Distribution behaviour of minor elements has important implications for copper making processes. The arsenic distribution among the three phases of gas, slag and matte was evaluated thermodynamically and is described in this article.
    The arsenic distribution is basically dependent on the process factors such as the arsenic content of charge, the amount of waste gas, the degree of vapour saturation with arsenic or temperature. The thermodynamic quantities such as the activity coefficient of arsenic in matte, the activities of iron and copper, SO2 or O2 potentials and the ratio of arsenic distribution between slag and matte phases LAss/m are decisive factors for the arsenic distribution, and the behaviours in various smelters could be explained systematically and reasonably by considering changes in these quantities during smelting.
    In oxidizing smelting at 10.1 or 101.1 kPa (0.1 or 1 atm) SO2, the proportion of arsenic in gas phase is predominant in both the smelting and the converting stages, the degree of vapour saturation with arsenic seriously affecting the distribution behaviour. The arsenic content of final matte does not change too much even if the content of charge or of starting matte increases substantially. Furthermore, the proportion of arsenic in matte does not decrease appreciably even if LAss/m gets extremely large.
    In reducing smelting at 10−11 of pO2, the proportions in gas and slag phases decrease remarkably, owing to a small activity coefficient of arsenic in matte and also to extremely small LAss/m.
  • 上野 雄一郎, 遠藤 美朗
    日本地球化学会年会要旨集
    2016年 63 巻
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/09
    会議録・要旨集 フリー

    Photochemistry of sulfur dioxide yields anomalous sulfur isotope fractionation under anoxic atmosphere. The isotope anomaly can be transported into sedimentary sulfide and sulfate, thus is useful to trace atmospheric chemistry before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at about 2.3 billion years ago. Based on the isotopic analysis of Archean sedimentary rocks, the δ36S/δ33S trend seems to have changed through time, though the factors controlling the δ36S/δ33S signal are still uncertain. Our new laboratory experiments have shown that the δ36S/δ33S trend are mainly controlled by pSO2 and redox state of the atmosphere even without molecular oxygen. Thus, the observed change of the sulfur isotopic signal may reflect volcanic SO2 flux as well as redox fluctuation before GOE. Furthermore, our results indicate that the Archean atmosphere is not the pure CO2, but should be more reducing to explaining the observed δ36S/δ33S trend in the Archean rocks.

  • 鵜野 達二, 神原 健二郎, 本間 悦郎
    鐵と鋼
    1950年 36 巻 10 号 479-485
    発行日: 1950/10/25
    公開日: 2010/01/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    We studied the oxidation equilibrium of the reactions
    3FeS+10CO2 Fe3O4+3SO2+10CO
    MnS+3CO2 MnO+SO2+3CO
    at 690-890°C and 600-1000°C respectively, by following method.
    Obtained the following equations for each reaction.
    LogKFeS=Logp10CO·p3SO2/p10CO2=-52, 669·7/T+22·43
    LogKMnS=Logp3CO·pSO2/p3CO2=-18, 290·6/T+8·28
    From this result calculated the equilibrium constant of the following reactions
    FeS+3CO2 FeO+SO2+3CO
    FeS+2CO2 Fe+SO2+2CO
    and obtained the following equations
    LogKFeO=Logp3CO·pSO2/p3CO2=-18, 112·6/T+8·14
    LogKFe=Logpp2CO·pSO2/pp2CO2=-17, 209.8/T+7.04
    From these results obtained the equilibrium diagram between pCO/pCO2 and pSO2 over ferrous sulphide.
  • 吉川 正和, 谷垣 昌敬, 江口 彌, 今城 靖雄

    1990年 15 巻 4 号 210-214
    発行日: 1990/07/01
    公開日: 2011/03/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    Novel synthetic polymeric membranes from cellulose acetate and 2, 7-thianthrene dicarboxylic acid-5, 5', 10, 10'-tetraoxide showed permselectivity toward SO2 against O2 and N2. It was made clear that an incorporated carrier, 2, 7-thianthrene dicarboxylic acid-5, 5', 10, 10'-tetraoxide, played an important roll for selective permeation of SO2 through the membrane.
  • 板垣 乙未生, Ghasem ROGHANI, Jonkion M. FONT
    資源と素材
    1999年 115 巻 4 号 203-211
    発行日: 1999/04/25
    公開日: 1999/10/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    For thermodynamically understanding copper or nickel smelting processes using oxygen or oxygen-enriched air as a blowing gas, a series of the authors' experimental studies of the phase equilibrium and distribution of minor elements between the copper matte or the nickel matte and the FeOX-SiO2 base slag under the SO2 partial pressures of 0.1, 0.5 and 1 atm at 1,300 °C are reviewed in this paper. The solubility of copper was found to be independent of pSO2 when the matte grade was specified and it was considered that this behavior was ascribable to the constancy of (pO2 /pS2 ) against pSO2 . On the other hand, it was clarified that the solubility of nickel in the slag increased with increasing pSO2 at a given matte grade. The difference in the dissolution behavior between copper and nickel was considered to be ascribable to the difference in the chemical formulas of the mono-metallic sulfides in which one copper atom combines with 1/2 sulfur atom while one nickel atom with 2/3 sulfur atom. When the distribution ratio of a minor element, X, between the slag and matte phases was defined as LXs/m = (mass % X in slag)/{mass % X in matte}, LXs/m for arsenic, antimony and bismuth at a given matte grade increased with increasing pSO2. This behavior was explained reasonabley by assuming a mutual reaction between a metallic species in the matte and an oxidic species in the slag. On the other hand, the distribution ratio of silver at a given matte grade was almost constant against pSO2. This was considered to be ascribed to the sulfidic species of AgS0.5 prevailing in the matte phase as well as the constancy of (pO2 /pS2 ) against pSO2.
  • Mitsuru Itoh, Eisuke Sugimoto, Zensaku Kozuka
    Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals
    1984年 25 巻 7 号 504-510
    発行日: 1984年
    公開日: 2007/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study was undertaken to find any available solid reference electrode for SO2 sensor employing β-alumina solid electrolyte. We proposed two reference electrodes, Au+Au2Na and (β+β″)-alumina, for such a sensor.
    Emf measurements of the following cells were performed to investigate the characteristics of the two sodium reference electrodes:
    Mo, Na(l) / β″-alumina / Au+Au2Na(s), Mo
    Pt, Au+Au2Na(s) / β″-alumina / SO2+SO3+O2, Pt
    Pt, (β+β″)-alumina in air / β″-alumina / SO2+SO3+O2, Pt
    The results indicate that constant sodium activities in these reference electrodes are maintained for a long duration of the experiment. It is concluded that the use of Au+Au2Na and(β+β″)-alumina reference electrodes is recommended for the SO2 sensor employing β″-alumina, β-alumina or other sodium ion solid electrolytes.
  • 八尾 伸也, 宮川 賢二, 飯島 繁, 幸塚 善作
    資源と素材
    1994年 110 巻 1 号 37-42
    発行日: 1994/01/25
    公開日: 2011/01/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    The SOX gas sensor utilizing beta-alumina as a solid electrolyte has a rigid theoretical background and produces a reliable emf corresponding to SO2 gas partial pressure, PSO2. However, its emf response to a change in PSO2 is not as fast as that to other electrolytes. In the present study, in order to improve the chemical properties of the surface of the beta-alumina disc, praseodymium was sputtered on both sides through a stainless steel net and oxidized in air. The SO2 gas sensor utilizing the Na+-β-alumina disk covered by Pr6O11 was tested at 873 and 1, 023 K and compared with the performance utilizing β-alumina uncovered. There was a significant difference in the emf's at 1, 023 K. The hysteresis of the emf's at 873 K with a change in PSO2 was significantly reduced by the coverage, that is, the coverage with Pr6O11 thin film improved the performance of SOX sensor at a low temperature. The Pr6O11 thin film may reduce the vaporization of Na2O from β-alumina and also the absorption of water vapor by β-alumina. In the mixtures of Pr6O11 and β-alumina powders annealed at 1, 073K, a compound was detected by means of the X-ray diffraction method with a diffractometer. The formation was very slow with time, and had an essentially negligible effect on the performance of the SOX sensor. A significant difference in the response speed was not observed. The response speed should be investigated by changing the kind of rare-earth oxide thin film.
  • 田中 孝夫, 重松 昭生, 市丸 喜一郎
    Journal of UOEH
    1980年 2 巻 2 号 207-210
    発行日: 1980/06/01
    公開日: 2017/04/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    慢性腎不全のため血液透析療法をうけている患者においては顕著な貧血が多く見られる. 一般に貧血患者ではヘモグロビン酸素解離曲線の右方移動が代償的に認められるが, 今回われわれは, これら血液透析患者について検討を加え次の結果を得た. 1)P50は対象群に比し有意に増大していたが, 2,3-DPGは有意の変化を示さなかった. 2)2,3-DPGがP50の増加にも拘らず増大しない理由としては代謝性アシドーシスによるpHの低下が最も大きいと考えられた.
  • Toshio Oishi, Yoichi Tobiyama, Yutaka Fujiwara, Katsutoshi Ono
    Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals
    1987年 28 巻 12 号 971-976
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2007/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The liquid Cu–S–O system was studied thermodynamically by measurement of emf using a zirconia solid electrolyte under two constant SO2 partial pressures, pSO2/P°=0.005 and 0.01, at 1473 and 1573 K.The galvanic cell used was
    Pt, Ni–NiO/ZrO+MgO/Cu–S–O(1)Cr2O3, Pt.
    With increasing oxygen content in the liquid copper, the sulfur content decreased at both temperatures under both constant SO2 partial pressures.
    The activity of oxygen in the liquid Cu–S–O system at a low oxygen concentration range deviated negative from linearity, because of the effect of sulfur on the oxygen activity. The activity coefficients of oxygen at an infinite dilution in the Cu–O binary system and the first order interaction parameter, ε0s were calculated between 1473 and 1573 K.
  • Hiroshi Kametani, Chikabumi Yamauchi, Kenzo Murao, Morio Hayashida
    Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals
    1973年 14 巻 3 号 218-223
    発行日: 1973年
    公開日: 2007/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    The removal of impurities in mattes and white metals was studied using a sample weighing 100 g under reduced pressures at 1200°C. After the vacuum treatment at around 0.5 mmHg for 1 hr, almost all impurities (Pb, As, Sb, Bi, and Zn) in mattes were reduced below 0.1%. Arsenic in white metal was not removed under the same condition.
    Chemical and X-ray diffractive analyses of sublimates revealed that appreciable fractions of impurities were in metallic states. A thermodynamic discussion supported also the evaporation of impurities as metal vapors and sulfide vapors.
  • 山本 昌弘, 黒江 康明, 飯間 等
    計測自動制御学会論文集
    2010年 46 巻 11 号 685-691
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2011/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, we propose a learning method of recurrent spiking neural networks by using particle swarm optimization (PSO). The existing learning method by using the gradient based method sometimes falls into local minima. The proposed method aims to find the global optimum regardless of initial solutions. Since PSO can treat optimization problems in which the objective function is a non-differentiable function, in this paper we formulate learning problems with such objective functions and propose a learning method based on PSO to solve them. The proposed method makes it possible to treat not only the learning problem in terms of firing instants which the conventional method treats, but also one in terms of the number and frequency of firings.
  • 齋藤 安俊, 丸山 俊夫
    日本金属学会会報
    1984年 23 巻 1 号 30-39
    発行日: 1984/01/20
    公開日: 2011/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 村中 健一, 相吉 英太郎
    電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
    2012年 132 巻 7 号 1128-1135
    発行日: 2012/07/01
    公開日: 2012/07/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    In this paper, we present a new type of hybrid methods for global optimization with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE), which have attracted interests as heuristic and global optimization methods recently. Concretely, “p-best solutions” as the targets of PSO's particles are actuated by DE's evolutional mechanism in order to promote PSO's global searching ability. The presented hybrid method works effectively because PSO acts as a local optimizer and DE plays a role as a global optimizer. To evaluate performance of the hybridization, our method is applied to some benchmarks and is compared with the separated PSO and DE. Through computer simulations, it is certified that the proposed hybrid method performs fairy better than their separated algorithm.
  • Junqi ZHANG, Ying TAN, Lina NI, Chen XIE, Zheng TANG
    IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
    2010年 E93.A 巻 10 号 1782-1791
    発行日: 2010/10/01
    公開日: 2010/10/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Particle swarm optimizer (PSO) is a stochastic global optimization technique based on a social interaction metaphor. Because of the complexity, dynamics and randomness involved in PSO, it is hard to theoretically analyze the mechanism on which PSO depends. Statistical results have shown that the probability distribution of PSO is a truncated triangle, with uniform probability across the middle that decreases on the sides. The “truncated triangle” is also called the “Maya pyramid” by Kennedy. However, very little is known regarding the sampling distribution of PSO in itself. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the “Maya pyramid” without any assumption and derive its computational formula, which is actually a hybrid uniform distribution that looks like a trapezoid and conforms with the statistical results. Based on the derived density function of the hybrid uniform distribution, the search strategy of PSO is defined and quantified to characterize the mechanism of the search strategy in PSO. In order to show the significance of these definitions based on the derived hybrid uniform distribution, the comparison between the defined search strategies of the classical linear decreasing weight based PSO and the canonical constricted PSO suggested by Clerc is illustrated and elaborated.
  • Masaru Kashima, Motonori Eguchi, Akira Yazawa
    Transactions of the Japan Institute of Metals
    1978年 19 巻 3 号 152-158
    発行日: 1978年
    公開日: 2007/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Distribution behavior of minor elements has important implications for copper making processes. In this article, the experimental results of the distribution of silver, nickel, cobalt, lead, antimony and arsenic among the three melts of copper, white metal and silica-saturated iron silicate slag are described.
    The melting experiments were carried out at 1300°C under controlled SO2 partial pressures varying from 0.7 to 20 kPa which are approximately proportional to the O2 pressures.
    The distribution ratios for an element X, defined as,
    Lxcs=%X in metal/%X in slag
    Lxcw=%X in metal/%X in white metal
    Lxws=%X in white metal/%X in slag
    can be arranged in the following orders:
    Lcs: As, (Ag)>Sb>Ni>Pb>Co
    Lcw: As>Sb>Pb, Ni, (Ag)>Co
    Lws: (Ag)>As>Sb>Ni>Pb>Co.
    Thus, the impurity elements in this study can be grouped into three classes according to distribution tendencies: As and Sb are highly concentrated in the metal, Co is highly concentrated in the slag, and Ni and Pb are distributed among all three melts in rather similar concentrations. The distribution ratios of the present study generally agree with previous experimental data obtained for simplified two-melt systems. An oxidic dissolution of such forms as NiO, PbO and CoO in the slag is reasonably acceptable, while the possibility of metallic dissolution of Ag, As, Sb and Ni in the slag cannot be denied.
  • 寺本 正明, 永持 雅之, 平峰 伸一郎, 藤居 信夫, 寺西 博
    化学工学論文集
    1977年 3 巻 1 号 34-40
    発行日: 1977/01/10
    公開日: 2009/10/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    連続式自由液面平面接触攪拌槽を用いて, SO2, CO2-Na2SO3系の同時吸収実験およびこの同時吸収系に関連するSO2-Na2SO3, CO2-Na2SO3, SO2-NaHCO3系の吸収実験を行い, これらの実験結果に基づいて同時吸収機構を考察した.同時吸収において, SO2の吸収がガス, 液両境膜抵抗支配の場合およびSO2がガス境膜抵抗支配下で吸収される場合に対してそれぞれ吸収モデルを提出した.前者の場合, SO2, CO2の吸収速度はモデルに基づく計算値とほぼ一致し, CO2の吸収速度はその物理吸収速度と同程度であった.後者の場合, CO2の吸収速度はモデルに基づく計算値と一致した.SO2の吸収速度は共存するCO2の影響をほとんど受けないが, CO2の吸収速度はSO2の分圧の増加とともに著しく減少し, これらの結果はここに提出した吸収機構によって説明された.
  • Yasushi Kino, Tsutomu Sekine, Yasuyoshi Sato, Hiroshi Kudo, Fumihiko Suekane, Atsuto Suzuki, Yasuo Ito, Takenori Suzuki
    Journal of Nuclear and Radiochemical Sciences
    2000年 1 巻 2 号 63-68
    発行日: 2000/12/28
    公開日: 2010/02/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Positron annihilation processes in a liquid scintillator to be used for the detection of electron antineutrinos in the KamLAND project were studied. The liquid scintillator was a mixture of isoparaffin, pseudocumene and 2, 5-diphenyloxazole. We measured positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectra which contained important timing information on identification of the electron antineutrinos. The PAL spectra of a nitrogen-saturated liquid scintillator consisted of three lifetime components. Two fast components with the lifetime of 0.19 ± 0.05 ns and 0.48 ± 0.05 ns correspond to the mixture of para-positronium annihilation and free positron annihilation. The delayed component (3.41 ± 0.02 ns) with the intensity of 48.9 ± 0.3 % is ascribed to pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (ο-Ps) annihilation. To understand the 2γ annihilation processes of ο-Ps in the liquid, we examined the effects of dissolved gases (nitrogen, oxygen, helium and argon) and mixing ratio of isoparaffin and pseudocumene which were the main components of the liquid scintillator. The lifetime of ο-Ps was drastically shortened in the presence of oxygen, but not for other gases. The reaction rate constant for quenching of ο-Ps by oxygen was obtained from the O2 concentration dependence of ο-Ps lifetime component. The pick-off annihilation of ο-Ps with the liquid scintillator is explained based on the bubble model. We discuss a possible microscopic picture of the surroundings of Ps in the liquid scintillator.
  • 梅津 良之
    日本鑛業會誌
    1949年 65 巻 739 号 392-398
    発行日: 1949/12/25
    公開日: 2011/07/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    The reduction eguilibrium of solid cuprous sulphide by carbon dioxide has been studied by means of the kinetic method at various temperatures ranging from 700°C to 1050°C, and the following relation between the common logarithm of equilibrium constant K and absolute temperature T was obtained.Cu2S (s) +2CO2=2Cu (s) +2CO+SO2 logK=-17, 401/T+6.226
    By the result above described and some known thermodynamical data, the following relation between the equilibrium constant, K of the gas reaction 1/2S2+2C02=2CO+SO2 and absolute temperature T was calculated. logK=-10, 941/T+4.805
  • 富永 齊, 虎石 成美
    日本化學會誌
    1929年 50 巻 11 号 699-705
    発行日: 1929年
    公開日: 2009/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
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