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全文: "Parahippocampal gyrus"
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  • Hung Tzu Wen, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., Luiz Henrique Martins Castro, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
    脳神経外科ジャーナル
    2012年 21 巻 9 号 700-711
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/10/29
    ジャーナル フリー
      Objective : The authors intend to demonstrate the currently used technique of anterior temporal lobectomy plus amygdalohippocampectomy for treating refractory temporal epilepsy as developed by the lead author (HTW). The anatomy based modifications presented in this paper have been gradually added to the original technique throughout a 13-year span to make these surgeries both safer and faster.
      Material and methods : Three hundred and forty-six anterior temporal lobectomies plus amygdalohippocampectomies were performed by HTW from 1999 to 2011. The intraoperative observation of the difficulties encountered in each case motivated the search for modifications to overcome those difficulties.
      Results : The major modifications are : patient positioning with less rotation of the head and more extension of the neck, interfascial dissection of the temporalis fascia, detachment of the temporalis muscle from the angle formed by the frontal and the temporal processes of the zygomatic bone, craniotomy below the superior temporal line, a 2.5 to 3.0 cm neocortical removal with subpial “peeling” technique, locating the temporal horn using the grey matter overlying the occipitotemporal sulcus, and resection of the amygdala based on a modified carotid-choroidal line. The modified sequence for the hippocampectomy is as follows : anterior disconnection, lateral disconnection, opening the choroidal fissure and the medial disconnection, and the posterior disconnection. Whenever possible, all the arachnoid membranes of the cisterns have to be kept intact during the intradural stage of the surgery. The overall seizure-free rate was 86%, and the complications were presented.
      Conclusion : The careful intraoperative observation of the procedural difficulties, the anatomy-based modifications to overcome those challenges, and extensive practice of the microsurgical techniques helped the authors to design the above described technical modifications, making medial temporal resections safer and faster.
  • Yasuyuki Ohta, Emi Nomura, Keiichiro Tsunoda, Toru Yamashita, Yoshiaki Takahashi, Kota Sato, Mami Takemoto, Nozomi Hishikawa, Koji Abe
    Internal Medicine
    2017年 56 巻 18 号 2513-2518
    発行日: 2017/09/15
    公開日: 2017/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2017/08/21
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory central nervous system disorder that mainly involves in the brainstem, basal ganglia and cerebellum. We herein report the case of a patient with CLIPPERS, which was diagnosed based on the clinical and radiological features. After initially responded to steroid treatment, the patient developed limbic encephalitis. The patient presented with memory disturbance, a delirious state and emotional incontinence. A cerebrospinal fluid study revealed interleukin-6 elevation and enhanced bilateral hippocampal lesions were observed on MRI. The patient was successfully treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy. This is the first case of CLIPPERS with limbic encephalitis involving the bilateral hippocampus.

  • Naotaka USUI, Akihiko KONDO, Naoki NITTA, Takayasu TOTTORI, Yushi INOUE
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    2018年 58 巻 9 号 377-383
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/09/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/08/09
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    The amygdala and uncus are located close to important neurovascular structures. We describe a safe technique for resection of amygdala and uncus. Under general anesthesia, the patient is positioned supine, with the head rotated approximately 20 degrees to the unoperated side and slightly extended. By using a trans-anterior T1 subpial approach, the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle is opened, and hippocampectomy is performed. We treat an imaginary plane formed by the inferior circular sulcus of the insula, the endorhinal sulcus, and the inferior choroidal point as the upper border of amygdalar resection. After confirming the position of the inferior choroidal point, the border between the temporal stem and uncus is exposed from anterior to posterior. This border is continuous with the endorhinal sulcus. By exposing the endorhinal sulcus, the anterior choroidal artery and optic tract can be visualized. The amygdala is disconnected through complete exposure of the endorhinal sulcus to the inferior choroidal point. After the lateral side of the uncus is disconnected, the amygdala and uncus are removed en bloc. Since April 2014, we have used the described procedure to remove amygdalar–uncal lesions in 15 patients. The lesion was completely removed in all cases without complications. Histological specimens were obtained in all cases. Our procedure enables safe and complete removal of amygdalar–uncal lesions. Imagining the plane formed by the inferior circular sulcus, inferior choroidal point, and endorhinal sulcus is essential for complete removal of the lesion and for preserving important structures.

  • Naoki Kodama, Hiroshi Takeuchi
    電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
    2005年 125 巻 9 号 1382-1386
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    We assessed relationships between six texture features and changes in atrophy of the cerebral parenchyma, the hippocampus, and the parahippocampal gyrus in the Alzheimer-type dementia (ATD) brain to determine whether or not the features reflect cerebral atrophy in ATD patients. The subjects of this study were 10 ATD patients, and underwent an magnetic resonanse imaging test of the head annually for at least 3 consecutive years. They consisted of three men and seven women, with a mean age of 71.4 ± 6.7 years. The results of study, the mean run length nonuniformity (RLN), angular second moment (ASM), and contrast (CON) increased with time, whereas the mean gray level nonuniformity (GLN), run percentage (RPC), and entropy (ENT) decreased with time. There was a statistically significant correlation between brain-intracranial area ratio (BIR) and GLN (p = 0.039), between BIR and ASM (p = 0.011), and between BIR and ENT (p = 0.023) as well as between parahippocampal-intracranial area ratio and GLN (p = 0.049). These results indicate that the six texture features were shown to reflect gray matter atrophy associated with ATD and to change with the progress of the disease. Although the course of ATD can be followed up by measuring a hippocampal area or volume and determining a decrease in the area or volume, texture features should be a more effective instrument for identifying the progress of ATD.
  • 宇野 富徳, 王 力群, 三分一 史和, 外池 光雄, 金田 輝男
    生体医工学
    2010年 48 巻 1 号 59-65
    発行日: 2010/02/10
    公開日: 2010/11/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the olfactory “Kansei” information processing for two kinds of smells by measuring the brain activities associated with olfactory responses in humans. In this study, the brain activities related to discrimination and recognition of odors were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In experiment 1, odor stimuli (lemon-like and banana-like) were presented using a block design in a blinded manner, and the kind of fruits was identified by its odor. The frontal and temporal lobe, inferior parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus, amygdaloid body and parahippocampal gyrus were primarily activated by each odor based on conjunction analysis. In experiment 2, as a result of performing an oddball experiment using the odors of experiment 1, the active areas were mainly found in the temporal lobe, superior and inferior parietal lobule, insula, thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Moreover, these regions overlapped with the emotional circuit. These experimental results suggest that common brain activities accompany the discrimination and cognition associated with odor stimuli, which may underlie the olfactory responses relevant to the higher brain function and emotions associated with olfactory function.
  • Kazuo YAMADA, Mitsuhito MASE, Takashi MATSUMOTO
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    1998年 38 巻 suppl 号 227-230
    発行日: 1998年
    公開日: 2008/04/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    Surgery for deeply seated arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is controversial because stereotactic ir-radiation is applicable to the lesion. We have, however, experienced 30 deeply seated AVMs treated by direct surgery and/or endovascular treatment. The present study shows profiles of those patients and results of surgery. They include AVM in the thalamus in 12 cases, striatum in four cases, paraventricu-lar area in five cases, medial temporal lobe in three cases, intraventricular area in three cases, and other regions in three cases. They were treated by surgery alone in 23 cases, embolization followed by surgery in four cases, and embolization alone in three cases. AVM in the mediodorsal thalamus and for-nix (5 cases) was best treated by transcallosal approach. Venous aneurysm was commonly found in the AVM of this region and was a good navigator to the AVM. Pulvinar AVM was accessible through posterior interhemispheric approach (2 cases). None of these cases had additional neurological deficits. Cadaver dissection was useful for acquisition of surgical approach. Striatal AVM was approached through hematoma cavity with minimal manipulation to the surrounding structures, yet two of four cases showed progression of their weakness. The present study indicates that thalamic AVM can be ap-proached surgically with careful selection of the approach. On the other hand, striatal AVM is not a good candidate for direct surgery and better treated by stereotactic irradiation.
  • 葛 盛, 斉藤 俊, 呉 景龍, 小笠原 淳一, 山内 秀一, 北沢 雅之, 呂 勝富, 松永 尚文, 根来 清, 真田 泰三, 橋田 昌弘
    システム制御情報学会 研究発表講演会講演論文集
    2003年 SCI03 巻
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2003/12/01
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    機能的MRIを用いて日本語文字列の認知に関わる神経機構を調べた.被験者がSr タスク(文字列を右から左まで見る)及びSlタスク(文字列を左から右まで見る)を行った.実験の結果によって,Slタスクに対して,Srタスクに関わる賦活部位は,舌状回,紡錘回, 下側頭回,上,中,下後頭回, 上頭頂小葉, 下前頭回, 中前頭回, 海馬傍回, 前頭葉内側面である. これらの結果は過去文字・言語に関する研究の結論と一致している.さらに,文字列の認知は空間認知及びワーキング・メモリと関連していることを発見した.
  • Keisuke Ohnaka, Kazuhide Shimizu, Daisuke Kobayashi, Motoki Inaji, Taketoshi Maehara
    Epilepsy & Seizure
    2018年 10 巻 1 号 87-94
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) is a benign tumor that causes intractable epilepsy at young ages. In this report, we present a rare case of a 28-year-old female with a DNET in the temporal lobe showing extracortical extension to the basal cistern. Enlarging contrast enhancement on MRI, a trait unusual for a benign tumor, suggested the possibility of a malignant glioma. An intraoperative rapid pathological diagnosis of a low-grade glioma in conjunction with electrocorticographic findings supported a surgical strategy of tumor resection alone with preservation of the hippocampus. For this type of DNET with uncommon extension and MRI features, a combination of electro-physiological and morphological analyses based on preoperative studies for epileptogenic focus detection is key to achieving good seizure control and tumor removal with preservation of the patient's memory function.

  • Atsushi Niwa, Yoko Okamoto, Takayuki Kondo, Hidehiko Nabatame, Ryosuke Takahashi, Hidekazu Tomimoto
    Internal Medicine
    2014年 53 巻 11 号 1191-1195
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/06/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    We herein report an autopsy case of relapsing polychondritis encephalitis coexisting with a Lewy body pathology and also review previous autopsy cases. A 59-year-old man exhibited a tremor of the right hand, small-steppage gait and bradykinesia. Five years later, he presented with relapsing auricular chondritis and scleritis and subsequently showed exacerbation of extrapyramidal symptoms. A histological examination revealed perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and infiltration in the small vessels, as well as loss of nerve cells and gliosis in the basal ganglia, insular gyrus and medial temporal lobe. The present case was characterized by perivasculitic panencephalitis and the coexistence of a Lewy body pathology, which may have augmented the patient's parkinsonism.
  • Saori Odagiri, Fumiaki Mori, Kunikazu Tanji, Naohito Kuroda, Koichi Wakabayashi
    Biomedical Research
    2011年 32 巻 5 号 337-342
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/10/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    Microscopic globular bodies (MGBs) are brilliantly and homogenously eosinophilic spherical inclusions, 1-10 μm in diameter. They are mainly distributed in the cerebral neocortex and hippocampus in normal individuals ranged in age from first to tenth decade. Ultrastructurally, MGBs are composed of electron-dense granular material and are located in dendrites. However, immunohistochemical profile of MGBs is uncertain. Therefore, we immunohistochemically examined the hippocampus from five control subjects ranged from 25 to 76 years. The marginal portion of MGBs was positive for lysosomal proteases (cathepsins B, D and L), and markers of dendrite (MAP2) and dendritic spine (drebrin). In some cases, MGBs were entirely immunostained with anti-cathepsin D. Among the cathepsins, MGBs were most frequently immunolabeled with anticathepsin D. They were negative for ubiquitin, ubiquitin-proteasome system (p62, NUB1 and EDD1), autophagosome (LC3), cytoskeletal proteins (neurofilament, actin, tubulin and cytokeratin), tau, α-synuclein and TDP-43. These findings suggest that MGBs are sequestered by lysosome- protease system, but not by ubiquitin-proteasome system or autophagosome.
  • Takashi SHIZUKUISHI, Osamu ABE, Shigeki AOKI
    Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
    2013年 12 巻 3 号 153-159
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/09/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2013/07/12
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders is complex and cannot be easily assessed by laboratory studies. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique increasingly used for noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of abnormalities of the cerebral white matter because it provides exquisite details on tissue microstructures and also can perform sophisticated computer-based analyses. We review basic principles of DTI; methods of diffusion tensor analysis; recent DTI findings in major psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder; and factors to keep in mind when interpreting the results of DTI analysis. We recommend the frequent use of DTI as a routine clinical protocol to assess white matter abnormalities in patients with psychiatric disorders.
  • Ji Hyun Kim, Jeong Seok Seo
    総合病院精神医学
    2015年 27 巻 3 号 227-232
    発行日: 2015/07/15
    公開日: 2018/08/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    Since Olds and Miller discovered the space preference phenomenon and related brain structures in 1952, the so-called pleasure center or reward system was identified during animal experiments to test brain function by self-stimulation. Due to advances in brain imaging technology, a large body of evidence now indicates that addiction is a disease of the brain. Thereafter, substance dependence was determined to be closely related with the reward system and parts of the prefrontal cortex. Recent studies in behavioral addiction, such as pathological gambling and internet gaming disorder, demonstrated that the neural substrate for cue-induced craving is similar to that of cue-induced craving in substance dependence. These substrates include the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, the nucleus accumbens, the cingulate cortex, and the caudate nucleus, suggesting that substance and behavioral addiction could share the same neuropathophysiology. Based on this neuroscientific evidence, we developed education materials to prevent addiction. The basic concepts of addiction, including craving, withdrawal and tolerance, loss of impulse control, and social or occupational dysfunction are explained in the material based on results from neuroscience studies In additional, a legislative bill to prevent, manage, and treat addiction was introduced in 2013, regardless of the debate and controversy in Korea. The education material and bill will be helpful to understand and manage patients suffering from addiction.

  • Teruhisa Okuya, Toshihiko Date, Miwa Fukino, Mikio Iwakawa, Kohji Sasabe, Kumi Nagao, Yuki Moriizumi, Iwaki Akiyama, Yoshiaki Watanabe
    Acoustical Science and Technology
    2017年 38 巻 3 号 120-127
    発行日: 2017/05/01
    公開日: 2017/05/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, we used blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals and emotion ratings to investigate the relationship between the type and strength of emotion induced by musical stimuli. Our goal was to establish a quantitative emotional evaluation method that uses brain activity. In Experiment 1, 26 participants rated 60 pieces of music using a semantic differential scale and 20 pieces were chosen on the basis of Russell's circumplex model. In Experiment 2, we investigated the relationships between the type and strength of emotion and brain activity by asking 20 participants to listen to the pieces of music in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner. We identified brain regions for which the BOLD signal intensity was correlated with the ratings of emotions. As a result, the ``Happy'' rating was mainly correlated with activity in the superior temporal gyrus. The ``Sad'' rating was correlated with activity in the left thalamus. The ``Fear'' rating was mainly correlated with activity in the parahippocampal gyrus, insular cortex, and right amygdala. By focusing on activity in these brain regions, it may be possible to quantify the type and strength of emotions evoked by music.
  • Mi-Ae JUNG, Sang-Soep NAHM, Min-Su LEE, In-Hye LEE, Ah-Ra LEE, Dong-Pyo JANG, Young-Bo KIM, Zang-Hee CHO, Ki-Dong EOM
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2010年 72 巻 7 号 853-860
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2010/08/04
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2010/02/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study was performed to anatomically illustrate the living canine hippocampal formation in three-dimensions (3D), and to evaluate its relationship to surrounding brain structures. Three normal beagle dogs were scanned on a MR scanner with inversion recovery segmented 3D gradient echo sequence (known as MP-RAGE: Magnetization Prepared Rapid Gradient Echo). The MRI data was manually segmented and reconstructed into a 3D model using the 3D slicer software tool. From the 3D model, the spatial relationships between hippocampal formation and surrounding structures were evaluated. With the increased spatial resolution and contrast of the MPRAGE, the canine hippocampal formation was easily depicted. The reconstructed 3D image allows easy understanding of the hippocampal contour and demonstrates the structural relationship of the hippocampal formation to surrounding structures in vivo.
  • Harumasa Takano, Motoichiro Kato, Ataru Inagaki, Koichiro Watanabe, Haruo Kashima
    The Keio Journal of Medicine
    2006年 55 巻 4 号 153-160
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2007/04/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been employed for treating depression for more than 60 years, its mechanisms of action are yet unknown. To clarify the ECT effects on brain function, we examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) using single photon emission computed tomography at 3 time points-few days before an ECT course (Pre) and approximately 5 days (Post 1) and 1 month (Post 2) after the last ECT session. Eight depressive patients completed the study. In all the patients, the depressive symptoms improved after the ECT course, and major cognitive impairment was not observed at any time point. At Pre, the regional CBF (rCBF) in the widespread areas in the frontal lobe and limbic regions including cingulate cortex and parahippocampal gyrus was lower in the patients than in the normal controls. At Post 1 and Post 2, the rCBF in the frontal and limbic regions continued to be lower in the patients than in the controls although the successive recovery of decreased rCBF in the frontal region was observed. Regarding the time course among the patients, the rCBF in the right medial frontal region significantly increased (toward normal) at Post 2, not at Post 1. These findings suggest that depressive patients have decreased CBF in the frontal and limbic regions, and the medial frontal region plays a crucial role in ECT and recovery from depression. Further, patients who have undergone ECT treatment for depression should be carefully observed because brain functions continue to change even after a successful ECT course.
  • Satoru YASUTAKA, Harumichi SHINOHARA, Rieko KOMINAMI
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
    2013年 89 巻 4 号 147-156
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2013/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The three dimensional structure of the human hippocampus was studied using the gross anatomical tractography (GAT) of Klingler technique. Eight hippocampi were obtained from seven donors to the Kanazawa Medical University, fixed in 5% formaldehyde, frozen and thawed twice, then dissected both by naked eye and under a dissecting microscope.
    The subiculum was segmented into 7-12 hillocks along the antero-posterior axis. The hillocks were organized with the white matter process and its gray matter covering. Cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) was represented by gray matter located in a longitudinal trough about 1 mm wide between the base of the fimbria and fiber bundles of the stratum lacunosum. CA3 was traversed and segmented by numerous short fiber fasciculi extending from the dentes of the margo denticulatus. The stratum radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare were differentially dissected. They not only contained systematically arranged neuronal fibers but also frameworks to allow passage of blood vessels. The polymorphic layer (PL) consisted of many italic L-shaped bars that were segmented, fused side-by-side and arrayed along the antero-posterior axis. The stratum granulosum (SG) lined the superior surface of PL as square plates and inferior surface of PL as thin folds. Thus, the SG was also segmented, although a little arbitrarily. CA4 was found not to be a neuronal plate, but instead comprised numerous neuronal rods that were segmentally arranged in accord with segmentation of CA3.
    On the basis of these segmentations, we conclude that, structurally, the human hippocampus is an antero-posterior succession of neuronal units, each consisting of the subicular hillock, dens, CA3, granular cell plates and folds, PL bars and CA4 rods.
  • 宇野 富徳, 王 力群, 三分一 史和, 外池 光雄, 金田 輝男
    電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
    2010年 130 巻 8 号 1379-1386
    発行日: 2010/08/01
    公開日: 2010/08/01
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.
  • Ugur Ture
    脳神経外科ジャーナル
    1999年 8 巻 4 号 292-
    発行日: 1999/04/20
    公開日: 2017/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 三原 忠絋
    脳神経外科ジャーナル
    1999年 8 巻 4 号 292-
    発行日: 1999/04/20
    公開日: 2017/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 清水 弘之
    脳神経外科ジャーナル
    1999年 8 巻 4 号 292-
    発行日: 1999/04/20
    公開日: 2017/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
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