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全文: "Parent-Teacher Association"
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  • アルファロ フランシスコ, 内海 成治, 中村 安秀
    人間環境学研究
    2010年 8 巻 1 号 7-14
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2010/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    日本では公立学校の教育費は、国、都道府県、市町村の三部門が負担し財政面で地方分権が成立している。本稿は、日本とグアテマラの公立小学校における財務管理のプロセスや構造を明らかにすることで中央集権的な政府が教育費を負担するグアテマラのような発展途上国において、日本の教訓を活かす可能性分析した。本研究では事例研究を実施した。日本の2校、グアテマラの4校を対象としたケーススタディーである。インタビューは、経理担当職員を対象に学校の財務管理の公的根拠、財源、予算案作成、執行、予算管理について行った。その結果、教育費の負担と管理に地方自治体が関わることで、教育現場のニーズがより的確に把握されていること、また、経済的に恵まれない家族や大家族の子供の就学向上につながっている可能性があることが明らかになった。
  • 今北 哲平, 河村 優子
    日本健康心理学会大会発表論文集
    2018年 31 巻 KPA14
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/08/14
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • Keiko MIYATA
    TRANSACTIONS OF THE JAPAN SOCIETY FOR AERONAUTICAL AND SPACE SCIENCES, AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY JAPAN
    論文ID: 17.506
    発行日: 2019年
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/01/31
    ジャーナル 認証あり 早期公開

    JAXA offers a program called “Aerospace School” to high school students as a form of informal education. Participants are divided into teams and work together to come up with a theme for their mission at various JAXA facilities. They also allocate roles and responsibilities among themselves. The goal is not only to provide Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) knowledge, but also to build their confidence. We hope this experience will help young adults think about their future career paths, and we strive to actively help them realize their potential. This paper presents the methods, specific examples of, and changes to the Aerospace School program that occurred between 2014 and 2017.

  • 片岡 明美, 内田 陽子, 山口 博志, 井上 博道, 大野 真司, 竹中 由美子, 鶴崎 紀代子, 西田 桂子, 在津 久美子
    日本乳癌検診学会誌
    2006年 15 巻 1 号 83-87
    発行日: 2006/03/25
    公開日: 2011/03/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    わが国では30~40歳代女性の乳癌罹患率が高いにも関わらず, 検診受診率は低く, 乳癌死亡数も増加している。乳癌検診受診率の向上と乳癌死亡率の減少を目的として, われわれが行っている小中学校のPTAの母親を対象にした乳癌啓発活動について報告する。事後のアンケートでは, 乳癌体験者からのメッセージによって母親たちは乳癌をより身近なものとして捉え, 検診の重要性を理解できていた。乳癌に対してまったく無関心かつ無知な女性の検診受診率の向上には医療者からの講演だけでは困難であるが, 体験者との交流は強い動機付けになると考えられた。
  • Yasushi Makihara, Takuya Tanoue, Daigo Muramatsu, Yasushi Yagi, Syunsuke Mori, Yuzuko Utsumi, Masakazu Iwamura, Koichi Kise
    IPSJ Transactions on Computer Vision and Applications
    2015年 7 巻 74-78
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Most gait recognition approaches rely on silhouette-based representations due to high recognition accuracy and computational efficiency, and a key problem for those approaches is how to accurately extract individuality-preserved silhouettes from real scenes, where foreground colors may be similar to background colors and the background is cluttered. We therefore propose a method of individuality-preserving silhouette extraction for gait recognition using standard gait models (SGMs) composed of clean silhouette sequences of a variety of training subjects as a shape prior. We firstly match the multiple SGMs to a background subtraction sequence of a test subject by dynamic programming and select the training subject whose SGM fit the test sequence the best. We then formulate our silhouette extraction problem in a well-established graph-cut segmentation framework while considering a balance between the observed test sequence and the matched SGM. More specifically, we define an energy function to be minimized by the following three terms: (1) a data term derived from the observed test sequence, (2) a smoothness term derived from spatio-temporally adjacent edges, and (3) a shape-prior term derived from the matched SGM. We demonstrate that the proposed method successfully extracts individuality-preserved silhouettes and improved gait recognition accuracy through experiments using 56 subjects.
  • Akihiro NAKADA, Shinichi IWASAKI, Masaru KANCHIKA, Takehisa NAKAO, Yasuhiko DEGUCHI, Akihito KONISHI, Hideyuki ISHIMOTO, Koki INOUE
    Industrial Health
    2016年 54 巻 5 号 396-402
    発行日: 2016/09/30
    公開日: 2016/10/08
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2016/03/25
    ジャーナル フリー

    Japanese teachers are mentally and physically burdened with various work stressors. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress including role problems among Japanese schoolteachers. This study included 1,006 teachers working in public schools in a Japanese city. The Japanese version of Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depressive symptoms, and the Generic Job Stress Questionnaire was used to evaluate occupational stress and three measures of social support. Subjects with SDS scores of more than 50 were categorized into the "depressive group." We examined the relationship between depressive symptoms and perceived individual level occupational stress using multiple logistic regression analyses. A total of 202 (20.1%) teachers belonged to the depressive group. We found that high role ambiguity, high role conflict, high quantitative workload, and low social support from family or friends were significantly related to depressive symptoms. To moderate role ambiguity and role conflict experienced by teachers, it is necessary to clarify the priority order of teachers' work. Furthermore, it is necessary to reduce workload by focusing on the content of teachers' work and the setting of education itself. Focusing on these elements will reduce teachers' depressive symptoms.

  • Moon Shik Kim, Nai Won Oh
    東南アジア研究
    1981年 18 巻 4 号 567-586
    発行日: 1981年
    公開日: 2018/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Vladimir R. Foronda
    Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture
    2011年 6 巻 1 号 101-113
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The need for sustainable development arose from overexploitation of natural resources. One of the significant roles of humanity is to ensure proper utilization of such resources, and fulfillment of this role requires an understanding of the global consequences of local actions. An integration of instruction about the consequences of exploitation into educational curricula will be an advantage to make people aware of the need for humanity as stewards of the environment.
    The second United Nations Millennium Development Goal is “Achieve universal primary education.” Increased use of information and communication technology (ICT) in schools can be expected to attain progress towards this goal and to prepare students for participation in the information society. The use of ICT as an innovative approach to teaching sustainable development is a challenge, especially in the primary education sector, where the foundation for human development is being laid
    I surveyed 10 public high schools in the Philippines (Camarines Sur Province) that served as participants in the Commission on Information and Communications Technology Human Capital Development Group (CICT-HCDG) iSchools Project in 2009, and I found that the project made major contributions toward the integration of ICT into the educational programs of these schools. For example, before project intervention, 1 desktop computer served 256 students, and 1 desktop computer served 7 teachers; after intervention, 1 desktop computer served 1 or 2 teachers, and 1 desktop computer served 19 students.
    After the implementation, almost half (42.3%) of the teachers became regular, confident computer users. Many (40.6%) regularly and confidently used word processing software, and some occasionally used spreadsheet software (33.9%), presentation software (30.8%), and the internet (33.8%) for classroom instruction, communication, and research. All the surveyed schools were able to establish computer laboratories. The schools had partnered with state universities and colleges and deployed student-teachers on practicum to help teachers integrate ICT into basic subject teaching. After the implementation, they started to develop institutional websites and were preparing for the adoption of computer-enabled library management systems.
  • 片上 宗二
    教育学研究
    1980年 47 巻 2 号 150-153
    発行日: 1980/06/30
    公開日: 2009/01/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • FUJINAGA Go
    Geographical review of Japan series B
    2010年 82 巻 2 号 137-148
    発行日: 2010/03/30
    公開日: 2010/05/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    This research analyzes the spatial characteristics of rural Japanese communities under post-productivism, with particular emphasis on their educational functions. More specifically, it focuses on experience-based learning about agriculture, forestry and fishery industries. This type of learning is linked with dietary education, environmental education and aesthetic education, whose importance has been highlighted in recent years, in the context of education farm. The study takes two elementary schools in Saga City as examples, and examines the specific nature of their education farm activities, and their relationships with the local area. Most education farm activities in Japan are carried out at educational institutions such as schools. Therefore, in most cases such farm-related educational activities are conducted for local children, taking the school district as the basic unit. The materials and personnel used in these activities are of course mainly procured from within the local area. In other words, the instructional materials used by these programs are human resources primarily drawn from residents who have worked in the agriculture, forestry, and fishery industries, and the land resources which are the basis of their livelihood. In contemporary Japanese rural communities which are experiencing depopulation, aging, and declining educational capabilities, the use of the rural community space as a new regional resource that is different from economic consumption has great significance for developing new educational functions through educational institutions like schools.
  • 佐藤 千登勢
    ジェンダー史学
    2007年 3 巻 45-56
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2011/11/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article examines the historical transformation of mothers' pension programs into Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) of the United States Social Security Act of 1935. The mothers' pension system, which aimed to provide widows with cash assistance so that they could care for their children at home, was one of the most significant achievements of women's reform movements in the Progressive Era. By 1935, mothers' pension laws had been enacted in 46 states, but they failed to give subsistence to single mothers because of the shortage of financial resources and lukewarm public interest. The Great Depression further damaged the mothers' pension programs leaving many destitute women to general relief.
    The U.S. Children's Bureau, which had been a strong advocate of mothers' pensions since its inception, worked closely with the Committee on Economic Security (CES) appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to draft the ADC plan. Its director, Kathleen Lenroot, expected that the enactment of ADC would "nationalize" mothers' pensions under the supervision of the bureau and realize the "whole child approach" that they advocated as experts on the issue.
    However, the bureau's initiative was opposed by the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), which attempted to establish a "generic" public assistance system under its leadership. The final report of the CES accepted most of FERA's recommendations because FERA was playing a leading role in giving cash assistance to impoverished families during the Great Depression,
    Deliberations in Congress further emasculated the plan proposed by the Children's Bureau. Lawmakers, mostly from southern states, limited the amount of assistance and eliminated the provision of minimum subsistence. Motivated by racial prejudice against African American women who they feared would leave wage work for ADC, they succeeded in decentralizing ADC giving each state the right to determine the details of ADC according to the "local situation."
  • Kumiko Mitsui-Saitoh, Tadashi Furukawa, Takashi Akutagawa, Keiko Hasada, Hideki Mizutani, Yumi Sugimoto, Jun Yamada, Masatake Niwa, Yoshihiro Hotta, Yoshiaki Takaya
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2011年 34 巻 3 号 335-342
    発行日: 2011/03/01
    公開日: 2011/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The protective effects of cyclic dipeptides in alcoholic beverages were investigated in the perfused guinea-pig hearts subjected to ischemia and reperfusion. Subsequently, in order to determine the importance of cyclic dipeptide structure, the effects of cyclo(L-Leu-L-Tyr) (cLY) were compared with those of the newly synthesized non-cyclic dipeptides, L-Leu-L-Tyr (LY) and L-Tyr-L-Leu (YL). After reperfusion, pressure recovery (%) in the left ventricle reached a peak of over 90% in the presence of cLY (10−6 M and 10−5 M) (control: 22.9%). The recovery by LY and YL was significantly lower than that by cLY, and ATP levels simultaneously monitored using 31P-NMR were already lower during the ischemic end period than those observed with cLY treatment. In perfused mitochondrial preparations, cLY significantly inhibited mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m) elevation in a similar way to that of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) inhibitor cyclosporin A. In vitro electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) revealed that the active oxygen radicals quenching activity of cLY was greater than those of non-cyclic dipeptides. cLY inhibited caspase-3-induced apoptosis. The cyclic dipeptide structure inhibits opening of the MPTP by preventing [Ca2+]m overload-induced apoptosis related to mitochondrial active oxygen radical accumulation in ischemia-reperfusion hearts.
  • Maki Nakao, Yukie Tsuno
    栄養学雑誌
    2018年 76 巻 Supplement 号 S105-S114
    発行日: 2018/07/01
    公開日: 2018/08/28
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス

    Objective: To describe the Indian school meal program (Mid-Day Meal: MDM) with the aim of improving the nutritional status of children.

    Method: This study investigated the Indian central government's reports and articles about the school meal program.

    Results: In India, the MDM has been institutionalized, along with compulsory education. In 2015~2016, MDM coverage was 81%, with a high proportion of MDM working days. However, the school attendance rate was low, with many absent children. Despite established nutritional standards for school meals and hygiene management guidelines, there were no data on school compliance rates. To evaluate processes, each school reported to the central government, as part of a national system of monitoring system operational situations (e.g., coverage). The expected improvement in children's nutritional status after the introduction of the MDM has never been confirmed because no national health survey has been carried out to evaluate outcomes. By introducing the MDM and promoting compulsory education, the central government has triggered a rise in school enrollment rates. A plan-do-check-act (PDCA) system is in place, with a Steering-cum-Monitoring Committee assuming a key role in this system.

    Conclusions: When the MDM was institutionalized in India, along with compulsory education, it represented the world's largest school meal program. The Japanese experience of introducing a children's national health surveillance system could be useful in evaluating the success of the MDM program in improving children's nutrition.

  • Masanari Watanabe, Hisashi Noma, Jun Kurai, Hiroyuki Sano, Degejirihu Hantan, Masaru Ueki, Hiroya Kitano, Eiji Shimizu
    Allergology International
    2017年 66 巻 1 号 52-58
    発行日: 2017/01/01
    公開日: 2017/01/28
    ジャーナル フリー

    Background: The relationship between airborne particulate matter (PM) and pulmonary function in children has not been consistent among studies, potentially owing to differences in the inflammatory response to PM, based on PM types and sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of airborne PM on pulmonary function in schoolchildren and its potential for an inflammatory response. Methods: Daily morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured in 339 schoolchildren in February 2015. Interleukin (IL)-8 production was assessed in THP1 cells stimulated by airborne PM collected every day during the study period, and these IL-8 concentrations are described as the daily IL-8 levels. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the association between PEF values and the daily levels of suspended PM (SPM), PM diameters smaller than 2.5 mm (PM2.5), and IL-8.

    Results: The daily IL-8 levels were significantly associated with those of SPM and PM2.5. A 0.83 mg/mL increase in IL-8 levels was significantly associated with a -1.07 L/min (95% confidence interval, -2.05 to -0.08) decrease in PEF. A 12.0 mg/m3 increase in SPM and a 10.0 mg/m3 increase in PM2.5 were associated with a -1.36 L/min (-2.93 to 0.22) and -1.72 L/min (-3.82 to 0.36) decreases in PEF, respectively. There were no significant relationships between PEF, SPM, and PM2.5.

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that the effects of airborne PM on pulmonary function in school- children might depend more on the pro-inflammatory response than the mass concentration of the PM.

  • HARUO KUBOZONO
    ENGLISH LINGUISTICS
    1988年 5 巻 150-169
    発行日: 1988年
    公開日: 2009/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper seeks to point out the striking similarities which English and (Tokyo) Japanese show concerning the linguistic conditions on the prosodic compound formation process (PCFP). Based on the results of an original study of Japanese compound nouns (cf. Kubozono 1987, 1988, forthcoming), three types of conditions-semantic, branching and rhythmic-are proposed as linguistic factors that commonly constrain the prosodic process in the two languages. This suggests that languages may show a considerable similarity at the abstract level of speech production despite the differences in the phonetic effects of prosodic processes per se. It also suggests that (at least) some conditions on rules and processes are to be defined in the general linguistic theory rather than in the grammar of a specific language.
  • 平和 伸仁
    日本内科学会雑誌
    2010年 99 巻 11 号 2876-2883
    発行日: 2010年
    公開日: 2013/04/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 寺本 淳志, 川間 健之介
    特殊教育学研究
    2011年 48 巻 6 号 539-553
    発行日: 2011/03/31
    公開日: 2017/07/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study aims to investigate the social participation of children with severe and multiple disabilities (SMD) and to examine the relation of the children's social participation to personal and environmental variables. Parents of 1,105 students at schools for students who are physically challenged reported their children's social participation during the past year, as well as the students' needs for medical care, their motor function level and communication ability, and characteristics of the family and their use of support services. Some students engaged in a relatively wide range of activities, whereas about 5% were severely restricted in their social participation. Several personal variables (different grade level in school, the children's motor functioning and communication ability, and some types of medical care) and environmental variables (whether or not the child lives in the family's home, others' cooperation with the main caregiver, and use of mobility support services) were associated with social participation. Factors such as the heavy burden of caring for children with severe and multiple disabilities and a lack of human resources for care appeared to have a negative influence on the children's social participation. The focus should be on the main caregiver and the environment that supports these children's social participation.
  • Haruka UEDA
    フードシステム研究
    2018年 25 巻 2 号 48-70
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/11/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this study health promotion theories were employed to analyze systems for promoting taste education (one of the food pedagogies common to Japan, France, and Italy) with a view to making recommendations for the improvement of the institutionalization of Japan's Shokuiku (food education) initiative. Each country's promotion system was examined, with a special focus on its pedagogies; its political/institutional positioning in primary school education; the organizational structures of promoter institutions; and effective strategies within communities, institutions, and public policies. The methodology included a literature review of related articles, interviews with the leaders of key organizations, and observations of organizational activities (e.g., classes and training programs). The major findings relate to (1) enabling a pedagogical classification of several taste education variants; (2) articulating the similarities and differences of the legal status of taste education within the educational systems of each country; (3) identifying effective strategies for promoter organizations at two different levels (central and regional); and (4) unmasking the critical roles of previously hidden actors such as “intermediary” organizations (for example, French and Italian inter-professional organizations) in effectively promoting food education. All of these findings inform suggestions for effectively orientating Japan's contemporary Shokuiku initiative.
  • 熊谷 一乗
    日本教育行政学会年報
    1991年 17 巻 135-148
    発行日: 1991/10/05
    公開日: 2018/01/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper aims at clarifying the significance and the incompleteness of the educational legislation established by Education Reform Act 1988, which the author calls Thatcherism Educational Legislation, after reviewing its specific character. The Education Reform Act is the materialization of Thatcherism, which is the combination of neo-liberalism and neo-conservatism, because the administration of the public education, and the structure of the legislation provided by it is composed of the market forces measures based on neo-liberalism and the centralization measures connected with neo-conservatism. The former is characterized by privatization, the latter marked by state control. The market forces and the centralization are logically contradictory to each other. Therefor, it can be said that the specific character of Thacherism Educational Legislation consists of the contradictory structure of its policy system. This contradictory structure is needed to cope with the necessity for solving the problems in the public education linked with the social and economic crisis which is a result of the pursuit of the welfare state policy line. The market forces measures and the centralization measures are complementary each other and are compatible in terms of their function to satisfy all sorts of need in the administration of the public education under the liberal democratic state system. It is necessary for the liberal democratic state to combine the market forces measures with the centralization measures to administer the public education system in a effective and democratic way in order to improve the level of educational services. However, Thatcherism Educational Legislation strongly influenced by "product-consumer model" has been beset with various kinds of probrem since its enforcement owing to the lack of the due consideration necessary for satisfying all sorts of need in the public education system in well balanced condition. It seems to us that it is necessary to reevaluate the policy line and the measure for the educational administration which Thatcherism has abandoned in order to overcome the incompleteness of the Legislation.
  • Shuichi ITO
    地理学評論
    2006年 79 巻 12 号 680-699
    発行日: 2006/10/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study examines how married women adapt their way of life to the suburbs and why they choose to hold part-time jobs, to clarify the mechanisms underlying “spatial entrapment” and “spatial mismatch.” Data were collected through a questionnaire survey targeting married couples living in Chiba New Town, located in the northeastern suburb of the Tokyo metropolitan area. Among 107 sampled women, 72 are part-time workers. Many of them preferred the short commute, short and flexible working hours, and lack of overtime responsibilities in their job. Thus they often found jobs by receiving information on the local labor market from news-papers and their insertions, posters and displays, and direct leaflets. Women who found their current jobs through these mediums commute to their workplaces approximately four kilometers away from their home, which corresponds to the distance between stations in the new town. Nevertheless, after commencing work, women realized that their current jobs did not match their preferred ones. Also, full-time homemakers are likely not to need to work outside the home in order to support their households. These results demonstrate that suburban married women become short-distance commuters because they take advantage of the social environment that embeds them in their job search. However, this also reflects unique characteristics of Chiba New Town, such as inaccessibility to central Tokyo, wives' lifestyle of giving priority to their family needs, and the relatively high incomes of their husbands that are sufficient for living.
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