Chemical applications of discrete mathematics and graph theory are briefly reviewed, including philosophical implications. Using the concept of dualist (inner graph-theoretical duals) it was possible to classify (cata-peri-corona classes) and enumerate benzenoid and diamondoid hydrocarbons. By associating numbers with molecular graphs, one can use these numbers (topological indices) for correlations with properties of chemical compounds − an early, simple, and rapid approach to drug design. The two types of atoms (metals and non-metals), are connected by three types pf chemical bonds (ionic, metallic, and covalent) that lead to four types pf lattices (ionic, metallic, atomic and molecular), allowing quick "2-3-4 grasp" of chemistry. The Periodic System of Elements, which is the cornerstone of chemistry and atomic physics, is in danger of being presented wrongly, devoid of the symmetry based on electronic s, p, d, and f shells; several possibilities for showing correctly these shells are discussed.
This essay uncovers new sartorial roles of men's waterproof coats that emerged in late Victorian and Edwardian England. Since the 1820s, England had witnessed remarkable improvements of waterproof cloth. Its primary purpose was to protect the body from the elements, though in the late nineteenth century, London tailors developed fashionable waterproof coats for gentlemen. By the end of the century, such coats became so familiar as to be depicted in fiction. One remarkable example is Sherlock Holmes, a famous fictional detective of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who wears one in the stories. Taking his coat as an illustrative example of the period, this essay focuses on three main topics: 1) the correlation between the development of waterproof coats and class distinction in the late Victorian and Edwardian periods; 2) the role of Holmes's clothes in the stories; and 3) defining Holmes' waterproof as a contemporary fashion for gentlemen.
Holmes' waterproof functions not only to reinforce his image as an intellectual and proficient detective, but also as a respectable agent who modernizes the dress code for gentleman. This is demonstrated as follows: 1) Investigating the development of waterproof coats of the periods reveals that the waterproof symbolized British industrial advancement, idealism of innovation, as well as middle-class respectability; 2) Holmes is an educated upper-middle-class gentleman, whose class-specific behavior and ideology are crystalized in his waterproof coat; 3) For middle-class men, being gentlemanly dressed and fashionable were always hard to achieve, because of the paucity of information and the intricacy of dress codes to observe. In such circumstances, Holmes in his waterproof serves as a denominator of the modern gentleman. Being functional, innovative, respectable, British and at the same time fashionable, his coat exemplifies how modern gentlemen should look.
The author has proposed and developed computer programs which make it possible to analyze English corpus and to make word lists from those corpus. The purposes of this study were to develop a new computer program that measures the range of words used in different types of corpus, to improve the computer programs, which had been developed in the earlier study, in order to deal with corpus with part-of-speech (POS) tags and to measure the processing time to judge whether these programs were useful or not. In this study, two kinds of RANGE program were newly developed and six programs of the previous study were revised. Five programs out of six could be considered to be useful, however, one program was not sufficient and needed to take some measures.
Background: Patch testing of contact allergens to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a traditional, useful tool. The most important decision is the distinction between allergic and irritant reactions, as this has direct implications on diagnosis and management. Our objective was to evaluate a new method of non-contact infrared reading of patch tests. Secondary objectives included a possible correlation between the intensity of the patch test reaction and temperature change.
Methods: 420 positive reactions from patients were included in our study. An independent patch test reader assessed the positive reactions and classified them as allergic (of intensity + to +++) or irritant (IR). At the same time, a forward-looking infrared (FLIR) camera attachment for an iPhone was used to acquire infrared thermal images of the patch tests, and images were analyzed using the FLIR ONE app.
Results: Allergic patch test reactions were characterized by temperature increases of 0.72 ± 0.67 °C compared to surrounding skin. Irritant reactions only resulted in 0.17 ± 0.31 °C temperature increase. The mean temperature difference between the two groups was highly significant (p < 0.0001) and therefore was used to predict the type of contact dermatitis.
Conclusions: Thermography is a reliable and effective way to distinguish between allergic and irritant contact dermatitis.