全文: "Split brain"
72件中 1-20の結果を表示しています
    1975年 25 巻 1 号 1-17
    発行日: 1975/09/25
    公開日: 2009/10/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Normal, chiasm-sectioned, split-brain monkeys (M. mulatta) were binocularly trained to press a lever after onset of a visual warning signal and to release it after various forperiods terminated by a second visual signal. The use of hand was restricted to one side. After training, they were monocularly tested in each of the eye-hand combinations. When ipsilateral eye-hand combination was used, significantly prolonged reaction times (RTs) were found in two of three chiasmsectioned and three of four split-brain monkeys, but in different hands. The distribution of RTs in these conditions was characterized by a group of extremly long RTs. Data were represented in the cumulative probability distributions, which were used to estimate the means and σ of the response criterion by an application of variable criterion model. Mean criterions of the split-brain monkeys were significantly higher than those of the chiasm-sectioned monkeys, which were not different from that of the normal monkey. Finally, an exponential growth function of sensory recruitment to these different criterions was demonstrated on a common units across the eight subjects. The results of these analysis imply that two components were involved in the delayed RTs appearing in these split-brain monkeys. One is related to the process of signal detection and the other to the process of response evocation.
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    1990年 161 巻 Supplement 号 61-78
    発行日: 1990年
    公開日: 2011/03/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    Visual information processings are realized by the posterior association cortex spreading in front of the striate and parastriate areas from which two major visual association pathways arise. The dorsal or the occipito-parietal pathway which transmits the inputs from the peripheral as well as the central visual field to the parietal association cortex is responsible for the visuospatial analysis of the visual informations. The occipito-temporal or the ventral pathway originates only from the foveal vision area, and sends the visual inputs to the inferior temporal lobe which engages in visual pattern or whole gestalt recognition of the visual informations. In addition to this dichotomous disposition of the dorsal and the ventral visual association pathways in each cerebral hemisphere, there is another type of functional specialization which is hierarchical rather than dichotomous. In the left cerebral hemisphere, the collateral pathways arise from both dorsal and ventral main streams and engage in the process of reading, or the verbal mode of visual information processing.
  • 桝井 映里, 松居 哲生, 荒木 宏明
    2017年 72.1 巻 17pB31-6
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2018/04/19
    会議録・要旨集 フリー


  • 河野 守夫
    1998年 2 巻 1 号 16-24
    発行日: 1998/04/30
    公開日: 2017/08/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Human beings innately have two neuropsychologically different rhythm processing systems: holistic and analytic. The former copes with rapid tempos of rhythm with less than 330ms inter-beat intervals (IBIs), and the latter with slow ones with more than 420ms IBIs. These two systems constitute a hierarchical structure: the holistic system comprises the base, and the analytic system, the superstructure component. These systems and their relationship were detected in Kohno's accumulated experiments using a split-brain patient, a patient with pure anarthria, and normal persons as subjects (Kohno, 1992, 1993, etc.). On the basis of these experiments, the underlying reasons for correction of truisms long-held by phoneticians will be discussed and the following claims will be made: 1) The traditional dichotomy of speech timing such as 'stress-timed' and 'syllable-timed' should be reclassified into 'stress-timed' and 'mora-timed'. 2) 'Mora-timed' is not a subcategory of 'syllable-timed'. 3) Equal interval accent is not a language universal, but a language specific. The timing regulation mechanism in a mora-timed language and the possibility of foot structure in Japanese (cf. Poser, 1990) will also be discussed.
  • 手塚 敏之, 下畑 享良, 石原 智彦, 大槻 美佳, 小田野 行男, 西澤 正豊
    2013年 53 巻 2 号 114-118
    発行日: 2013/02/01
    公開日: 2013/03/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    症例は50歳女性である.47歳時より冷蔵庫を開けようとして閉めてしまったり,道路の交差点で意図した方向とは別の方向に向かってしまったり,頭で考えていることと違うことをおこなってしまうという症状が徐々にみられるようになった.これらの行為はconflict of intentions(COI)に相当するものと考えられた.頭部MRIでは脳梁のびまん性萎縮とT2強調画像における膝部から体部,膨大部を主体とする高信号病変をみとめた.原因疾患としては,緩徐進行性の経過とびまん性で均質な脳梁病変から,何らかの白質ジストロフィーが考えられた.COIの鑑別診断として白質ジストロフィーも検討すべきと考えられた.
  • 坪井 康次
    1993年 33 巻 1 号 92-
    発行日: 1993/01/08
    公開日: 2017/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Toshio INUI
    2004年 47 巻 2 号 59-62
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2004/08/24
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 吉崎 一人, 八田 武志
    2003年 1 巻 2 号 2_1-2_7
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2009/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的はHellige(1987)が提案したメタコントロールパラダイムを利用して、利き手とメタコントロール半球の関係を検討することであった。メタコントロールの概念は、Levy and Trevarthen(1976)が分離脳患者の結果から提案したもので、課題に優位な半球とは別に、課題遂行をコントロールする半球の存在を提案したものである。Hellige(1987)が、この概念を健常者に適用できるようにパラダイムを開発したのがメタコントロールのパラダイムである。このパラダイムでは一側半球に情報を投入する条件に加えて、同じ情報を左右両半球に同時に投入する条件を必要とする。一側視野の成績パターンと左右同時に呈示された条件での成績パターンを比較し、メタコントロール半球を推測するのである。我々は、右手利き群と左利き手群に対して心的加算課題を実施した。この課題は、1組の漢数字や算用数字が瞬間呈示され被験者に足し算を求めるものであった。Helligeのパラダイムを適用するためには、(1)左右両半球に同時に同じ情報が投入されること、(2)左右視野条件と実験条件の交互作用が見られること、が必要となる。そこで数字対は左視野、右視野、あるいは中央視野に呈示され、また数字対の組み合わせとして、漢数字対(三-七)、算用数字対(2-9)、漢数字・算用数字対(四-6)の3条件が用意された。その結果、左右視野と刺激対条件の間に交互作用が見られ、算用数字対条件においてのみ、利き手群間にラテラリティパターンの差異が認められた。つまり、右手利き群では左半球優位性が、左手利き群では右半球優位性がみられた。利き手群別にメタコントロール半球の分析を行った結果、各群ともメタコントロール半球の存在が示唆された。右手利き群においては中央視野成績パターンと右視野成績パターンが同様であり、左視野成績パターンとは異なるものであった。このことは、右手利き群では左半球が課題をコントロールしていることを示唆している。これに対して左手利き群においては、中央視野成績のパターンと同じパターンを示したのが左視野条件の成績であったことから、右半球が課題をコントロールしていることが推察された。これらの結果は、課題をコントロールする半球は、課題に対して優位な半球となることを示唆している。
  • 金谷 治郎
    1985年 3 巻 2 号 164-173
    発行日: 1985/09/30
    公開日: 2011/01/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Benzodiazepine誘導体のネコ扁桃核キンドリングに対する効果を検討して次の結果を得た。1) flunitrazepam, nitrazepam, clonazepam投与時は著しい痙攣発作阻止と脳波の後発射短縮を示した。2) diazepam投与時は痙攣発作阻止と二次側後発射短縮がみられたが, 一次側では中脳網様体でのみ短縮効果が認められた。しかし正中離断モデルに対する効果を考慮すると, その作用に関して, 他の三剤との差異はないと考えられた。3) これらBenzodiazepine誘導体はすべてすぐれた抗痙攣効果を有し, そのおもな作用は脳幹網様体での発作二次性全汎化阻止であると考えられた。
  • 平 孝臣, 黒田 敏
    2007年 16 巻 3 号 163-
    発行日: 2007/03/20
    公開日: 2017/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 加我 君孝, 進藤 美津子
    1989年 32 巻 5 号 401-402
    発行日: 1989/10/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 馬原 孝彦, 朝長 正徳, 吉村 正博, 山之内 博, 嶋田 裕之, 勝沼 英宇
    1990年 27 巻 4 号 484-485
    発行日: 1990/07/30
    公開日: 2009/11/24
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 渡邉 修, 宮野 佐年, 杉下 守弘, 上久保 毅, 菅原 光晴
    2001年 38 巻 6 号 465-470
    発行日: 2001/06/18
    公開日: 2009/10/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Bernard J. Baars
    1997年 4 巻 3 号 3_5-3_14
    発行日: 1997/09/01
    公開日: 2008/10/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Global Workspace theory is a simple cognitive architecture that has been developed to account qualitatively for a large set of matched pairs of conscious and unconscious processes (Baars, 1983, 1988, 1993, 1997). Such matched contrastive pairs of phenomena can be either psychological or neural. Psychological phenomena include subliminal priming, automaticity with practice, and selective attention. Neural examples include coma and blindsight. Like other cognitive architectures, GW theory may be seen in terms of a theater metaphor of mental functioning. Consciousness resembles a bright spot on the theater stage of Working Memory (WM), directed there by a spotlight of attention, under executive guidance. The rest of the theater is dark and unconscious. This architectural approach leads to specific neural hypotheses. For sensory consciousness the bright spot on stage is likely to require the corresponding sensory projection areas of the cortex. Sensory consciousness in different modalities may be mutually inhibitory, within approximately 100-ms time steps. Sensory cortex can be activated internally as well as externally, resulting in conscious inner speech and imagery. Once a conscious sensory content is established, it is broadcast widely to a distributed “audience” of expert networks sitting in the darkened theater, probably using corticocortical and corticothalamic fibers. This is the primary functional role of consciousness: to allow a “blackboard” architecture to operate in the brain, in order to integrate, provide access, and coordinate the functioning of very large numbers of specialized networks that otherwise operate autonomously (Mountcastle, 1978). All the elements of GW theory have reasonable brain interpretations, allowing us to generate a set of specific, testable brain hypotheses about consciousness and its many roles in the brain. This approach is compatible with a number of other proposals (Crick, 1984; Crick & Koch, 1990; Damasio, 1989; Edelman, 1989; Llinas & Ribary, 1992; Newman, this issue; Newman & Baars, 1993; Shallice, 1976; Posner, 1992).
  • Masayuki Kobayashi
    Journal of Oral Biosciences
    2006年 48 巻 4 号 244-260
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2007/02/02
    ジャーナル 認証あり
    Neurological studies in patients with stroke or epilepsy have suggested that the human primary gustatory cortex is located in the insula and frontal operculum. Although electrophysiological studies in non-human primates have supported the above idea, these conventional approaches were inapplicable to systematically examine the human gustatory cortex. Recent non-invasive brain imaging techniques including positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have enabled us to explore the precise locations of gustation-related regions in the human brain. These non-invasive imaging studies have revealed the mechanism of not only “bottom-up” information processing, from the peripheral gustatory organs, taste buds, to the gustatory cortices, but also “top-down” processing in the gustatory system. Our group investigated the organization of neural systems for gustatory perception and gustatory imagery using fMRI. We found that gustatory imagery tasks activate the insula, showing predominant activation in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, gustatory imagery tasks activated the orbitofrontal, precentral, and middle/superior frontal gyri. On the other hand, gustatory imagery contrasted with visual imagery activated only the insula, orbitofrontal and precentral gyri. These results suggest the possibility that the source of “top-down” signals may be in the middle and superior frontal gyri, and that these signals may affect on neural activities in the insula, orbitofrontal, and precentral gyri.
  • Julian Paul Keenan
    2007年 9 巻 1 号 3-6
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2011/07/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山本 真由美
    Japanese Psychological Research
    1984年 26 巻 2 号 120-124
    発行日: 1984/09/30
    公開日: 2009/02/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study was conducted to examine the developmental changes of hemispheric specialization and integration in young children. A Handedness Inventory and Intra-/Intermanual Tactile Identification Matching Test were given to each of 29 five years old children. The results showed that in the Intra-manual Matching condition, the performance level of the right-handers was higher than that of the ambidextrous group. In the right-handers, the left hand's performance was superior to that of the right hand in boys, whereas girls showed no hand difference. In children of ambidextrous, no hand difference was shown between boys and girls. In the Inter-manual Matching condition for the right-handers, boys made fewer errors in left hand first matching condition than in the right hand first matching condition, while girls showed no such difference. For the ambidextrous group, there was no difference between two conditions in both sexes. Based on these results, hemispheric specialization and integration in young children were discussed.
  • 本田 仁視
    Japanese Psychological Research
    1981年 23 巻 1 号 43-48
    発行日: 1981/06/30
    公開日: 2009/02/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Using 22 right-handed subjects, inhibitory effects of the first stimulus (S1) to the second stimulus (S2) specifically on reaction time (RT) in double visual-visual stimulation situations were examined from the viewpoint of hemispheric input/output coupling. When the two stimuli were presented in the opposite visual half-fields, the RT of the left hemisphere (right hand) to S2 after the projection of S1 into the right hemisphere was significantly longer than the RT of the right hemisphere (left hand) to S2 after the projection of S1 into the left hemisphere. When the two stimuli were presented in the same visual half-field, such asymmetrical inhibition of RTs was no longer observed. The results were interpreted as the manifestation of an asymmetrical interhemispheric interference closely related to the hemispheric motor control of right-handed subjects.
  • Masafumi KINOSHITA, Osamu TAKADA, Izumi MIZUTANI, Takafumi KOIKE, Kenji LEIBNITZ, Masayuki MURATA
    IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
    2015年 E98.D 巻 3 号 578-587
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/03/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the big data era, messaging systems are required to process large volumes of message traffic with high scalability and availability. However, conventional systems have two issues regarding availability. The first issue is that failover processing itself has a risk of failure. The second issue is to find a trade-off between consistency and availability. We propose a resilient messaging system based on a distributed in-memory key-value store (KVS). Its servers are interconnected with each other and messages are distributed to multiple servers in normal processing state. This architecture can continue messaging services wherever in the messaging system server/process failures occur without using failover processing. Furthermore, we propose two methods for improved resilience: the round-robin method with a slowdown KVS exclusion and the two logical KVS counter-rotating rings to provide short-term-availability in the messaging system. Evaluation results demonstrate that the proposed system can continue service without failover processing. Compared with the conventional method, our proposed distribution method reduced 92% of error responses to clients caused by server failures.
  • Takeshi HATTA
    Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
    2007年 6 巻 2 号 99-112
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/08/07
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The author reviewed brain-imaging studies on human handedness reported in major academic journals for the last 12 years, classified them as having anatomical or functional interest, and attempted to determine consensus on findings and limitations among the studies. Present reviews suggest that there have been fewer functional than anatomical examinations into handedness and that findings from those studies have not been necessarily consistent, that participants' degree of handedness has not been consistent between left-handed and right-handed people, and that much more brain-imaging study is anticipated to examine functional and anatomical differences of handedness based on genetic and environmental models.