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全文: "Taurine"
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  • KAZUHARU TAKEUCHI, HARUHIKO TOYOHARA, MASATO KINOSHITA, MORIHIKO SAKAGUCHI
    Fisheries science
    2002年 68 巻 sup2 号 1177-1180
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2008/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    We identified a Na+- and Cl--dependent high affinity taurine transporter as a hyperosmotic stress-inducible gene in a cultured common carp cell (EPC). Since the taurine transporter concentrates taurine from extracellular fluid to cell, upregulation of taurine transporter expression promotes the accumulation of taurine during hyperosmotic stress, suggesting the role of taurine as a compatible organic osmolyte. In tissues of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), taurine transporter mRNA was also increased during high-salinity adaptation. Although increase in taurine transporter mRNA was detected in all the tissues examined, total tissue taurine content did not always increased during high-salinity adaptation. Immunohistochemistry indicated the localization of taurine transporter protein in basolateral membrane of corium and epidermal cells of pectoral fin. These results suggest that polarized transport and subsequent changes in distribution of taurine in a tissue are critical for high-salinity adaptation of an individual fish.
  • Yoshiyuki Sawabe, Takaomi Tagami, Katsuhiro Yamasaki
    Journal of Health Science
    2008年 54 巻 6 号 661-664
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    A rapid and simple method to determine taurine in energy drinks by pre-column high-performance liquid chromatography was developed using a derivative of 4-fluoro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-F) without the need for an exclusive instrument. The reaction of taurine with NBD-F finished in 10 min at 60°C. The derivative was measured on a UV-Visible detector (470 nm) by HPLC using a conventional Octadecyl silane (ODS) column. A mixture of disodium hydrogenphosphate-citric acid buffer solution (pH 5.4) containing 10 mmol/l tetrabutylammonium bromide and acetonitrile (7:3) was used as the mobile phase. The recoveries were in the range of 98.2-99.9%, the precision as standard deviation was in the range of 0.3-0.5%, the linearity as a coefficient of correlation value was 0.999 and the specification was confirmed for taurine added to three commercial energy drinks. The content of taurine measured compared to the labeled amount in five commercial energy drinks containing taurine was 92.9-105.1%.
  • Yasuyuki Sadzuka, Makoto Matsuura, Takashi Sonobe
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2009年 32 巻 9 号 1584-1587
    発行日: 2009/09/01
    公開日: 2009/09/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Taurine is contained in seafood and has been studied extensively on life-style related diseases. Theanine increased the effects of the doxorubicin (DOX) as an antitumor agent in some tumors and enhanced the DOX level in tumor cells. It is expected that the advanced effect of food uptake in cancer chemotherapy may be effective from the viewpoint of quality of life (QOL) improvement, although this approach has not been investigated in detail. In this study, the effect of taurine as a functional amino acid was examined. Taurine did not change the DOX influx into M5076 cells, whereas it significantly inhibited DOX efflux, which maintained the DOX level in tumor cells. Furthermore, experiments with taurine decreased tumor weight by 40%, compared to the DOX-alone group and significantly increased its antitumor effect. Moreover, as taurine did not increase DOX concentration in normal tissue, it is suggested that it increased the antitumor effect without enhancing DOX-induced adverse effects. DOX efflux is inhibited by β-alanine as a taurine transporter inhibitor, therefore, enhancement of the DOX level by taurine was suggested to act via taurine transport. Namely, it was clarified that taurine was useful as a modulator to enhance the therapeutic index of cancer patients and improve QOL.
  • Hideo Satsu, Hirohito Watanabe, Soichi Arai, Makoto Shimizu
    The Journal of Biochemistry
    1997年 121 巻 6 号 1082-1087
    発行日: 1997年
    公開日: 2008/11/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    We characterized the taurine transport system in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and showed that it is subject to adaptive regulation. The activity of taurine transport in Caco-2 cells was evaluated by means of an Na+-and Cl--dependent high-affinity transport system, the characteristics of which were similar to those of the β-amino acid-specific taurine transport system previously described for various tissues. The activity of taurine transport was down-regulated on culturing in taurine-containing medium. This taurine-induced downregulation was dependent on both the incubation time with taurine and the concentration of taurine. Hypotaurine and β-alanine were also capable of inducing this adaptive regulation, whereas α-amino acids and γ-aminoisobutyric acid were not. Kinetic analysis of control and taurine-treated cells suggested that the down-regulation was associated with a decrease in the maximal velocity of taurine transport and also with a decrease in the affinity of the taurine transporter. Cycloheximide treatment weakened the taurine-induced down-regulation. The mRNA level of the taurine transporter (HTAU type) in taurine-treated cells was markedly decreased compared with in control cells. These results indicate that a complex regulatory mechanism is involved in this down-regulation.
  • MICHIO KURACHI, HIRONAKA AIHARA
    Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics
    1985年 8 巻 9 号 733-737
    発行日: 1985年
    公開日: 2008/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Using the sucrose gap method, the effect of taurine on the spinal cord of the bullfrog was investigated. Taurine inhibited the spontaneous potential and the ventral root reflex potential elicited by the stimulation of the dorsal root. The excitability of motoneuron did not necessarily diminish following taurine application. Taurine inhibited the responses induced by excitatory neurotransmitter candidates such as, glutamate and substance P, in a concentration dependent manner in the preparation, where the neurotransmission was abolished by Ca2+-deprivation and/or Mg2+-supplement. From these results, the depressant action of taurine on the electrical activities in the frog spinal cord may be interpreted, in part, by the inhibition of the response evoked by excitatory transmitter at postsynaptic site.
  • Yumiko Takahashi, Hideo Hatta
    The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
    2017年 6 巻 1 号 33-39
    発行日: 2017/01/25
    公開日: 2017/01/21
    ジャーナル フリー

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing β-amino acid present in high concentrations in most tissues, including skeletal muscle, liver, blood, and brain. Taurine has been suggested to have positive effects on some of the physiologic functions considered to be a cause of fatigue during exercise: Ca2+ handling in excitation–contraction coupling, regulation of ion channels, oxidative stress, and the inflammatory response. However, how and where taurine affects these processes have not been elucidated fully. Some in vitro studies have suggested that taurine treatment improves the contractile properties of skeletal muscle. Several studies have suggested that taurine is involved in regulation of energy metabolism. In contrast, whole-body taurine transporter knockout mice exhibit severe intolerance to exercise. Based on these observations, whether taurine treatment may prevent/attenuate fatigue during exercise and then improve exercise performance in humans and experimental animals has been studied. Some recent studies have investigated the effects of taurine administration on post-exercise recovery. Our group investigated the effects of taurine treatment on fatigue induced by endurance exercise. We found that post-exercise taurine administration enhanced the recovery of skeletal muscle glycogen, which is the major determinant for exercise performance. In this review, we introduce studies investigating the effects of taurine administration on exercise-induced fatigue and post-exercise recovery.

  • 小橋 紀之, 浜 純吉, 岡林 孝直, 香取 瞭, 森嶋 祥之, 大場 康寛
    血液と脈管
    1983年 14 巻 1 号 34-37
    発行日: 1983/03/01
    公開日: 2010/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    Platelet taurine and platelet aggregation were measured in an attempt to clarify the physiological function of taurine in the platelet in both healthy volunteers and essential hypertensives. Platelet taurine was significantly low in untreated essential hypertension as compared to normals. Platelet taurine and mean blood pressure exhibited a significantly negative correlation (r=-0.507, p<0.01) between normals and untreated essential hypertension, while mean platelet volume was significantly great in untreated essential hypertension as compared to normals. Platelet aggregation in response to epinephrine (0.2μg/ml) and ADP (2.3μM) was significantly (p<0.01) great in untreated essential hypertension, suggesting a possible taurine defect. Significant positive correlation (r=0.311, p<0.01) was obtained between mean blood pressure and ADP (2.3μM) platelet aggregation in both normals and untreated essential hypertension. The administration of taurine 6g/day per os 5 months normalized epinephrine and ADP platelet aggregation in 10 patients.
    These findings suggest that essential hypertension may result from a insufficient metabolism of taurine, which leads to enhanced platelet aggregation possibly resulting in myocardial infarction and cerebral thrombosis, and that taurine could be useful as a platelet antiaggregative agent.
  • Yoshiyuki Kubo, Shin-ichi Akanuma, Ken-ichi Hosoya
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2016年 39 巻 12 号 1903-1911
    発行日: 2016/12/01
    公開日: 2016/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Cumulative studies showed that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) contributes to a variety of physiological events. Transport study suggested the cellular taurine transport in an Na+- and Cl-dependent manner, and the several members of SLC6A family have been shown as taurine transporter. At the inner blood–retinal barrier (BRB), taurine transporter (TauT/SLC6A) is involved in the transport of taurine to the retina from the circulating blood. The involvement of TauT is also suggested in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport at the inner BRB, and its role is assumed in the elimination of GABA from the retinal interstitial fluid. In the retina, taurine is thought to be a major organic osmolyte, and its influx and efflux through TauT and volume-sensitive organic osmolyte and anion channel (VSOAC) in Müller cells regulate the osmolarity in the retinal microenvironment to maintain a healthy retina. In the liver, hepatocytes take up taurine via GABA transporter 2 (GAT2/SLC6A13, the orthologue of mouse GAT3) expressed at the sinusoidal membrane of periportal hepatocytes, contributing to the metabolism of bile acid. Site-directed mutagenesis study suggests amino acid residues that are crucial in the recognition of substrates by GATs and TauT. The evidence suggests the physiological impact of taurine transporters in tissues.

  • SHIN-KWON KIM, TOSHIO TAKEUCHI, ATSUSHI AKIMOTO, HIROFUMI FURUITA, TAKESHI YAMAMOTO, YUKO MURATA
    Fisheries science
    2002年 68 巻 sup1 号 989-990
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2008/06/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • TOSHIKIRO KIMURA, KYUNGSOON KIM, HITOSHI SEZAKI
    Journal of Pharmacobio-Dynamics
    1981年 4 巻 1 号 35-41
    発行日: 1981年
    公開日: 2008/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Effect of taurine on drug absorption from the rat gastrointestinal tract was investigated by using in situ loop method for the stomach and in situ recirculation method for the small or large intestine. Aspirin absorption from the stomach or the small intestine was enhanced by the presence of taurine, but not from the large intestine. The absorption enhancement effect of taurine was not only site-specific, but also substrate-specific. Taurine increased the absorption of aminopyrine from the small intestine, but not from the stomach. On the other hand, the absorption of salicylamide, o-methoxybenzoic acid and o-ethoxybenzoic acid was enhanced in the stomach, although they were not influenced in the small intestine. Furthermore, among the taurine analogues investigated only homotaurine showed the taurine-like action in the small intestine. Glycine also increased the gastric absorption of aspirin. These effects were observed neither by the pretreatment of the intestine with taurine, nor by i.v. administered taurine. Taurine at the site of drug absorption, even at a low concentration, seems to influence the drug absorption due to its effect on the permeability characteristics of the mucosal membrane.
  • Masayasu Inoue, Irwin M. Arias
    The Journal of Biochemistry
    1988年 104 巻 1 号 155-158
    発行日: 1988年
    公開日: 2008/11/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    To elucidate the mechanism of taurine transport across the hepatic plasma membranes, rat liver sinusoidal plasma membrane vesicles were isolated and the transport process was analyzed. In the presence of a sodium gradient across the membranes (vesicle inside < vesicle outside), an overshooting uptake of taurine occurred. In the presence ofother ion gradients (K+, Li+, and choline+), taurine uptake was very small and no such overshoot was observed. Sodium-dependent uptake of taurine occurred into an osmotically active intravesicular space. Taurine uptake was stimulated by preloading vesicles with unlabeled taurine (transstimulation) in the presence of NaCl, but not in the presence of KCl. Sodium-dependent transport followed saturation kinetics with respect to taurine concentration; double-reciprocal plots of uptake versus taurine concentration gave a straight line from which an apparent Km value of 0.38mM and Vmax of 0.27nmol/20s×mg of protein were obtained. Valinomycin-induced K+-diffusion potential failed to enhance the rate of taurine uptake, suggesting that taurine transport does not depend on membrane potential. Taurine transport was inhibited by structurally related ω-amino acids, such as β-alanine and γ-aminobutyric acid, but not by glycine, ε-aminocaproic acid, or other α-amino acids, such as L-alanine. These results suggest that Na+ -dependent uptake of taurine might occur across the hepatic sinusoidal plasma membranes via a transport system that is specific for ω-amino acids having 2-3 carbon chain length.
  • Seigo FUJIMOTO, Heitaroh IWATA, Yukio YONEDA
    The Japanese Journal of Pharmacology
    1976年 26 巻 1 号 105-110
    発行日: 1976/02/01
    公開日: 2011/03/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Responses of the isolated heart from the guinea pig treated chronically with digitoxin until the T wave had disappeared were studied. The development of the abnormal ECG pattern was abolished by a simultaneous injection of taurine and digitoxin. Taurine also inhibited the change by digitoxin of the responses to acetylcholine and ouabain but not to noradrenaline. The causal relationship between the inhibitory effect of taurine and prevention of the development of arrhythmias remains obscure.
  • SHIN-KWON KIM, TOSHIO TAKEUCHI, MASAHITO YOKOYAMA, YUKO MURATA
    Fisheries science
    2003年 69 巻 2 号 242-248
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2009/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Three diets supplemented with taurine, β-alanine and GABA and a control diet were fed to juvenile and fingerling Japanese flounder to investigate the effects of the diets on growth and metabolic changes of free amino acids in whole body and tissues. In experiment I, three diets supplemented with 1% each of taurine, β-alanine and GABA and a control diet were fed to juvenile Japanese flounder with an initial mean body weight of 0.4 g for 4 weeks at20°C. In experiment II, the taurine-supplemented diet and a control diet were fed to fingerling Japanese flounder with an initial mean body weight of 15 g for 4 weeks at 20°C. Only supplementation of taurine in the diet of juvenile flounder improved their growth performance in experiment I, but fingerling growth performance of experiment II was not significantly related to taurine supplementation in the experimental diet. These results suggest that there is a greater requirement for taurine for the growth of juvenile Japanese flounder than fingerling Japanese flounder.
  • Yumiko Takahashi, Eiki Urushibata, Hideo Hatta
    The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
    2013年 2 巻 3 号 373-379
    発行日: 2013/08/25
    公開日: 2013/09/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of oral taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) administration on the amount of voluntary wheel running as an indicator of recovery from endurance exercise-induced fatigue in ICR mice. We orally administered a single dose of taurine (0.5 mg/g body weight) or physiological saline immediately after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min. After administration, we placed mice in cages with a running wheel and allowed them to run freely in the wheel with free access to food. In the saline-treated group, exercise significantly decreased the amount of voluntary wheel running compared to the non-exercised mice (p < 0.01), while exercise did not decrease the amount of voluntary wheel running in the taurine-treated group. Significant effects of post-exercise taurine administration on voluntary wheel running during 6 h were found (p < 0.05). The 30-min running distance was significantly higher in the taurine-treated group than in the saline-treated group at 1-1.5 h after treadmill exercise (p < 0.05). Blood glucose and liver and skeletal muscle glycogen concentrations after treadmill exercise were similar in both groups at all times. Total food consumption during 6 h of voluntary wheel running showed no difference between the two groups. The ratio of the total running distance to total food consumption was significantly higher in the taurine-treated group than in the saline-treated group (p < 0.05). Our results show that oral taurine administration after endurance exercise increased the amount of voluntary wheel running. Taurine administration may have a positive effect on recovery from endurance exercise-induced fatigue.
  • 坂口 守彦, 村田 道代, 大黒 トシ子, 新井 茂
    日本水産学会誌
    1988年 54 巻 9 号 1647-1652
    発行日: 1988/09/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Guppy (subadult) and eel (young and elver) were grown by feeding basal and taurine-supple-mented diets to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on taurine levels in whole body and some tissues. Guppy receiving the taurine-supplemented diet had higher taurine contents in both the whole body and muscle tissue than fish fed with the basal diet. Young eel reared on the supple-mented diet retained slightly higher taurine levels in the whole body and tissues tested. Taurine contents in the whole body of elver eel increased with an increase in dietary taurine level. For the elvers, taurine added at the different levels, had little effect on nonprotein nitrogen contents in the whole body.
  • Ja Yong Lee, Da Woon Jung, Hyun Ah Park, Soo Jeong Kim, Jin Ho Chung, Chang Kiu Moon, Young Chul Kim
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2004年 27 巻 11 号 1792-1796
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2004/11/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The effect of taurine intake on the biliary disposition and toxicity of acetaminophen (APAP) was examined in male Golden-Syrian hamsters. Animals were provided with taurine (5 mM) in drinking water for 1 week followed by APAP treatment (250 mg/kg, i.p.). Biliary excretion and plasma concentrations of APAP and its major metabolites were determined for up to 360 min. Taurine increased the bile flow, whereas the concentration of APAP or the metabolites in bile was not altered significantly. Accordingly the total biliary excretion of APAP and the metabolites was increased in hamsters fed taurine. Taurine increased the plasma concentrations of APAP-glutathione (GSH) and APAP-mercapturate, but the APAP-glucuronide or APAP-sulfate concentration was not changed. The area under the curve of the plasma APAP concentration was reduced significantly, suggesting that the elimination of APAP was enhanced by taurine intake. However, the hepatotoxicity resulting from a dose of APAP (450 mg/kg, i.p.) was not altered by taurine intake as determined by the elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities. The results suggest that taurine administration could affect the disposition of APAP by enhancing its metabolism through the GSH-dependent pathway and also by increasing the biliary excretion of this drug and its metabolites. The pharmacological significance of this finding remains to be examined.
  • Masataka Moriuchi, Yoshio Nakano, Yu Tsurekawa, Mariam Piruzyan, Shingo Matsuyama, Hirofumi Nohara, Mary Ann Suico, Tsuyoshi Shuto, Hirofumi Kai
    Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    2018年 41 巻 11 号 1672-1677
    発行日: 2018/11/01
    公開日: 2018/11/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Taurine has important physiological roles as well as a wide range of pharmacological effects. Studies have suggested that taurine ameliorates diabetes, hypertension, oxidative stress, and inflammatory diseases. However, its mechanisms of action are still unclear. It has been reported that N-acyl taurine activates transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), which is related to the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that taurine has a regulatory effect on TRPV1 activation via N-acyl taurine. To evaluate this hypothesis, we assessed the calcium influx activated by a TRPV1 agonist in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that taurine inhibits TRPV-dependent activity to overcome oxidative stress in cultured cell lines and in C. elegans.

  • Qin Liu, Zhenhui Lu, Huayu Wu, Li Zheng
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
    2015年 235 巻 3 号 201-213
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/03/10
    ジャーナル フリー HTML
    Articular cartilage is characterized by the lack of blood vessels and has a poor self-healing potential. Limited cell numbers and dedifferentiation of chondrocytes when expanded in vitro are the major obstacles of autologous chondrocyte implantation. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a cell-based treatment that can be used as a second-line measure to regenerate chondral or osteochondral defects in younger, active patients. There is an urgent need to find an effective chondrogenic protection agent alleviating or inhibiting chondrocyte dedifferentiation. In this study, we explored the effect of taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) on proliferation and phenotype maintenance of human articular chondrocytes by analyzing the cell proliferation, morphology, viability, and expression of cartilage specific mRNAs and proteins. Primary chondrocytes were isolated from human articular cartilage tissues. Results showed that taurine effectively promoted chondrocyte growth and enhanced accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagens in the conditioned media of chondrocytes. Moreover, taurine exposure caused significant increases in the relative expression levels of mRNAs for cartilage specific markers, including aggrecan, collagen type II and SOX9. Aggrecan is a cartilage-specific proteoglycan, and SOX9 is a chondrogenic transcription factor. In contrast, the mRNA expression of collagen type I, a marker for chondrocyte dedifferentiation, was significantly decreased in cells treated with taurine, indicating that taurine inhibits the chondrocyte dedifferentiation. This study reveals that taurine is effective in proliferation promotion and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes. Thus, taurine may be a useful pro-chondrogenic agent for autologous chondrocyte implantation in the treatment of cartilage repair.
  • 小笠原 瑞穂, 中村 知美, 小山 郁夫, 根本 正美, 吉田 継親
    Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
    1993年 41 巻 12 号 2172-2175
    発行日: 1993/12/15
    公開日: 2008/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Chemical reactions of the amino group of taurine with aldehyde were investigated. Glucose, acetaldehyde, and malondialdehyde (MDA) were used as aldehydes. After taurine was reacted with the aldehydes, the amounts of remaining taurine and aldehydes were measured, and thereby the reactivity was evaluated. The amino acids such as glycine, α-alanine, and β-alanine were compared because of their structural resemblance to each other. Taurine showed a high reactivity with each one of the aldehydes tested.It is known that protein is altered through reactions of the amino group with various aldehydes. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was used as a model protein, and the inhibiting effect of taurine against the modification of LDL by MDA was examined. Our results indicate that taurine inhibited the production of LDL modified by MDA. It was shown that the inhibiting effects correlated with the reactivity of MDA with the amino acids.Further, the taurine-glucose reaction product showed an antioxidative effect on the peroxidation of liposomes made of yolk phosphatidylcholine as a biomemebrane model. The results suggest the possibility of an inhibiting effect of taurine against the modification of protein, as well as an antioxidative effect through the reactions of taurine with aldehydes in vivo.
  • Takanobu Goto, Yuta Endou, Yuichi Kitaoka, Fumihiko Hasumi, Shin-Kwon Kim, Toshio Takeuchi
    水産増殖
    2008年 56 巻 4 号 607-608
    発行日: 2008/12/20
    公開日: 2012/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to investigate the biosynthesis of taurine in common carp, organic distributions of cysteinesulfinate decarboxylase (CSD) and cysteamine dioxygenase (CAO) activities were determined. The highest CSD activity was observed in kidney, followed by brain, hepatopancreas and gill. On the contrary, the highest CAO activity was observed in hepatopancreas, which value was twice as high as hepatopancreatic CSD activity. A weak activity was detected in intestine, spleen, heart and brain.
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