Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) typically affects the posterior subcortical white matter. We report the case of a 55-year-old man with atypical PRES, who had malignant hypertension and renal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive vasogenic edema in the deep white matter including the temporal pole, as well as in the brainstem and cerebellum. Antihypertensive therapy and hemodialysis contributed to both clinical and radiological improvement. Involvement of the deep white matter including the temporal pole, which is rarely affected in an ischemic stroke, should be recognized as a potential sign of PRES.
A 37-year-old man was hospitalized for an evaluation of acute bilateral multiple subcortical infarcts. There were no specific signal abnormalities in the temporal pole or external capsule. An abdominal skin biopsy showed granular, electron-dense, osmiophilic material (GOM) in the smooth muscle cells on electron microscopy. A direct sequencing analysis of NOTCH3 revealed a heterozygous c.986G>A substitution in exon 6, resulting in a Cys329Tyr amino acid replacement. According to these findings, the patient was diagnosed with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencehalopathy (CADASIL). Thus, early phases of CADASIL can present as acute bilateral multiple subcortical infarcts without a characteristic temporal pole or any external capsule lesions.
I conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to examine the relationship between moral consciousness and travel behavior by monitoring the activation of the participant's brain areas in a situation where questions in relation to moral consciousness were indicated. I successfully extracted the brain areas in relation to “sympathy” or “memory,” which were more activated during a social dilemma than a general situation, such as baseline questions when legal bicycle parkers with higher moral consciousness answered them. According to the individual analysis, I found that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation was more common for legal than illegal parkers. I also conducted an analysis on the response time difference between legal and illegal parkers. The response time for a legal parker is longer than that for an illegal parker with 5% statistical significance, which is assumed to reflect the activation of more brain areas before answering questions.
Purpose: One of the most prominent issues in a super-aging society is the rapid increase in dementia patients. Cross-sectional studies in dentistry have indicated that patients with dementia have worse oral health compared to healthy people. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of tooth loss on brain structure by comparing the volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between edentulous and dentulous subjects.
Methods: Subjects were recruited from the Denture Clinic at Iwate Medical University Hospital Dental Center. Experiments were performed on edentulous (5 males, 8 females, 81.8±1.24 years) and dentulous subjects (4 males, 7 females, 77.1±4.25 years). Patients with dementia were excluded from this study. Brain volumes of GM and WM in edentulous and dentulous subjects were compared using intracranial volume, age, gender and history of hypertension as covariates. Analyzed brain areas were identified by transforming the Montreal Neurological Institute coordinate into the anatomical coordinate in edentulous subjects.
Results: The analysis of WM structural images found no morphological differences between dentulous and edentulous subjects. However, significant atrophy of GM was observed in the hippocampus, caudate nucleus and temporal pole of the right hemisphere in edentulous subjects.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that tooth loss was a causal factor for volume reduction in brain areas related to memory, learning and cognition.