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全文: "Transverse temporal gyrus"
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  • Yoshimasa Kobayashi
    The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College
    2016年 58 巻 3 号 137-143
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2017/09/28
    ジャーナル フリー

    The effects of change in occlusal pressure on the cortical mechanisms responsible for hearing were investigated. Changes in the magnetic field in response to auditory stimulation when subjects (5 healthy, right-handed, male volunteers aged between 22 and 30 years) bit a cotton roll were analyzed by using magnetoencephalography. All equivalent current dipoles estimated from the fields obtained under 3 different bite force conditions were closely localized within 1 mm of those obtained in the non-bite control group. No significant difference was observed between the bite and non-bite conditions in the latency of the 100-ms component (N100 m) of the magnetic fields. The amplitude of the N100 m component decreased with increase in bite pressure in both the right and left hemispheres (p<0.05). These results suggest that an increase in bite pressure influences auditory function.

  • 阿部 晶子, 遠藤 邦彦, 柳 治雄, 市川 英彦, 井佐原 均
    失語症研究
    2001年 21 巻 4 号 261-271
    発行日: 2001年
    公開日: 2006/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は,失語症例における語音弁別障害と周波数変化の弁別障害との関連性を検討することを目的とした。対象は,左半球損傷の失語症 9例と,健常成人 11名であった。言語音の弁別検査と非言語的な周波数変化音の弁別検査を行った。言語音の弁別検査では,検査刺激に,速いフォルマント遷移を持つ /ba/と/da/,および遅いフォルマント遷移を持つ /wa/と/ra/ を用いた。非言語音の弁別検査では,検査刺激に,/ba/,/da/ の第2フォルマント (F2) 遷移に対応する速い周波数変化を持つ純音,および /wa/,/ra/ のF2遷移に対応する遅い周波数変化を持つ純音を用いた。その結果,失語症例の言語音の弁別障害は,横側頭回の損傷による周波数変化の知覚障害に起因するとは言えないものの,言語音の中でも速いフォルマント遷移を持つ /ba/,/da/ の弁別に関しては,知覚レベルの障害の影響が大きいことが示された。
  • Naoto KAWASAKI, Mai YAMADA, Kazuo MUTSUKURA, Hideyo SATOH, Akira SATOH, Mitsuhiro TSUJIHATA
    Acta Medica Nagasakiensia
    2012年 57 巻 3 号 99-103
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2014/02/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    A 65-year-old male developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH) caused by a ruptured right internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery aneurysm. Clipping of the aneurysm, removal of the hematoma, and external decompression were performed. Thereafter, he developed a bacterial meningitis after a spinal lumbar drainage that was done for the treatment of hydrocephalus. He was admitted to our hospital for rehabilitation 4 months after the onset of the SAH. He was still lethargic and delirious at the time of admission. He could not recognize spoken words, environmental sounds or music one month later, but was able to speak and understand the written words. He was diagnosed to have generalized auditory agnosia, based on almost normal pure tone audiometry, otoacoustic emission test, and ABR. Brain CT disclosed a right temporal and frontal lesions, but not in the left side. The eZIS and vbSEE analysis of the SPECT images disclosed a lesion in the left Heschl's transverse gyrus that could not be detected on CT. We emphasized that the detailed analysis of the SPECT images is useful to demonstrate the lesions that can not be detected by CT.
  • 遠藤 邦彦
    失語症研究
    1996年 16 巻 3 号 238-245
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2006/05/24
    ジャーナル フリー
        感覚失語19例の症状を分析した結果,以下の群に分けられた。(1) 復唱障害I型 : 復唱障害を特徴とし,聴理解は障害が軽くなる。呼称障害は急速に改善。共通病変は左横側頭回から聴放線。(2) 復唱障害 II型 : 復唱障害,聴理解の障害,呼称障害が著しい。字性錯語と新造語が出現。共通病変は左上側頭回後部。(3) 意味理解障害型 : 復唱できても聴理解ができない。語性錯語と新造語が出現。共通病変は左上側頭回前部と中側頭回。(4) 混合型もしくは重症型 : 復唱障害 II型と意味理解障害型の特徴を併せ持つ。共通病変は左上側頭回と中側頭回にまたがる。(5) 不全型 : 症状が軽く復唱障害型か意味理解障害型かはっきりしない。(6) 超皮質性感覚失語 : 復唱が他の言語機能と比較してきわめて良好。反響言語が出現。
        感覚失語の言語訓練は,言語情報処理機構の損傷箇所によって異なり,(1)(2) では語音の弁別,認知,把持,(3)(6) では語義理解,(4) では語音,次に語義の認知の訓練が必要である。
  • 山本 桂, 田部井 賢一, 勝山 成美, 泰羅 雅登, 喜多村 健
    Journal of Medical and Dental Sciences
    2017年 64 巻 1 号 19-26
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/03/29
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Patients with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (UHL) often complain of hearing difficulties in noisy environments. To clarify this, we compared brain activation in patients with UHL with that of healthy participants during speech perception in a noisy environment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A pure tone of 1 kHz, or 14 monosyllabic speech sounds at 65‒70 dB accompanied by MRI scan noise at 75 dB, were presented to both ears for 1 second each and participants were instructed to press a button when they could hear the pure tone or speech sound. Based on the activation areas of healthy participants, the primary auditory cortex, the anterior auditory association areas, and the posterior auditory association areas were set as regions of interest (ROI). In each of these regions, we compared brain activity between healthy participants and patients with UHL. The results revealed that patients with right-side UHL showed different brain activity in the right posterior auditory area during perception of pure tones versus monosyllables. Clinically, left-side and right-side UHL are not presently differentiated and are similarly diagnosed and treated; however, the results of this study suggest that a lateralityspecific treatment should be chosen.
  • Rei Wake, Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Kazunori Kawakami, Motohide Furuya, Masa Ieda, Liaury Kristian, Keiko Tsuchie, Akira Nishida, Takuji Inagaki, Jun Horiguchi
    脳科学誌
    2011年 36 巻 4-17
    発行日: 2011/03/30
    公開日: 2017/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Objective: We attempted to identify the locus of cerebral blood flow reduction to clarify the functional neuroanatomical basis of the first-episode schizophrenia. A secondary objective was to evaluate the diagnostic value a new analytical program, easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS). Method: We performed single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99-Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (^<99m>Tc-ECD) of the brains of patients with the first-episode schizophrenia (n=30) and normal controls (n=37) and evaluated the diagnostic value of brain perfusion SPECT using eZIS on patients with schizophrenia. Result: In comparison with normal controls, the patients with schizophrenia were found to have reduced blood flow in bilateral frontal and temporal areas. Conclusion: In our study, patients with the first-episode schizophrenia appeared to have significant bilateral fronto-temporal hypoperfusion. Demonstration of abnormality of frontal and temporal lobe blood flow may assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and determination of appropriate treatment for individuals with schizophrenia.
  • Harumasa Takano, Motoichiro Kato, Ataru Inagaki, Koichiro Watanabe, Haruo Kashima
    The Keio Journal of Medicine
    2006年 55 巻 4 号 153-160
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2007/04/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been employed for treating depression for more than 60 years, its mechanisms of action are yet unknown. To clarify the ECT effects on brain function, we examined cerebral blood flow (CBF) using single photon emission computed tomography at 3 time points-few days before an ECT course (Pre) and approximately 5 days (Post 1) and 1 month (Post 2) after the last ECT session. Eight depressive patients completed the study. In all the patients, the depressive symptoms improved after the ECT course, and major cognitive impairment was not observed at any time point. At Pre, the regional CBF (rCBF) in the widespread areas in the frontal lobe and limbic regions including cingulate cortex and parahippocampal gyrus was lower in the patients than in the normal controls. At Post 1 and Post 2, the rCBF in the frontal and limbic regions continued to be lower in the patients than in the controls although the successive recovery of decreased rCBF in the frontal region was observed. Regarding the time course among the patients, the rCBF in the right medial frontal region significantly increased (toward normal) at Post 2, not at Post 1. These findings suggest that depressive patients have decreased CBF in the frontal and limbic regions, and the medial frontal region plays a crucial role in ECT and recovery from depression. Further, patients who have undergone ECT treatment for depression should be carefully observed because brain functions continue to change even after a successful ECT course.
  • 深見 忠典, 島田 尊正, 赤塚 孝雄, 斎藤 陽一
    電気学会論文誌C(電子・情報・システム部門誌)
    2004年 124 巻 9 号 1692-1697
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2004/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    In audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brainstem Response) is widely used. However, it shows low accuracy in low frequency band. Meanwhile, AMFR (Amplitude-Modulation-Following Response), the response during hearing an amplitude-modulated tone, has high frequency specificity and is brought to attention. As the first step to clinical application of AMFR, we investigated the activated areas in a brain when the subjects hear SAM tone (Sinusoidally Amplitude-Modulated tone) with both ears. We measured following two signals. One is the difference of BOLD (Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent) signal between hearing SAM tone vs. silence, the other is the difference of BOLD signal between hearing SAM tone vs. unmodulated tone. As a result, in the case of SAM vs. silence, the bilaterally auditory cortex (Broadmann Area 41, 42), the biratelally BA 10, left superior frontal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus were activated (p<0.0037, uncorrected).
    In the case of SAM vs. unmodulated tone, the bilaterally superior frontal gyrus (BA 6) and precuneus (BA 7), neighboring area including the bilaterally inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), the bilaterally medial frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus were activated (p<0.021, uncorrected). Activations of visual perception due to eye-opened state were detected in some parts of activations.
    As a result, we inferred that modulated tone was recognized in the medial frontal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule was the part related to perception of amplitude-modulation.
  • Toshiya NAGAI, Yasukazu KAJITA, Satoshi MAESAWA, Daisuke NAKATSUBO, Kota YOSHIDA, Katsuhiko KATO, Toshihiko WAKABAYASHI
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    2012年 52 巻 12 号 865-872
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/12/25
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Preoperative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in 92 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by iodine-123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography. Quantitative mapping of rCBF was performed using the stereotactic extraction estimation method. The clinical features of the patients were assessed according to the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The correlation between rCBF and improvement in the UPDRS score following surgery was examined. rCBF in the fusiform gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyri, middle occipital gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus of the Talairach Daemon Level 3 was significantly correlated with UPDRS part II (off stage) and III (on stage) scores (p < 0.05). rCBF in the middle temporal gyrus (p = 0.00147), medial frontal gyrus (p = 0.00713), and cerebellum (p = 0.048) of the Talairach Daemon Level 3 was significantly greater in 47 patients with >60% improvement of UPDRS part III (off stage) score than in 37 patients with 40-60% improvement. The cutoff value of rCBF, which indicated that >40% improvement in the surgical outcome could be expected, was 38.8 ± 6.2 ml/100 g/min in the frontal lobe. This study indicated that rCBF in patients with PD might be related to their clinical features, suggesting that quantitative mapping of rCBF may be useful for predicting surgical outcome.
  • 田邉 ちひろ, 菊池 司
    映像情報メディア学会技術報告
    2016年 40.11 巻 AIT2016-43
    発行日: 2016/03/02
    公開日: 2017/09/22
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    本研究では,リラクゼーション効果のある楽曲として一般に知られているクラシック楽曲を用いて,譜面上と実際に演奏された楽曲の視聴の両方の分析を行い,人間の生理反応の一つである心拍の反応変化の計測によりリラクゼーション効果を形成する要素を明らかにする.譜面上に見られるリラクゼーションに関するパターンと,楽曲を聴取した際に人間に見られる心拍数の変化とアンケートを用いて楽曲の与える印象と感情表現を分析し,パターンの抽出を図る.
  • 中尾 雄太, 大西 英雄, 遠藤 優有美, 城本 修, 村中 博幸
    音声言語医学
    2014年 55 巻 2 号 146-154
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/05/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    われわれは,音刺激への注意喚起における脳賦活領域を同定するために,fMRI(functional magnetic resonance imaging)を用いて,「聴く」と「聞く」における脳賦活領域を定量的に比較検討した.さらに,自作したソフトウェアを用いてMR画像の賦活領域の体積を算出し,各領域における賦活程度を比較した.聴覚障害を認めない健常成人12名(男性5名,女性7名)に対して,男性話者と女性話者の単音節聴取課題,雑音下聴取課題を行った.その結果,音刺激へ注意を喚起すると,前頭前野,縁上野,帯状回が賦活することが示唆された.また,同性話者より異性話者の声に注意を喚起したほうの脳活動が活発になると示唆された.
  • 藤木 暢也, 内藤 泰
    音声言語医学
    2007年 48 巻 3 号 277-283
    発行日: 2007/07/20
    公開日: 2010/06/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    言語には聴覚言語および視覚言語があり, これらの脳における処理過程は異なる.われわれは, MEGとPETを用いて, 健聴者と人工内耳装用者の言語の中枢処理, さらに高度難聴小児の視覚言語処理について, 検討を行った.MEGでは, 複合音の類型認知は, 聴覚連合野より下位の聴覚路ですでに行われていること, 視覚言語は視覚の背側経路を経て処理されることがわかった.PETによる解析では, 雑音では一次聴覚野しか賦活されず, 会話文で初めて聴覚連合野が賦活された.人工内耳装用者ではそれに加えて, ブローカ野や補足運動野 (言語の出力系) の賦活が見られたが, 人工内耳による聴覚言語の獲得が不十分な場合, 聴覚連合野は聴覚言語入力では活動せず, 視覚入力による賦活が見られた.先天性高度難聴小児では, 聴覚活用の程度が低いほうが, 聴覚連合野が視覚言語情報の処理を行う傾向が強く, また, 聴覚活用の程度にかかわらず, 視覚系の賦活が強く見られた.
  • 石合 純夫
    脳神経外科ジャーナル
    2016年 25 巻 5 号 427-434
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/05/25
    ジャーナル フリー
     神経心理学は, 局在性脳損傷によって起こるさまざまな症候を分析し, 病巣との関連から脳の働きを知ろうとする臨床神経心理学が基本となって発展してきた. このような症候論は, どちらかといえば亜急性期から慢性期の病態を扱っている. 一方, 脳神経外科領域の覚醒下手術中の電気刺激あるいは脳腫瘍等の切除過程で評価される症状は急性の病態をみていることになる. 症候論に加えて, 近年は機能画像研究や拡散テンソルトラクトグラフィ−等の脳画像研究の進展により, 神経心理学は, 巣症状の考え方から神経ネットワークとしての捉え方へと変化してきている. 急性に起こる症状はしばしば一過性であり, 神経ネットワークの冗長性によって, その構成部分のうち損傷されても機能脱落が慢性的とならない部位が少なくない. 脳神経外科手術においては, 術後1カ月頃の機能的予後を重視すべきであり, 覚醒下手術中の所見と臨床神経心理学の知見とのすり合わせを行うことが望まれる. 本稿では, 左半球の言語の神経ネットワークと右半球の空間性注意のネットワークに注目して, 必要十分な切除範囲を判断するのに役立つ情報を整理したい.
  • 後藤 一也, 若山 幸一, 前田 知己, 福島 直喜, 泉 達郎, 小川 昭之
    脳と発達
    1995年 27 巻 1 号 10-16
    発行日: 1995/01/01
    公開日: 2011/08/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    早期産児および満期産児44人の頭部MRI水平断における, 左右の側脳室体部, 三角部, 前角, 後角の面積対半球比を, 面積計測ソフトを用いて計測した.対象の在胎週数は26週~41週で, MRI撮像日齢は12~124であった.側脳室各部の面積対半球比の平均値では, 有意な左右差 (左>右) は後角のみに認められたが, 対象毎に面積対半球比の左右比率 (左/右面積対半球比) をみると, 比率が1.2倍以上のものが, 比率が0.8倍未満に比べて, 体部, 前角, 後角において有意に多かった.相関関係でみると, 面積対半球比は左右いずれにおいても, 在胎週数が小さいほど半球比は大きく, 日齢が大きくなると面積対半球比も大きくなり, 特に体部, 後角で顕著であった.側脳室面積対半球比の測定は, 新生児側脳室サイズの客観的評価に有用であり, さらに, 今回の検討によって, 側脳室サイズの評価にあたっては, 正常でも認められる非対称, 対象の在胎週数, 日齢を考慮する必要があることが明らかとなった.
  • 細川 晃, 芳川 洋, 鈴木 美弥子, 和田 明博, 市川 銀一郎
    AUDIOLOGY JAPAN
    2002年 45 巻 6 号 716-724
    発行日: 2002/12/28
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    純音と単語の二つの異なる刺激を用い, 脳皮質の反応をfunctional MRIで記録した。 対象は, 純音刺激-聴力正常な成人10名, 単語刺激は成人6名に行った。 刺激音は, 1000Hz, 純音を40dBSLで与えた。 単語は, 67語表の単語 (日本聴覚医学会制定) を用いた。 被検者には, 音に対し集中して聞き, 眠らないよう指示した。 撮影装置および撮像条件は, VISART (東芝製) 1.5T, 傾斜磁場強度17mT/m, グラジエントフィールドエコータイプエコープラナー法 (multi shot) で行い, 解析はlinear cross correlation, 相関係数0.35-0.5で解析を行った。 その際, time intensity curveも同時に描出し, task負荷に伴う信号強度の変化を観察した。
    結果: 純音では, 10名中6名に信号変化が観察され, 上側頭回と横側頭回に信号変化が観察された。 単語刺激では, 6名中3名に上側頭回を中心に信号変化が観察された。
  • 牧島 和見
    耳鼻と臨床
    1967年 13 巻 Supplement3 号 333-364
    発行日: 1967年
    公開日: 2013/05/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    Presbycusis is one of the most interesting problems in gerontology. Many pathological, physiological and audiological works have been reported, but the exact nature of presbycusis is still obscure.
    Pure tone audiometric tests were performed on 239 patients using the same audiometer.
    On 105 autopsy cases of which 35 cases were examined audiometrically before death, temporal bones and brains were served for pathological studies. The sections of the temporal bones were graphically reconstructed, and the audiometrical and morphological data were compared on parallel coordinate.
    Severity of encephalomalacia and spongy change in the central auditory pathway and atrophy of the general organs were watched carefully. Furthermore arteriosclerosis of the aorta, cerebral artery, internal' auditory artery and renal artery were examined. The significance of those findings on the development of hearing loss were observed.
    Periods from audiometric examination to autopsy were less than 11 months, and the functional and morphological data could be compared with reasonable accuracy.
    The conclusions were as follows:
    1) Type of hearing in presbycusis was classified into seven kinds, i. e., type A (normal audiometric curve), type B (flat curve), type C (abrupt curve), type D (descending curve), type E (convex upwards curve), type Dip and type F (ascending curve). Type D, B and C together occupied the greater part of the examined cases.
    2) The most conspicuous change in the temporal bones of old people was the atrophy of spiral ganglion. Besides, there were observed atrophy of stria vascularis and destruction of hair cells.
    3) Atrophy, spongy change and encephalomalacia were observed in central auditory pathway especially in the central part of eighth cranial nerve, cochlear nuclei and transverse temporal gyri.
    4) Lumen narrowing of internal auditory artery with varing degree was observed in almost all cases of old people, which was conspicuous in the cases with severe arteriosclerosis of cerebral artery.
    5) Lumen narrowing of internal auditory artery was supposed to have positive correlation with atrophy of spiral ganglion and hearing loss.
    6) Hearing loss was supposed to have positive correlation with atrophy of brain and spongy change of transverse temporal gyri. Many cases of encephalomalacia showed high degree of hearing loss.
    7) The development of the above mentioned types of hearing was based on the atrophy of spiral ganglion and the so-called “type factors” and “level down” of auditory acuity was supposed to be due to the effect of cerebral degeneration.
    8) Type B (flat curve) was supposed to be an audiometric image influenced by the cerebral degeneration, type C (abrupt curve) was that affected by the acoustic trauma, and type D (descending curve) was that influenced by the atrophy of spiral ganglion and degeneration of eighth cranial nerve.
    9) Changes in temporal bones and central auditory pathway was considered to be caused by senile atrophy and arteriosclerosis.
    10) Internal auditory artery branched most frequently off from inferior anterior cerebellar artery except for some cases where it directly diverged from basilar artery.
  • 森 数美
    杏林医学会雑誌
    2017年 48 巻 4 号 119-127
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/12/28
    ジャーナル フリー

     脳機能画像研究において、単極性うつ病では前頭葉の血流低下を示す報告が多いが、臨床症状と局所脳血流との関連は明らかではない。本研究では、精神運動抑制の顕著な単極性うつ病を対象に99mTc-ECD脳血流SPECT検査を施行し、症状の評価尺度にHamilton Depression Rating Scale(HDRS)を用いて、脳血流との関連性について検討した。その結果、精神運動抑制群は健康対照群に比較し,左中前頭回を含む両側前頭葉の広範囲の領域で有意の血流量低下がみられた。前頭葉の局所における血流量比とHDRS下位項目の得点との関連では、右の前部帯状回および下前頭回の過活動と精神運動抑制に関わる症状との間に、高い正の相関がみられた。以上より、単極性うつ病における精神運動抑制群の症状は、左背外側前頭前野に位置する中前頭回の機能低下と関与していることが示唆された。また、単極性うつ病の精神運動抑制群における認知や行動そして情動面の症状は、右前部帯状回および右下前頭回の機能の障害と関連があることが示唆された。

  • 上田 伸, 津田 敏雄, 松本 圭蔵, 大林 正明, 神山 悠男
    脳卒中の外科研究会講演集
    1981年 10 巻 105-112
    発行日: 1981年
    公開日: 2012/10/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper presents one moyamoya case which developed so called cortical deafness following bilateral intracerebral hemorrhages. The patient is right handed 18 year-old girl whose moyamoya vessels were found incidentally when she had head-injury at 10 years of her age.
    She has had hemorrhagic episodes in two times. The first attack, on May, 30, 1976, was right putaminal hemorrhage and treated conservatively. The second one, on Oct., 16, 1979 was left temporal subcortical massive hemorrhage and removed the hematoma of 150g by craniotomy. On 7th postoperative day, she seemed to be fully awake, however, she did not respond to our call at all. On 42nd day, she could make contact only by means of writing, and still could not utter any useful words at all. The results of Standard Examination for Aphasia on Jan., 20, 1980, were as follows: words repeating, comprehension of languages, writing letters and sound differentiation were disturbed markedly; reading with loud voice and sense of the sound direction were disturbed slightly; spontaneous speech or writing and comprehension of a letter were normal. Several neuro-otological examinations were performed subsequently. The pure tone audiometry showed severe hearingloss on both sides on 42nd day after the second attack, but 6 months later it recovered to the point of minimum damage. The speech audiometry, however, pointed out her complete disability of discriminating speech bilaterally even on 6 months after the second attack. The auditory brain stem response by click sounds was normal. But the middle latency component was abnormal and no clear wave components were identified. All components of the waves of the slow vertex potential were obtained in almost normal patterns, but the latencies were delayed modelately.
    From the clinical features and otological examinations, it is presumed that she had so called cortical deafness in early stage, and then turned gradually to the auditory agnosia or pure word deafness. It is also suspected from CT scans and neuro-otological examinations that the responsible lesions to these symptomes are bilateral auditory radiations at sub-lenticular portion of the internal capsules and they do not include the medial geniculate bodies. In this case, not only the left transverse temporal gyrus (Heschl), but also the right one might have played some role in addition to the auditory radiation.
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