全文: "Wernicke's area"
78件中 1-20の結果を表示しています
  • Takahiro YAMANOI, Toshimasa YAMAZAKI, Elie Sanchez, Michio SUGENO
    2005年 18 巻
    発行日: 2005/10/29
    公開日: 2017/10/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    The authors recorded nineteen-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) during recognition of two types of Japanese character ; Kanji (Chinese characters) and Hiragana (one type of phonetic characters). By field-sequential stereoscopic 3D display with liquid crystal shutter, a word and a non-word were simultaneously and independently presented to the left (right) eye and right (left) one, respectively. Each word consists of two Kanji or three Hiragana characters. Three subjects were instructed to press a button when understanding the meaning of the visual stimuli after 3000 ms poststimulus. Equivalent current dipole source localization (ECDL) with three unconstrained ECD was applied to the ERPs. For both Kanji and Hiragana, the ECDs were localized at the occipital and inferior temporal gyrus at 200 400ms, and those at the Wernicke area at 300 600ms. The latter ECD for one left-handed subject was localized at the homologue of Wernicke area.
  • Toshiharu NAKAI, Chikako KATO, Kayako MATSUO
    Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
    2005年 4 巻 2 号 75-82
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/12/06
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    In human life, discrimination of a target voice from other voices or sounds is indispensable, and inability for such discrimination results in sensory aphasia. To investigate the neuronal basis of the attentional system for human voices, we evaluated brain activity during listening comprehension tasks using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T. Diotic listening comprehension tasks, in which a narration was superimposed by another given by the same speaker (SV experiment) or by a different speaker (DV experiment), were presented to normal volunteers. The story indicated in the baseline task blocks, in which only one narration was presented, was intensively followed during the superimposed task blocks. In each experiment, 6 task blocks, 3 blocks for each condition, and 7 rest blocks were alternatively repeated, and the contrast of the superimposed condition to the baseline condition in each session was obtained. In the DV experiment, compared with the control condition, activation in Wernicke's area (BA22) was increased. In the SV experiment, activation in the frontal association cortex (BA6, BA9/ 46, BA32, BA13/47) was additionally increased. These results suggested that difficulty in phonological processing to discriminate human voices calls for further semantic, syntactic, and prosodic processing, as well as augmented selective attention.
  • Masanaka TAKEDA, Hisao TACHIBANA, Naomi SHIBUYA, Yatuka NAKAJIMA, Bungo OKUDA, Minoru SUGITA, Harumi TANAKA
    Internal Medicine
    1999年 38 巻 3 号 293-295
    発行日: 1999年
    公開日: 2006/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    There have been few case reports of pure anomic aphasia and the underlying mechanism remains to be clarified. We report a patient in whom pure anomic aphasia was caused by subcortical hemorrhage in the left temporo-parieto-occipital lobe. Based on magnetic resonance images and cerebral blood flow imaging, the structural lesion underlying the pure anomic aphasia was thought to be located at the left temporo-occipital junction.
    (Internal Medicine 38: 293-295, 1999)
  • Haewon Byeon, Hyeung Woo Koh
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2016年 28 巻 6 号 1772-1774
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/06/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] This study explored health science students’ perceptions of motor aphasia and sensory aphasia caused by stroke to provide basic material for the improvement of rehabilitation practitioners’ perceptions of aphasia. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 642 freshmen and sophomores majoring in health science. Perceptions of aphasia were surveyed on a semantic differential scale using the Anchoring Vignette Method and the difference in perception of the two types of aphasia was analyzed using multi-dimensional scaling. [Results] The analysis revealed that motor aphasia and sensory aphasia have mutually corresponding images. Motor aphasia had high levels of ‘quiet’, ‘passive’ ‘dumb’, ‘unstable’ and ‘gloomy’ images, while sensory aphasia had high levels of ‘noisy’, ‘unstable’, ‘cheerful’, ‘sensitive’, ‘fluctuating in emotions’, ‘active’, ‘dumb’ and ‘gloomy’ images. [Conclusion] A systematic education is required to be implemented in the future to improve health science students’ negative perceptions of the aftereffects of stroke such as aphasia.
  • Masazumi FUJII, Satoshi MAESAWA, Sumio ISHIAI, Kenichiro IWAMI, Miyako FUTAMURA, Kiyoshi SAITO
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    2016年 56 巻 7 号 379-386
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/07/15
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2016/04/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    The neural basis of language had been considered as a simple model consisting of the Broca’s area, the Wernicke’s area, and the arcuate fasciculus (AF) connecting the above two cortical areas. However, it has grown to a larger and more complex model based upon recent advancements in neuroscience such as precise imaging studies of aphasic patients, diffusion tensor imaging studies, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, and electrophysiological studies with cortical and subcortical stimulation during awake surgery. In the present model, language is considered to be processed through two distinct pathways, the dorsal stream and the ventral stream. The core of the dorsal stream is the superior longitudinal fasciculus/AF, which is mainly associated with phonological processing. On the other hand, semantic processing is done mainly with the ventral stream consisting of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and the intratemporal networks. The frontal aslant tract has recently been named the deep frontal tract connecting the supplementary motor area and the Broca’s area and it plays an important role in driving and initiating speech. It is necessary for every neurosurgeon to have basic knowledge of the neural basis of language. This knowledge is essential to plan safer surgery and preserve the above neural structures during surgery.
  • Shokei YAMADA, Floyd BRAUER, Lloyd DAYES, Shoko YAMADA
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    1998年 38 巻 suppl 号 222-226
    発行日: 1998年
    公開日: 2008/04/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    Direct surgical intervention of arteriorvenous malformations (AVMs) in functional areas has been ac-cepted as a standard mode of treatment. However, safe and successful intervention requires that such factors as exact location, size, vascular supply, and drainage be considered. Importantly, surgical tech-niques must be individualized to each patient, based on hemodynamic anatomy of the AVM. This paper discusses AVMs in the superior temporal lobe, which have a complex neuronal anatomy and circulato-ry system; the authors present 22 patients with AVMs of various sizes and describe the surgical tech-niques specific for the indicated location. Surgical procedures adhered to the following principles: 1) avoid brain tissue removal; 2) preserve microcirculation; 3) maintain circulation of the isolated major draining vein to access the AVM core; 4) compartmental isolation; and 5) preservation of functional area cortex covering the AVM. All patients underwent total resection except one, who had a subtotal resection. Neurological and occupational recovery was remarkable except for partial hemianesthesia in one patient; two patients are still in rehabilitation. This is the first description of a direct surgical ap-proach to AVMs in the superior temporal gyrus, where management is challenging because the lesions may extend elsewhere, such as to Broca's and Wernicke's areas. The results suggest that the procedure is promising.
  • Makoto FUKAMACHI, Tomitaro AKIYAMA, Akira TSURU, Minoru MORIKAWA, Yukiyoshi KAWAGUCHI, Hiroyuki MORIUCHI
    Acta Medica Nagasakiensia
    2004年 49 巻 3 号 81-85
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2005/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    We assessed 12 young adults with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, aged from 14 to 33 years, by intellectual quotient (IQ) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and obtained the following findings. First, the IQ scores were relatively lower than those predicted by their social activities. Second, there were two cases who seemed to have right or bilateral hemisphere representatives of language; their IQ scores were within normal range, while MRI demonstrated extensive brain damages including usual ones in language areas. Third, IQ scores and MRI findings were correlated to some extent; however, a case of limited brain damage on MRI had low IQ score, while five cases of brain damage located excluding their language areas had normal or high IQ scores.
    The results of the present study indicate the necessity of follow-up MRI for prospective observation of the brain damage acquired at or around birth.
  • 倉持 裕子, 長谷川 啓子, 山本 弘美, 河村 満
    1996年 16 巻 2 号 188-196
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2006/05/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Wernicke 野 (左上側頭回後部) の梗塞性病変により典型的 Wernicke 失語を呈した2症例の読字・書字障害を検討した。小学校1~3年生で学習する教育漢字一文字およびそれに対応する仮名語,ならびに仮名一文字 (清音46字) の音読と書き取り検査を施行した結果,2症例とも,漢字・仮名のいずれにおいても音読のほうが書き取りより良好であった。漢字・仮名語の音読・書き取りいずれにおいても,課題字 (正答字) と音韻が類似した誤りが多く認められた。これは, Wernicke 失語の口頭言語における特徴である “音韻の選択障害” と “音韻の聴覚的処理障害” が,文字言語においてもみられたものと考えられた。仮名一文字の書き取りにおいても2症例は類似した傾向を示し,正答字に余分な文字を付け加えて書く反応 (付加反応) が多くみられた。書き取りにおける付加反応は, Wernicke 失語の口頭言語での特徴である, “流暢な多弁傾向” を反映しているものと考えられた。
  • 遠藤 邦彦, 阿部 晶子, 柳 治雄, 林 和子, 井佐原 均, 杉下 守弘
    1998年 18 巻 3 号 243-253
    発行日: 1998年
    公開日: 2006/04/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    失語症 31例の音の分離能力をクリック音融合閾 (CFT) 検査で測定し,聴覚的言語理解の重症度と比較した。統制群は右半球損傷 (RHL) 15例,健常者 13名であった。失語症例の CFT 検査の成績は健常者より有意に低下していたが,RHL とは差がなかった。失語症例では CFT と,聴覚的言語理解の重症度 (ARS) の間に相関がなかった。左の内側膝状体から聴放線起始部の損傷,および左の横側頭回やこれに隣接する第一側頭回の上下に広い損傷では両耳同時呈示と右耳単独呈示で CFT の障害を生じていた。一方,左の聴放線終末部の損傷,および左の横側頭回や隣接する第一側頭回の部分的損傷では右耳単独呈示でのみ CFT の障害を生じる可能性が示唆された。失語症例の単語の聴覚的理解力は聴覚野,聴覚連合野の音の分離と,Wernicke領野の語音認知の両方に依存するが,後者の影響が著しく大きいと推察された。もう1つの音の分離能力の検査法とされているクリック音計数検査の成績は,むしろ前頭葉損傷例で低下していた。
  • 遠藤 邦彦, 阿部 晶子, 津野田 聡子, 柳 治雄, 市川 英彦, 井佐原 均
    2000年 20 巻 2 号 165-177
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2006/04/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    自然言語音をコンピュータ上で加工して音節の弁別検査と子音の弁別検査を作成し,失語症 21例および健常者 18名に実施した。被験者は対になった音を聞いて同じか異なるか答えた。失語症患者は音節の弁別の障害を呈していた。しかし子音の弁別は比較的保たれており,特に,健側の左耳に子音を提示すると健常者と差がなかった。音節の弁別の成績は単語の理解力 (ARS) と,子音の弁別は音の分離能力 (クリック音融合閾) と有意な相関があった。言語音を有声・無声,非鼻音・鼻音,調音点,調音方法という座標軸で分類する方法が妥当かどうかは議論の余地があろうが,失語症例の反応を因子分析した結果,人間の脳内では実際にこのような座標軸で,子音の音響的特徴の抽出が行われている可能性が示された。言語音の音響的特徴をいかに妥当に抽出したとしても,感覚性言語領野の音素の記憶系との照合が障害されると,言語音の同定はできないと考えられた。
  • Hiroshi TOKIMURA, Shin-ichi IMAMURA, Kazunori ARITA
    Neurologia medico-chirurgica
    2012年 52 巻 3 号 142-147
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/03/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Magnetic stimulation of the hand area of the motor cortex in both hemispheres was performed at rest and during reading aloud to observe modulated facilitation of hand muscle motor potentials in 6 right-handed patients, with supratentorial lesions but no motor impairment or aphasia, who had undergone the Wada test to determine speech dominance, showing that 5 were left hemisphere dominant and one was bilateral hemisphere dominant. Motor potentials were facilitated during reading aloud in only the right hand in 3 patients, all left hemisphere dominant, greater in the right hand in one, left hemisphere dominant, and greater in the left hand in one patient, bilateral hemisphere dominant. Based on these results we defined a laterality index which was consistent with the Wada test results. Magnetic stimulation may prove useful for determining cerebral dominance, as our method correlates well with the Wada test, and is safe, convenient, and inexpensive.
  • Rodney M. J. Cotterill
    1997年 4 巻 3 号 3_31-3_44
    発行日: 1997/09/01
    公開日: 2008/10/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The temporal characteristics of the neural signalling believed to underlie consciousness are considered in the light of the master-module theory (Cotterill, 1995, 1996, 1997). It is suggested that consciousness is mediated by the flow of signals around what is referred to as the vital triangle, which comprises the sensory-processing areas of the cortex, the master module itself, and the thalamic intralaminar nuclei, these three regions forming a closed loop. The interactions between the apices of this triangle and other brain components are conjectured to provide consciousness with access to memory, and to produce the feelings known as qualia, to which the body's muscles contribute through what could be called internal reafference. It is also argued that consciousness is critically dependent on the carrier wave provided by oscillations in the gamma band, the amplitude modulation of which travels around the vital triangle. These new ideas are illustrated by reference to the cortical machinery involved in speech. The confinement of language processing to a single cerebral hemisphere is considered, and it is suggested that this unilateralization is a consequence of the fact that the muscles involved in articulation serve structures which cross the body's medial plane, and that these muscles therefore cannot be independently activated. An experiment is proposed which would test this explanation, though rather indirectly.
  • 加我 君孝
    1996年 99 巻 8 号 1144-1147
    発行日: 1996/08/20
    公開日: 2010/10/22
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 遠藤 邦彦
    1996年 16 巻 3 号 238-245
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2006/05/24
    ジャーナル フリー
        感覚失語19例の症状を分析した結果,以下の群に分けられた。(1) 復唱障害I型 : 復唱障害を特徴とし,聴理解は障害が軽くなる。呼称障害は急速に改善。共通病変は左横側頭回から聴放線。(2) 復唱障害 II型 : 復唱障害,聴理解の障害,呼称障害が著しい。字性錯語と新造語が出現。共通病変は左上側頭回後部。(3) 意味理解障害型 : 復唱できても聴理解ができない。語性錯語と新造語が出現。共通病変は左上側頭回前部と中側頭回。(4) 混合型もしくは重症型 : 復唱障害 II型と意味理解障害型の特徴を併せ持つ。共通病変は左上側頭回と中側頭回にまたがる。(5) 不全型 : 症状が軽く復唱障害型か意味理解障害型かはっきりしない。(6) 超皮質性感覚失語 : 復唱が他の言語機能と比較してきわめて良好。反響言語が出現。
        感覚失語の言語訓練は,言語情報処理機構の損傷箇所によって異なり,(1)(2) では語音の弁別,認知,把持,(3)(6) では語義理解,(4) では語音,次に語義の認知の訓練が必要である。
  • 植村 研一, 山鳥 重
    1996年 16 巻 2 号 121-122
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2006/05/24
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 櫻井 靖久
    1994年 14 巻 2 号 113-119
    発行日: 1994年
    公開日: 2006/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
        PETによる読字の activation study について,われわれの施設で行ったものを英語圈での研究と比較しながら概説した。英単語の PET study では,聴覚呈示で賦活された Wernicke 野,側頭・頭頂移行領域が,視覚呈示では賦活されず,また発語課題でBroca 野が常に左優位には賦活されなかった。
        日本語の漢字,仮名の音読課題を行ったわれわれの研究でも, Wernicke 野,頭頂葉の賦活は得られず,また Broca 野は漢字でのみ左優位に賦活され,仮名では両側が同程度賦活された。さらに,漢字と仮名とで賦活される部位が多少異なり,仮名で英単語と同様,後頭葉外側面を含む広い範囲が賦活されること,また漢字,仮名とも英単語と異なり,左側頭葉後下部が賦活されることも明らかにされた。
  • 亀山 千景
    2018年 23 巻 75-87
    発行日: 2018/03/31
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
  • 牧下 英夫
    1987年 7 巻 1 号 10-20
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2006/07/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    左被殻出血41例の言語症状と single photon emission CT による脳血流を対比検討した. 10 例の非失語と 31 例の失語例を認め,失語症状は自発話流暢性と聴理解の障害の程度にあまり解離がみられないという特徴があった.脳血流低下は X 線 CT の異常所見より広範囲で,脳表部左中大脳動脈灌流域 (MCA) におよび,失語症の発現の有無,失語型の差異は深部基底核領域よりも MCA での血流低下と関連することがわかった.また MCA 前部血流量と同後部血流量は正の相関を示し,失語症状の特徴と関連すると考えられた.しかも自発話流暢性の障害と MCA 前部血流量の低下,および聴理解障害と同後部血流量の低下との関連性は脳表部に主病巣をもつ脳梗塞失語例と同様にみられた.血腫径の検討や血腫吸引術前後の経過などより,大脳表層部の血流低下には血腫による mass effect が重要な因子の一つになっていると考えられたが,慢性期での遠隔部血流低下には mass による二次的不可逆的脳損傷や transneural な遠隔効果など複数の要因を考える必要があると思われた.
  • Ayako Ueno, Norihiro Katayama, Akihiro Karashima, Mitsuyuki Nakao
    Advanced Biomedical Engineering
    2014年 3 巻 139-146
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2015/01/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    MRI-guided surgical ablation has been used as a novel technique to achieve minimally invasive glioma resection. In this surgery, low-power thermal energy is supplied via a laser probe, which is inserted into the patient's brain to coagulate the tumor region. To position the laser probe precisely, intraoperative MRI is performed. However, MRI images cannot provide sufficient details regarding the fiber tracts. In order for surgeons to know the spatial distribution of subcortical nerve tracts and improve safety during surgery, we propose the use of subcortical mapping to support MRI-guided surgical ablation. Conventional electrical stimulation using biphasic rectangular pulses has poor selectivity in nerve recruitment, and precise spatial distribution of nerve fibers in the subcortical region is difficult to obtain. In this study, we conducted computer simulations to determine which waveform of stimulation results in better spatial selectivity. We used a multi-layer volume conductor model of the human skull and neocortex, in which a mathematical model of a human myelinated nerve fiber was embedded. We numerically calculated the nerve responses to extracellular stimulation provided by an electrode attached to the laser probe inserted into the white matter. We evaluated the distance and diameter selectivity of a solitary test pulse alone and that of conditioning stimuli consisting of a triangular waveform and burst pulses followed by the test pulse. The results showed that the distance and diameter selectivity are markedly improved when using conditioning stimuli prior to the test pulse. A mechanism for improvement of selectivity can be explained based on the nonlinear dynamic properties at the axonal node. These results suggest that the novel conditioning waveform has the potential to provide detailed information of nerve fiber tracts to surgeons during MRI-guided surgical ablation.
  • Tetsuo Koyama, Kazuhisa Domen
    Progress in Rehabilitation Medicine
    2016年 1 巻 20160008
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    Background: Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a new technique that evaluates neural fiber integrity within the brain. We conducted DTI in patients exhibiting aphasia during the acute stage post-infarct and investigated the neural tracts responsible by comparison with DTI data from age-matched controls. Methods: Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated from diffusion tensor brain images obtained from aphasic patients 14−21 days following their first infarct. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis was then applied. In addition, regions of interest (ROIs) were set within the right and left arcuate fasciculus, and mean FA values were extracted from individual TBSS data. The ratios between FA values in the left and right hemispheres were compared with those of the control group. Results: The study examined 10 aphasic patients and 21 age-matched controls. Brain maps from TBSS analysis revealed significantly reduced FA in the left arcuate fasciculus of the patient group compared with that in the control group. Further ROI analyses confirmed significantly lower left/right arcuate fasciculus FA ratios in aphasic patients versus controls (median [range]: 0.955 [0.739−1.023] vs. 1.006 [0.982−1.088]; P = 0.0001 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). Conclusions: These results suggest that FA in the left arcuate fasciculus decreased in association with aphasia after cerebral infarct. Because patients in the acute stage have not yet experienced the neural recovery that occurs in the chronic stage, the findings indicate that the left arcuate fasciculus is a crucial neural structure in aphasia.