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全文: "global warming"
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  • Soemantri SATRYO, Soemantri SATRYO
    Journal of Ecotechnology Research
    2008年 14 巻 2 号 49
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2015/03/11
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Sachie Kanada, Chiashi Muroi, Yasutaka Wakazuki, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Akihiro Hashimoto, Teruyuki Kato, Kazuo Kurihara, Masanori Yoshizaki, Akira Noda
    SOLA
    2005年 1 巻 117-120
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/10/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) that bring rainfall in the vicinity of Kyushu Island, Japan during the late Baiu season in the present and global warming climates are examined by a non-hydrostatic regional climate model (NHM) with the horizontal grid of 5 km.
    In the global warming climate, two types of MCSs appear in the vicinity of Kyushu Island. One travels from the Chinese Continent and the other from the southern part of the East China Sea to Kyushu Island. These two MCSs often merge over the sea southwest of Kyushu Island, and they rapidly develop to bring heavy precipitation to the vicinity of Kyushu Island. Among the latter, MCSs with low cloud-tops below 4 km MSL (Mean Sea Level) are found.
    In the comparison with the present climate, the averaged cloud and rain water mixing ratios in the vicinity of Kyushu Island become much larger, and the peak altitude of the mixing ratios are about 0.5-1.0 km higher in the global warming climate. The cloud water mixing ratio between 2-4 km MSL increases in the global warming climate, corresponding to MCSs with low cloud-tops.
    These results suggest one of the processes to produce heavy rainfall in the vicinity of Kyushu Island in July in the global warming climate.
  • Kunihiko WATANUKI
    MACRO REVIEW
    2003年 16 巻 1 号 558-559
    発行日: 2003/05/05
    公開日: 2009/08/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    Global environment is formed as the result of physicochemical reactions of the matters in Nature. The behavior of the substances can be elucidated by the chemical knowledge. By the solubility of chemical species in water, the behavior of those can be clarified. For example, carbon dioxide spread all over the world, while the acid rain can reach only 500-1000km from origin. Global warming is well understood by the infrared absorption of the green house gas molecules such as CO2, CH4, N2O etc. We can understand stability of substances by using bonding energy.
  • Masanori Yoshizaki, C. Muroi, S. Kanada, Y. Wakazuki, K. Yasunaga, A. Hashimoto, T. Kato, K. Kurihara, A. Noda, S. Kusunoki
    SOLA
    2005年 1 巻 25-28
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Baiu (Mei-yu) front over East Asia in the global warming climate as well as that in the present one, is studied using outputs of a non-hydrostatic regional model with a horizontal grid size of 5 km (NHM). The NHM was run in June and July for ten years, applying a spectral boundary coupling method to reduce the horizontal phase differences of large-scale disturbances using the outputs of a global climate model with a grid size of 20 km. In the global warming climate, the Baiu front is likely to stay over the southern Japan Islands around the latitudes of 30 N-32 N and will not move northward. Therefore, the activity of the Baiu front maintains longer than that in the present climate, and the precipitation increases. On the other hand, the precipitation decreases over the northern Japan Islands and the northern Korean Peninsula. Years with no end of the Baiu season are often seen, and the frequency of occurrence of heavy rainfall greater than 30 mm h-1 increases over the Japan Islands.
  • Tetsuya Takemi, Rui Ito, Osamu Arakawa
    Hydrological Research Letters
    2016年 10 巻 3 号 81-87
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー

    Typhoon Mireille (1991) caused devastation over Japan. Assessing the impacts of such an extreme typhoon under global warming is an important task to prevent and mitigate future natural disasters. This study investigated the influences of global warming on the strong winds of Typhoon Mireille by conducting pseudo-global warming (PGW) experiments with a regional model. Since significant damages to forest areas occurred in Kyushu and Tohoku, we compared the typhoon impacts in these two regions. It was demonstrated that on average the mean wind speeds induced by Typhoon Mireille become stronger in Kyushu and weaker in Tohoku under the PGW conditions than under the September 1991 conditions. The difference between the two regions in the future is due to the simulated typhoons under PGW being stronger at lower latitudes and weakening more rapidly at higher latitudes. Thus, the impacts of Typhoon Mireille under a warmed climate are considered to be more severe at a lower latitude and weaker at a higher latitude.

  • 海熱提 阿力甫, 平林 由希子, 山崎 大, 田上 雅浩
    水文・水資源学会研究発表会要旨集
    2018年 31 巻
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/28
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    Heavy precipitation events have been increased in recent years and it caused due to human-induced global warming. The latest IPCC-AR5 showed the global warming affects the scale and frequency of floods. However, with regard to extreme events, such as floods, there have been no studies being conducted the past flood changes in Asia region. Therefore, this study uses Even Attribution (EA) technique based on four different conditions (time period and with or without anthropogenic forcing) of EA experiment data derived from MIROC5-AGCM and CaMa-Flood model to quantitatively investigate the contribution of global warming to the Asian floods. The final result indicated that human-induced climate change increased the probabilities of the Songhua river floods in 2013 and the Yalu river floods in 2010 by 43-62% and 39-42%, respectively. Anthropogenic warming had almost no effect on the Indus River floods in 2010. In the case of the Brahmaputra river, fraction of attributable risk of two different EA experiments NAT (only natural forcing) showed the different trends.
  • 松本 太
    日本生気象学会雑誌
    2014年 50 巻 4 号 191-192
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 梁 瑞録, 谷口 郁, 川島 洋人, 菊地 英治, 相馬 隆雄
    日本LCA学会誌
    2007年 3 巻 3 号 178-183
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2010/11/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this study was to quantify the emission of global warming gasses associated with pig production during the breeding and fattening stages using the Life Cycle Assessment method for a Japanese farm producing approximately 3000 pigs/year. Emissions were investigated for the processes related to feed production and transport, animal management of the breeding and fattening stages, and the treatment of livestock waste. The functional unit was taken as one kilogram of pig meat. Emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 amounted to 4.07, 0.93 and 0.56 kg-CO2 eq./kg meat, respectively, giving a total for these gases of 5.57 kg-CO2 eq./kg meat. The emissions associated with the pig-fattening stage were 5.02 kg-CO2 eq./kg meat, which accounted for 90% of total emissions in the pig production system. Interestingly, 70% of emissions could be attributed to feed production and transport processes, while only 8.6% of emissions could be attributed to activities related to animal management.
  • Hungyen Chen
    日本作物学会講演会要旨集
    2016年 241 巻
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/03/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 松田 敏信
    日本家政学会誌
    2011年 62 巻 6 号 347-359
    発行日: 2011/06/15
    公開日: 2013/08/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article investigates the impact of the falling birth rate, aging population, global warming, and other demographic and weather factors on Japanese food demand. The linear approximate quadratic almost idealdemand system, which is closed under unit scaling even with additional regressors in it and is more flexible in expenditure variations than the popular linear approximate almost ideal demand system, is applied to pseudo panel data per household on 12 food groups in 49 cities for the period January 2000 through December 2008. The decreasing number of children increases the demand for fish, vegetables, and alcohol and decreases that for dairy products, cakes, and eating out. The aging population increases the demand for fish, dairy products, vegetables, and fruit and decreases that for meat and eating out. Global warming, whose impact is estimated monthly, increases the demand for beverages throughout the year and decreases that for fish and meat in all but one month.
  • Kazunori Minamikawa, Kazuyuki Yagi, Seiichi Nishimura
    Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture
    2009年 4 巻 1 号 79-81
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/05/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture would contribute substantially to the mitigation of global warming. Conversely, the progression of global warming influences agriculture. Farmers need to adapt to the changing climate according to their particular agricultural situation.
    Sustainability of the global environment is essential for agriculture and human life, but there remain several problems regarding the time scale of sustainability. To solve these problems, we must estimate the adaptive capacity of the Earth for irreversible impacts of global warming. Gaining an understanding of the “big picture”, which will allow quantitative objectives for coping with global warming to be established, is currently the toppriority task of the natural sciences.
  • HATSUSHIKA Hiroaki, KAWAMURA Ryuichi, KAWASAKI Kiyoto, KIDO Mizuka, KONDO Takayuki, MIZOGUCHI Toshiaki, NAKAMURA Tokuhiro, ORITANI Tei-ichi, TSUCHIHARA Yoshihiro, YAMAZAKI Takahisa
    Journal of Ecotechnology Research
    2009年 14 巻 3 号 189-194
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2015/03/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    Climate change and its impact on human lives are one of the most important issues at the present time. In this study, changes in temperature, in relative humidity, and in precipitation, which may have brought about by global warming, were detected by a long-term observation of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The analysis is particularly significant since it revealed increase in temperature and decrease in relative humidity statistically in two local meteorological observatories in Toyama Prefecture. These changes in broad area of Toyama Prefecture were also investigated by observations during the last three decades. In almost of the area, decreases of ice days and frost days related to the warming in winter and increases of tropical night, hot days, and extreme hot days related to the warming in summer were estimated. Increase in precipitation amount in December and March, and decrease in precipitation days in January and February were also estimated. Prominent climate changes are in spring and autumn, and they presumably affect timing of seasonal transition.
  • Shinjiro Kanae
    Journal of Health Science
    2009年 55 巻 6 号 860-864
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2009/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper overviews the latest information on the impact of global warming on water cycles and resources, with a focus on links to health science. Many people may think that water issues mainly involve securing safe drinking water for regions lacking this crucial resource. However, of world water withdrawals, 70% is for agricultural water. Therefore, issues of water scarcity are highly connected with agriculture and food production. Global warming is expected to result in decreased water availability in semi-arid regions where major crop regions are located. Crop production in semi-arid regions already requires more water inputs than does agriculture in regions of ample natural rainfall; with global warming, the water situation in semi-arid regions is expected to worsen. In addition to the decrease in water for agriculture, domestic and drinking water supplies will also be threatened in semi-arid areas. In contrast, other regions may face the problem of too much water and flood disasters. Currently, the flood-affected population worldwide ranges from an annual minimum of approximately 30 million to a maximum of 300 million people. Projections for the late 21st century, however, suggest that 300 million will be the minimum number affected by flooding each year. The consequences of water decreases in some areas and increases in others caused by global warming will likely have close links to health. Therefore, health scientists should pay close attention to issues of climate and water resource change.
  • Julien Boulange, 花崎 直太
    水文・水資源学会研究発表会要旨集
    2018年 31 巻
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/28
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    This study evaluates whether at identical levels of global warming, extreme precipitation and extreme discharge events are identical for transient and stabilized climates.
    Using four Global Circulation Models and a global hydrological model (H08), four extreme-value series were computed on the 0.5 by 0.5 resolution grid, for all land surface. The series were then individually fitted to generalized extreme value (GEV) distributions using the L-moments method.
    The statistical behaviors and the GEV distributions fitted to the extreme-value-series revealed that globally, all extreme indices presented large deviations. Differences in extreme indices between the transient and stabilized climates where small but significant while considering the influence of natural variability.
    Since differences in extreme indices between the transient and stabilized climate are rather small and only affect a marginal portion of the land surface, relying on only the transient climate for assessing the impact of climate change on extreme events seams acceptable.
  • Akihiro Hashimoto, Masataka Murakami, Chiashi Muroi, Masanori Yoshizaki, Yasutaka Wakazuki, Sachie Kanada, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Teruyuki Kato, Kazuo Kurihara, Akira Noda
    SOLA
    2005年 1 巻 141-144
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/10/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Baiu (Mei-yu) front over East Asia in the global warming climate as well as that in the present climate is simulated using a non-hydrostatic regional climate model (NHM) with a horizontal resolution of 5 km, which explicitly calculates the microphysical processes without a cumulus parameterization. The simulation results of the present and global warming climates were compared to clarify the change in the characteristics of the distributions of cloud and precipitation particles. The vertical profile of the mixing ratio of each hydrometeor category slightly shifts about 1 km higher in the global warming climate. The mixing ratios are generally larger in the global warming climate by a factor of about 1.3 at the middle of the Baiu frontal zone. No significant difference is found in the mass ratios of solid precipitating water to total water and non-precipitating water to total water between the climates. This is a reflection of that the shape of each hydrometeor profile is similar between the climates. The approximate formulas of the mass ratios among water substances were obtained.
  • Masaru Inatsu, Masahide Kimoto
    SOLA
    2005年 1 巻 61-64
    発行日: 2005年
    公開日: 2005/06/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    A global warming response, interannual variability, and their relationship have been examined on mid-winter storm-tracks, using a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model. In the western Pacific, global warming makes the storm-track stronger and the westerly jet weaker, closely related to the leading mode of the storm-track variability. Much projection onto the leading mode is also realized for the global warming response in the Western Hemisphere; the storm-track is suppressed along with weaker zonal wind there at least in this model. It is therefore found that there are two types of interannual variability of storm-tracks (one for the western Pacific and the other for the Western Hemisphere), both mostly explain the global warming response.
  • 宮田 利雄, 山田 均, 勝地 弘, 西脇 三智子
    風工学シンポジウム論文集
    2002年 Symp17 巻
    発行日: 2002年
    公開日: 2003/06/20
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    In order to investigate effects of the increase of sea-surface temperature due to the global warming on typhoon intensity, Typhoon Simulation was carried out statistically incorporating the sea-surface temperature. The incorporation model of the sea-surface temperature represented typhoon statistics better than a non-incorporation model. The Typhoon Simulation showed that the number of typhoons approaching to Japan decreased while their intensities increased due to the increase of the sea-surface temperature as a result of the global warming effects.
  • Tetsuya Takemi, Rui Ito, Osamu Arakawa
    Hydrological Research Letters
    2016年 10 巻 3 号 88-94
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2016/11/22
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study numerically investigates the influences of global warming on Typhoon Vera (1959) by conducting pseudo-global warming experiments. It was found that the intensity of Typhoon Vera will be stronger in warmed climate conditions than in the actual September 1959 condition not only at the time of the typhoon’s maturity but also at the time of the landfall. Sensitivity experiments indicate that this projected increase in the typhoon intensity is robust, by taking into consideration the effects of the increase in sea surface temperature and temperature lapse rate under global warming. The examination of rainfall characteristics over the Kiso River and the Yodo River basin demonstrated that the maximum accumulated rainfall and the maximum hourly rainfall at a certain location within the region are more intensified in the PGW conditions than in the 1959 condition at their worst levels. Robustness and uncertainty of the projected changes in the typhoon impacts are discussed.

  • Masayuki Hara, Takao Yoshikane, Hiroaki Kawase, Fujio Kimura
    Hydrological Research Letters
    2008年 2 巻 61-64
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    A series of numerical experiments were conducted in order to investigate the impact of global warming on snow amount in Japan during early winter. After confirming the accuracy of hindcast simulations for a High-Snow-Cover (HSC) year and a Low-Snow-Cover (LSC) year, dynamical downscaling experiments were conducted in order to make future projections using the Pseudo-Global-Warming method. The precipitation, snow depth, and surface air temperature of the hindcast simulations show good agreement with the AMeDAS station data. At the end of December, the decreasing ratios of snow water are more significant in areas with an altitude of less than 1,500 m. The increase in the air temperature is one of the major factors influencing the decrease in snow water since the present mean air temperature in most of these areas is near 0°C even in winter. On the other hand, the change in the mean areal precipitation due to global warming is less than 15% in both years.
  • Koichi Yamaura, Shin Sakaue, Toyoaki Washida
    Japanese Journal of Agricultural Economics
    2017年 19 巻 54-59
    発行日: 2017/03/31
    公開日: 2017/06/23
    ジャーナル フリー

    The objective is to assess the economic effects of global warming upon agriculture and global economy under various Shared Socioeconomic Pathways, using EMEDA simulations. The EMEDA has 16 regions and 16 sectors, including five agricultural sectors. Our main outcomes are: all sectors in USA, EU25 and East Asia, and some sectors in Japan, Russia, South Korea, Oceania, and North America will experience economic growth, while the other regions only offset direct agricultural damages by global warming. USA, China and India can positively participate in the COP for the 2℃ target in future for obtaining their own potential large advantages.

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