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全文: "supramarginal gyrus"
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  • Ji Heon Hong, Sung Ho Jang
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2011年 23 巻 1 号 97-101
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] Little is known about the detailed anatomical connections of the neural network related to hand movement in the human brain. We investigated the neural network using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) data analyzed in conjunction with functional MRI (fMRI) activation results. [Subjects and Method] We recruited 19 healthy volunteers for this study. Probabilistic tractography was used to analyze diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data that were collected using fMRI activation induced by grasp-release movements of the hand at a rate of 1 Hz. [Results] The brain areas connected to the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1), which is activated by hand movements, were the premotor cortex (100%), superior parietal lobule (100%), intraparietal sulcus (100%), supramarginal gyrus (97.37%), supplementary motor area (89.47%), thalamus (86.84%), putamen (81.58%), pars opercularis (81.58%), pars triangularis (68.42%), angular gyrus (65.79%), and cerebellum (60.53%) in the same hemisphere and the contralateral primary motor cortex (60.53%) in the opposite hemisphere. No significant difference was observed in the total incidence of connected tracts between hemispheres. [Conclusion] These results reveal that more brain areas are involved in hand movements than were previously thought necessary for motor planning and execution in the human brain.
  • Takahiro YAMANOI, Toshimasa YAMAZAKI, Elie Sanchez, Michio SUGENO
    バイオメディカル・ファジィ・システム学会大会講演論文集
    2005年 18 巻
    発行日: 2005/10/29
    公開日: 2017/10/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    The authors recorded nineteen-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) during recognition of two types of Japanese character ; Kanji (Chinese characters) and Hiragana (one type of phonetic characters). By field-sequential stereoscopic 3D display with liquid crystal shutter, a word and a non-word were simultaneously and independently presented to the left (right) eye and right (left) one, respectively. Each word consists of two Kanji or three Hiragana characters. Three subjects were instructed to press a button when understanding the meaning of the visual stimuli after 3000 ms poststimulus. Equivalent current dipole source localization (ECDL) with three unconstrained ECD was applied to the ERPs. For both Kanji and Hiragana, the ECDs were localized at the occipital and inferior temporal gyrus at 200 400ms, and those at the Wernicke area at 300 600ms. The latter ECD for one left-handed subject was localized at the homologue of Wernicke area.
  • Yumie Ono, Yi-Tin Lin, Hung-Hsiang Liu, Ming-Hsien Hsieh
    生体医工学
    2015年 53 巻 Supplement 号 S440-S442
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2016/06/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    The auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of event-related potential (ERP) that corresponds to a response to an odd sound stimulus among a sequence of uniform stimuli. Auditory MMN is considered as an index of automatic context-dependent information processing and auditory sensory memory, and previous clinical studies reported deficit of MMN in schizophrenia patients. To further understand the difference in auditory signal processing between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients, we utilized the EEG/MEG data analysis tool of SPM8, the generalized functional neuroimaging software, to localize cortical sources for the auditory MMN response. The advantage of using SPM8 in the analysis of MMN-ERP is that the reconstructed sources are represented in the normalized brain coordinates and thus it is available to statistically compare the volumetric cortical activities between participants. This paper describes how to process EEG data that were measured from conventional commercial system (Biosemi .bdf file) in the SPM8 to extract MMN responses, localize regional brain activities, and perform voxel-based statistical analysis between participant groups.
  • Keiji TAKAMI, Akira SAKURAI, Fumio MUKAI, Takashi YAMADORI
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
    1993年 70 巻 2-3 号 59-61
    発行日: 1993/08/20
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    By means of a rubbed copy method using India ink and an image-analysis system (IBAS 2000), the areas of 106left-right plana temporalia were compared using fixed brains of both sexes. The left planum was of a larger size than the right planum in two-thirds of the cases. This result was confirmed statistically by the least-squares analysis of variance method (p<0.01).
  • 小林 仁美, 関 啓子, 三村 將
    昭和医学会雑誌
    2010年 70 巻 1 号 90-96
    発行日: 2010/02/28
    公開日: 2011/05/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    被験者実演課題(Subject-performed tasks:以下SPT)は記銘学習の際,実物を用いた実演を通じて記憶する方略で,言語だけで記銘する言語課題(Verbal-tasks:以下VT)よりも再生レベルが高いとされている.これらは被験者実演効果(以下SPT効果)と呼ばれている.このSPT効果の理由としては,実演の際,視覚や聴覚,運動感覚,触覚など複数のモダリティーを用いて符合化することが有効であるという説や,運動プログラムなどの構成要素に効果が起因する説など,いくつかの説が提出されているが,その詳細な脳内基盤は明らかとなっていない.そこで本研究では,SPT効果のメカニズムを検討する目的で,学習時にVT条件とSPT条件で記銘し,fMRIを用いて再認時の各条件における脳内賦活部位を撮像し,比較検討を行った.functional MRI(fMRI)撮像には1.5T GE SIGNA MRIを用い,撮像条件はvoxel size 4.7×4.7×5.5,TR=3sec,TE=60msec,EPI BOLD法とした.被験者は右利き健常者8名(平均年齢59.4歳)であった.まず,行為文の学習をVT条件 (文字・音声呈示),SPT条件 (文字・音声呈示+物品+被験者の実演)の2条件で実施した.その後20分の休止をおき,記銘した行為文と同数のディストラクターを含む行為文の再認をfMRI (Event-design) 撮像下で実施した.行動指標では,VT条件よりSPT条件で再認正答率が高かった.fMRIにおいては,VT条件での再認では,両半球ともに有意な賦活が認められなかったにもかかわらず,SPT条件では,左右補足運動野および左の中心前回,中心後回で顕著な賦活が認められた.さらにSPT-VT条件では補足運動野に加えて縁上回での賦活も認められた.左右の運動野に賦活が認められたことから,SPT条件の再認の検索時に運動の再現が行われた可能性が示唆された.また,VT条件では認められなかった縁上回での賦活については,SPT条件での学習の際,被験者自身の行為の実演によって,運動覚を介して得られた視覚,触覚,物品に関する情報,さらに空間感覚および体性感覚情報などの多感覚から受容した複数のモダリティー情報が縁上回で統合され,再認時の検索に効果的に作用したことが,SPT効果に結びついたと考えられた.
  • Linzette Deidrè Morris, Quinette Abegail Louw, Karen Anne Grimmer, Ernesta Meintjes
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2015年 27 巻 11 号 3461-3467
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/11/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] Pain catastrophizing is a key predictor of poor compliance to exercises among patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Alteration of pain catastrophizing in this group is thus warranted. This study aimed to provide proof-of-concept of a novel virtual reality exposure therapy program as treatment for exercise-related pain catastrophizing in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] An exploratory, case-controlled study was conducted (fibromyalgia syndrome group and matched control group). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to acquire neural correlates. The functional magnetic resonance imaging task consisted of two stimuli: active (exercise activity visuals) and passive (relaxing visuals). Structural images and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrasts were acquired for the conditions and compared within subjects/groups and between groups. Statistic images were thresholded using corrected clusters (determined by Z>2.3; level of significance: 0.05). [Results] Thirteen fibromyalgia syndrome subjects and nine healthy matched controls were included. The right inferior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, right posterior cerebellum, left thalamus, and left supramarginal gyrus were activated in the fibromyalgia syndrome subjects. [Conclusion] The study results provide preliminary proof indicating that exposing patients with fibromyalgia syndrome to visuals of exercises elicits neurophysiological changes in functional brain areas associated with pain catastrophization and add to the current body of knowledge regarding the possibility of objectively identifying cognitive behavioral strategies like pain catastrophization.
  • 宇野 富徳, 王 力群, 三分一 史和, 外池 光雄, 金田 輝男
    生体医工学
    2010年 48 巻 1 号 59-65
    発行日: 2010/02/10
    公開日: 2010/11/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the olfactory “Kansei” information processing for two kinds of smells by measuring the brain activities associated with olfactory responses in humans. In this study, the brain activities related to discrimination and recognition of odors were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In experiment 1, odor stimuli (lemon-like and banana-like) were presented using a block design in a blinded manner, and the kind of fruits was identified by its odor. The frontal and temporal lobe, inferior parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus, amygdaloid body and parahippocampal gyrus were primarily activated by each odor based on conjunction analysis. In experiment 2, as a result of performing an oddball experiment using the odors of experiment 1, the active areas were mainly found in the temporal lobe, superior and inferior parietal lobule, insula, thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Moreover, these regions overlapped with the emotional circuit. These experimental results suggest that common brain activities accompany the discrimination and cognition associated with odor stimuli, which may underlie the olfactory responses relevant to the higher brain function and emotions associated with olfactory function.
  • Shinsuke SATO
    The Showa University Journal of Medical Sciences
    2017年 29 巻 3 号 273-278
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/11/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The detailed mechanisms and neural networks underlying swallowing apraxia (SwAp) are unknown. We retrospectively examined the clinical symptoms and computed tomography (CT) brain images of 8 patients with suspected SwAp. We showed that SwAp is associated with the left side of the brain because the dominant hemisphere was affected in each case. Three cases presented with rippling SwAp and had damage to the precentral gyrus in the dominant hemisphere. In contrast, there was no common anatomical feature associated with stasis SwAp. We hypothesized that SwAp is a subtype of buccofacial apraxia because the brain areas involved in buccofacial apraxia were in close proximity to the areas affected in SwAp (observed in 3 of 8 cases). However, from a semiology viewpoint we consider the 2 types of apraxia independent because they did not always occur together.
  • Ji Won Park, Yong Hyun Kwon
    Journal of Physical Therapy Science
    2012年 24 巻 1 号 101-103
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/03/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate which of cortical areas are precisely involved in performing the two-point discrimination task (TPD), using functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI). [Subjects and Methods] Nine healthy right-handed subjects were recruited. During fMRI scanning, tactile sensory stimulation of one- or two-points was conducted on the dominant thumb with a two-point discriminator. At that time, The subject pressed a corresponding button when perceived one point or two points, corresponding to the two types of delivered tactile stimulation. [Results] In group analysis, the averaged cortical maps showed that the left and right primary sensory cortices and inferior parietal cortices were activated. In the bilateral primary sensory cortex, the peak intensities were 7.34 and 5.14, in the left and right hemispheres, respectively. In addition, the left and right inferior parietal cortices were activated, and the peak intensities were 4.30 and 6.18, respectively. [Conclusion] Our results revealed that the performance of a TPD task is likely to require the higher order sensory discriminative modality which is processed by the cortical cognitive function. In addition, the neural processing of TPD was specifically associated with bilateral activity in the inferior parietal cortex.
  • 田中 良典, 山ノ井 髙洋, 大槻 美佳, 豊島 恒
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    著者らは,被験者がひらがなの単語を見ている時,そして一文字漢字を想起している時の脳波(EEGs)を計測した.ひらがなは被験者に対し,ランダムに提示された.各単語は複数のひらがなから成り,いくつかの同音漢字を持つ.これらの脳波を加算した事象関連電位(ERPs)に等価電流双極子推定法(ECDL)を適用した.ECDは初期視覚野(V1),腹側経路(下側頭回),Broca野などで推定された.その他にもECDは海馬傍回,紡錘状回などで推定された.これらの推定結果を比較することで被験者間の差異を確認する.
  • 遠藤 邦彦
    失語症研究
    1994年 14 巻 1 号 1-10
    発行日: 1994年
    公開日: 2006/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    左半球損傷による口・顔面失行 (BFA) 27例の臨床症状を分析した結果,動作の種類によって誤反応が異なり,呼吸に関連する動作を演じる時は声の漏出が,摂食に関連する動作では錯行為が多かった。誤りの内容は合併する失語のタイプによっても異なり,運動失語では声の漏出が,感覚失語や健忘失語では錯行為が多かった。また,重い口・顔面失行が構音失行や語音認知障害に合併すると構音に影響を生じることが示唆された。口・顔面失行例と,口・顔面失行のない左半球損傷例の病巣の比較から,口・顔面失行の責任病巣は左縁上回前下部から左中心後回後下部に至る領域と考えられた。口・顔面失行と上肢の失行は左頭頂葉の病巣の高さに対応して独立して生じたり合併したりするが,基本的に同じ仕組みの神経情報処理機構が損傷されて出現すると推察された。失行症の出現のメカニズム,および失行症の臨床症状の差異のメカニズムを行動理論を用いて説明を試みた。
  • 佐藤 能啓, 溝口 克弘, 宇都宮 英綱, 林 隆士, 正島 和人
    脳卒中
    1985年 7 巻 3 号 195-199
    発行日: 1985/06/25
    公開日: 2009/09/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    痙攣で発症し, 脳動静脈奇形を合併したneurofibromatosisの50歳, 男性例を報告した.理学的にneurofibroma, café-au-lait spotが皮膚に多発していたが, 神経学的異常所見はみられなかった.脳血管撮影で左側頭葉に異常血管影がみられ, 組織学的所見もあわせて脳動静脈奇形と診断された.neurofibromatosisと脳動静脈奇形の合併はこれまでわずか1例の報告をみるのみである.両者の因果関係について発生学的背景を中心に考察した.
  • 福永 真哉, 服部 文忠, 田川 皓一, 藤田 学, 中谷 謙
    高次脳機能研究 (旧 失語症研究)
    2010年 30 巻 4 号 539-545
    発行日: 2010/12/31
    公開日: 2012/01/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    純粋失書は失語症などの障害がないにも関わらず,後天的な脳損傷によって書字のみが選択的に障害されるため,その病巣から書字中枢の存在を探索する試みがなされてきた。これまでの検討では,左中前頭回,上頭頂小葉,側頭葉後下部,左角回から側頭葉におよぶ領域が責任病巣として有力視されている。しかしながら,右半球損傷での純粋失書の報告は少なく,その病態はいまだ不明な点が多い。我々は,右半球を中心とした病巣で失書を呈した一症例を経験した。本症例は明らかな失語症状や,書字に影響を及ぼすような意識障害,知的低下,失認,失行,構成障害などを認めないにも関わらず,漢字に比して仮名に顕著な失書を認めた。上記の所見から,本症例において仮名の書字機能は,側性化の異常により左半球損傷例に対し鏡像的に,右側の中心前回領域を中心とした前頭葉から頭頂葉におよぶ領域にかけて存在していた可能性が示唆された。
  • 電気学会論文誌A(基礎・材料・共通部門誌)
    2013年 133 巻 8 号 ES8_1-ES8_5
    発行日: 2013/08/01
    公開日: 2013/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 脇阪 圭子, 大角 幸雄, 山鳥 重
    失語症研究
    1989年 9 巻 4 号 255-261
    発行日: 1989年
    公開日: 2006/07/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    症例は67才,右利き,男性.右半球に陳旧性病巣を持ち,左縁上回病巣の梗塞で失語症を呈した.症状は,理解良好で,発語,特に呼称・復唱など意図的な発語に障害が顕著であったことから伝導失語と診断した.しかし,音の誤り方は特異で,目標語の語尾に新造語が付加され,音節数の増加したジヤーゴンになることが多かった (例 : サイフ…サイフサグ) .これらのジヤーゴンの成立機転について若干の考察を加えた.そして,右半球陳旧性病巣の関与が無視できない可能性を指摘した.また,伝導失語弓状束原因説についても考察を加え,弓状束説では最近の音韻学的データの多様性を矛盾なく説明するのは困難であるとの考えを述べた.
  • TAKASHI YAMADORI, KOICHI SUKEKAWA, TAKEHIKO UMETANI, ATSUSHI YAMADORI
    Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
    1982年 58 巻 4-6 号 627-633
    発行日: 1982年
    公開日: 2012/09/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    To determine the difference of size between the cortical speech region in the dominant hemisphere and its corresponding region in the other hemisphere, the planum temporale was measured and compared by means of a rubbed copy method using 50 brains of both sexes. The planum temporale was significantly larger in the left hemisphere than in the right.
  • 田川 皓一
    高次脳機能研究 (旧 失語症研究)
    2007年 27 巻 1 号 1-10
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2008/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
      失語症者における画像診断の目的は,基礎疾患を診断し,責任病巣や発現機序を明確にして病態の理解や予後の推定に役立てることにある。脳梗塞による失語症者を対象として,前頭葉損傷と失語症,伝導性失語の責任病巣,ならびに境界型梗塞と失語症について検討を加えた。左の前頭葉損傷では種々の失語症が出現する。純粋語唖の責任病巣は中心前回であり,ブローカ領野に限局した病巣では超皮質性感覚性失語を呈する。この両領域が障害され運動性失語となる。ブローカ領野の周辺領域や前頭葉内側部の障害では超皮質性運動性失語が出現する。伝導性失語症の典型例では左の縁上回を中心とする領域に病巣が存在した。なお,このタイプの失語症は中心後回の病巣でも出現しうる。表層型の境界域梗塞では超皮質性失語が出現しうる。また,主幹動脈の閉塞による深部型の境界域梗塞では重度の失語症を呈すことがあり,この場合大脳半球にも重度の脳血流代謝の障害をみる。
  • Yoshiaki Kikuchi
    The Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine
    2015年 4 巻 4 号 299-306
    発行日: 2015/09/25
    公開日: 2015/10/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    While bipedalism is a fundamental evolutionary adaptation that is essential for the development of the human brain, the erect body is always an inch or two away from falling. Although the neural substrate underlying automatic detection of one’s own body instability is an important consideration, there have thus far been few functional neuroimaging studies due to the restrictions placed on participants’ movements. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural substrate underlying whole body instability, based on a self-recognition paradigm that uses video stimuli consisting of one’s own and others’ whole bodies, depicted in both stable and unstable states. Analyses revealed significant activity in the brain regions that should be activated during genuine unstable body (physical) conditions: the right parieto-insular vestibular cortex, inferior frontal junction, posterior insula and parabrachial nucleus. We argue that these right-lateralized cortical and brainstem regions mediate vestibular information processing for detection of vestibular anomalies, defensive motor responding in which the necessary motor responses are automatically prepared/simulated to protect one’s body, and sympathetic activity as an alarm response during whole body instability.
  • Verne S. Caviness, Nikos Makris, Nicholas T. Lange, Martha Herbert, David N. Kennedy
    The Keio Journal of Medicine
    2000年 49 巻 2 号 66-73
    発行日: 2000年
    公開日: 2009/08/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is now generally indispensable to state of art clinical medicine. Robust, high resolution imaging systems are currently available worldwide. The availability of MRI has, in little more than a decade, revolutionized the certainty and efficiency of clinical diagnosis and management. As a dividend of this revolution, clinicians and radiologists who are expert in the many and varied applications of MRI methods are able to relate this expertise to a confident mastery of the topographic anatomy of the brain as revealed in magnetic resonance images. Whereas the yield to clinical objectives has been massive, the clinician as yet draws upon a relatively limited sampling of the potential informational harvest from this technology which in theory could further enrich both clinical concerns and those of fundamental neuroscience. Here we will review early explorations into these other offerings with the expectation that the coming decade will see them established comfortably with current uses. We will also consider potential offerings of the extended applications of brain MRI to the characterization and insights into biological origins of certain obscure developmental disorders.
  • Hung Tzu Wen, Albert L. Rhoton Jr., Eberval Gadelha Figueiredo, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
    脳神経外科ジャーナル
    2012年 21 巻 9 号 688-699
    発行日: 2012年
    公開日: 2012/10/29
    ジャーナル フリー
      Objective : The authors present the anatomical and angiographical details that enable surgeons to quickly locate middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms and to gain proximal control without unnecessary delay or premature rupture.
      Materials and Methods : The anatomical dissections were performed in 10 adult cadaveric heads from 1993 to 2011 at the Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Florida. The angiographic and the surgical data were derived from 93 MCA aneurysms operated on by Hung Tzu Wen (HTW) from 1996 to 2012 at the Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo and Hospital Samaritano, Brazil.
      Results : MCA aneurysms arise most frequently from the M1 segment and less frequently from M2. From a practical viewpoint, the M1 extends from the carotid bifurcation to the MCA genu (on the basal surface of the cerebrum) with specific topographical relationships along the way, and the M2 extends from the MCA genu to the sylvian or “M” point (on the lateral surface), also with specific topographical relationships. The key for the angiographical analysis of an MCA aneurysm is to establish its topographical relationship to the genu of the MCA. If it is proximal to the genu, it is important to estimate its distance to the carotid bifurcation and to the MCA genu. If it is distal to the MCA genu, it is important to estimate its distance to the genu and to the sylvian point ( “M” point). Also, it is important to evaluate the direction of the dome of the aneurysm, as it indicates the structures to which the dome is attached. The key for locating an MCA aneurysm intraoperatively is the relationship between the MCA genu and the tip of the pars triangularis. The tip of the pars triangularis is a reliable intraoperative landmark (even when it is obscured by severe subarachnoid hemorrhage) and it is located just distal to the MCA genu and approximately 2 cm distal to the sharp transition between the basal and the lateral surfaces of the cerebrum. Once the pars triangularis is identified, the MCA genu can also be quickly estimated and identified, and thereby so will the aneurysm.
      Conclusion : The carotid bifurcation, genu of the MCA, and the “M” point on the AP view carotid angiography, and the sylvian triangle on the lateral projection constitute the cardinal landmarks for locating MCA aneurysms angiographically. Correlating the angiographic location of the aneurysm to the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus constitutes the key for then locating the MCA aneurysm intraoperatively.
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