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全文: "zombie" Chalmers
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  • Laura Hein, Hiroshi Shimizu
    経済学史研究
    2005年 47 巻 1 号 79-93
    発行日: 2005/07/07
    公開日: 2010/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    Studies of Japanese economic policy and economic thought have long been bedeviled by the idea that Japanese capitalism is not only different from Western capitalism but is also deviant. The idea that Japan's political economy is abnormal is incredibly persistent, despite the fact that empirical research reconfirms that, while institutions matter, (1) they have changed enormously over the last century in Japan as elsewhere and (2) Western political economies differ greatly among themselves.
    The idea of Japanese deviance has deep roots in both Japanese and American analyses of Japan. Japanese economic thought since the 1920s has explored the idea that the Japanese modern economy is somehow deformed, while postwar American theorizing about national economic development first accepted, then rejected this idea, and then accepted it again in the early 1980s. Meanwhile, social-scientific studies have provided sophisticated methodologies for directly comparing the Japanese economy to other developed economies. Their joint conclusion is that, while differing institutional patterns are important in all nations, Japan is far less different than popularly believed, in part because many “Japanese” institutional patterns were selectively borrowed and adapted from elsewhere. Nonetheless, these findings do not stop assertions of Japanese deviance, which are unlikely to change until five principles are accepted: (1) both wartime and postwar developments were crucial to creating the contemporary Japanese economy, (2) institutions in Japan as elsewhere are always contested, (3) all national economic development occurs within a global intellectual and institutional context, (4) on many indices, the United States rather than Japan is the outlier, (5) careful comparative work often disproves assertions of Japanese difference.
  • 水本 正晴
    科学哲学
    2006年 39 巻 1 号 63-77
    発行日: 2006/06/25
    公開日: 2009/05/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    David Chalmers presented a zombie argument, from which the falsity of physicalism allegedly follows. Although many authors who criticize this argument attack the derivation of the metaphysical possibility of zombies from the logical possibility of zombies, in this paper I will argue against the very first premise of the argument: the logical possibility of zombies. I will show the a priori impossibility of zombies, through what I call the Blinking Qualia argument.
  • Stuart Hameroff
    認知科学
    1997年 4 巻 3 号 3_67-3_92
    発行日: 1997/09/01
    公開日: 2008/10/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Understanding consciousness as neural-level computation faces three problems: First, this approach generally overlooks certain brain features: a) “probabilistic” neurotransmitter release, b) dendritic microprocessing, c) electrotonic gap junctions, d) variability in reaction times/inherent apparent randomness, e) glia, and f) the role of intraneuronal cytoskeletal microtubules. The second problem is computation itself. Present-day computers may be evolving toward quantum computing, in which elements compute in quantum superposition of different possible states (“qubits”), and reduce (collapse) computably to a solution. If the brain/mind is anything like a computer, it is most likely some kind of self-organizing quantum computer. The third problem is the inability of conventional neural approaches to deal with the problem of conscious experience, or qualia (as well as unitary binding, free will, non-computability, and the transition from pre-conscious to conscious processes). New approaches are needed. The Penrose-Hameroff model suggests that quantum superpositions and Penrose's objective reductions occur in microtubules in groups of brain neurons and glia interconnected by gap junctions. The proposed microtubule quantum states and cycles of self-collapses are isolated by actin gelation, orchestrated by microtubule-associated proteins, and coupled to neural-level activity (e.g. coherent 40 Hz). The model predicts that the orchestrated objective reduction (“Orch OR”) events access and select “funda-mental” experience embedded in Planck scale spacetime geometry, and choose (non-computably) microtubule states which regulate neural activity. Consciousness may involve neurobiological processes extending downward within neurons to the level of the cytoskeleton, and accessing fundamental experience at the most basic level of reality.
  • 茂木 健一郎
    日本ファジィ学会誌
    2001年 13 巻 4 号 356-363
    発行日: 2001/08/15
    公開日: 2018/01/07
    ジャーナル フリー
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