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Full Text: Epidemiological Study on BSE Outbreak in Japan
Showing 1-9 results out of 9 results found
  • Yasuhiro YOSHIKAWA
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2008 Volume 70 Issue 4 325-336
    Published: 2008
    Released: May 04, 2008
    The aim of this study is to identify, as hypotheses, all feasible sources and routes of infection for the BSE cases in Japan, and to study the probability of each hypothesis. The strategy of this epidemiological study is as follows. 1) BSE risk status in Japan is tentatively divided into 3 stages, i.e., before 1996 April when administrative guidance for feed ban of cattle MBM introduced. After that to 2001 September, the first case of BSE in Japan, then, after 2001 October with real feed ban in the law. 2) Make hypotheses depending on the invasive risk scenarios and propagation risk of BSE in Japan, and they are checked by evidences, case control study or statistics. 3) Grouping of BSE cattle was conducted time sequentially and spatially; that is Group-A (1995-96, born in Hokkaido, Kanto), Group-B (1999 in Kyushu), Group-C (1999-2001 in Hokkaido), Group-D (young cattle born after real feed ban) and Pre-A, Post-D groups. As a result, a milk replacer was considered one of the most probable cause of group-A contamination, and group-C outbreak might be caused by an indigenous BSE propagation of group-A in Hokkaido. If the hypothesis of Holland animal fat as causative material was accepted, however, there are several unexplainable points. Collection of scientific evidences on animal fat impurity and age dependent susceptibility to BSE will be needed to clarify the true causative material.
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  • Yasuhiro YOSHIKAWA, Motohiro HORIUCHI, Naotaka ISHIGURO, Mutsuyo KADOHIRA, Satoshi KAI, Hidehiro MIZUSAWA, Chisato NAGATA, Takashi ONODERA, Tetsutaro SATA, Toshiyuki TSUTSUI, Masahito YAMADA, Shigeki YAMAMOTO
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2012 Volume 74 Issue 8 959-968
    Published: 2012
    Released: September 03, 2012
    [Advance publication] Released: November 14, 2011
    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as “self-tasking assessment”. Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations’ assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA’s GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.
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  • Tae-Yung KIM, Yong-Sang KIM, Joon-Kul KIM, Hyun-Joo SHON, Yoon-Hee LEE, Chung-Boo KANG, Joon-Suk PARK, Kyung-Sun KANG, Yong-Soon LEE
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2005 Volume 67 Issue 8 743-752
    Published: 2005
    Released: September 05, 2005
    The occurrence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, so called mad cow diseases) that was first identified in England in 1986 was considered as being limited to only European countries, including England. However, the outbreak in Asia as well as North America since 2001 has amplified the fear that there isn't any nation in the world that is a safe area. In order to assess the risk of BSE outbreak in each country, the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and EU have respectively established criteria, where OIE has set 5 levels and EU has set 4 levels. The Scientific Steering Committee (SSC) of the European Commission conducted a Geographical BSE Risk(GBR) assessment for 64 nations, such as the United States, etc., as of April 29, 2003. However, as of July 1, 2005, the duty of GBR assessment is expected to be transferred to a newly established body called EFSA (European Food Safety Authority, located in Parma, Italy). As Korea has not undergone a GBR assessment up to now, this study analyzed the risk of BSE outbreak in Korea by reviewing BSE prevention measures, etc., that have been put in place. This study shall be a barometer for estimating the GBR assessment level of Korea.
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  • Tatsuhiro KAMISATO
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
    2005 Volume 10 Issue 5 295-302
    Published: 2005
    Released: October 04, 2005
    In recent years, food-related issues have become increasingly more publicised in developed countries. This holds true for Japan where food-related issues have been drawing attention as a socially significant topic, particularly since the appearance of BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy). In 2003 a new governmental office, the Food Safety Commission was established in the Cabinet Office of the Japanese Government based on a new law, “the Food Safety Basic Law”. This change of administration was raised by the outbreak of BSE, which is considered to be a drastic reformation of food safety policy in Japan.
    In addition, BSE impact was significant not only on administration but also on the agriculture and food industries. It revealed to the public lots of holes in the food related system which have been concealed for years.
    In this paper, I would like to show the inadequacy of management before the outbreak of BSE and the subsequent governmental actions and reactions for food safety. Furthermore, problems that still remain after the reformation, such as ban on US beef and policy of blanket testing, will be discussed.
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  • Jae-Ku OEM, Eun-Yong LEE, Kyoung-Ki LEE, Seong-Hee KIM, Myoung-Heon LEE, Bang-Hun HYUN
    Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
    2013 Volume 75 Issue 5 675-678
    Published: 2013
    Released: May 31, 2013
    [Advance publication] Released: January 07, 2013
    An outbreak of a disease with parapox-like symptoms was reported in South Korea in April 2012. Three of 45 Korean native cattle, age 20–24 months, were affected. Parapoxviruses were detected and identified by electron microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To determine the genetic characteristics of the Korean strains, the sequence of the major envelope protein (B2L) was determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the parapoxvirus strains were closely related to not only isolates from Japan, but also isolates from Germany, Sudan and the United states. This is the first report on an outbreak and the molecular characterization of BPSV in Korea.
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  • Yuriko Doi, Tetsuji Yokoyama, Miyoshi Sakai, Yosikazu Nakamura
    Journal of Epidemiology
    2007 Volume 17 Issue 4 133-139
    Published: 2007
    Released: July 18, 2007
    BACKGROUND: Trend of the mortality rate of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in Japan is still unclear. This study aimed to estimate annual crude mortality rates due to CJD and examine the CJD mortality trend in Japan during the period of 1979-2004.
    METHODS: National death certificate data on CJD were used (CJD coded as 046.1 for ICD-9 and A81.0 for ICD-10). Trends in age-standardized mortality rates for CJD were examined by using time series analyses including the joinpoint regression analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 1,966 deaths (862 males and 1,104 females) were identified with CJD coded as the underlying-cause-of-death. The annual number of deaths and crude mortality rates peaked in 2004 at 163 (66 for males and 97 for females) deaths and 1.28 (1.06 for males and 1.48 for females) deaths per million population per year, respectively. The age-specific mortality rates rapidly increased with age between 50 and 74 years, especially among females, and sharply declined at 80+ years. Throughout the observed period, there were no significant change points, and the annual percentage changes (95% confidence intervals) were +3.09 (2.18 - 4.02) % for males and +3.90 (2.98-4.83) % and females. The total number of CJD deaths under 50 years of age was 131, and there was found no increase in the annual number of deaths for the past few years in this age group.
    CONCLUSION: CJD mortality in trend data based on death certificates has significantly increased in Japan during the period of 1979-2004.
    J Epidemiol 2007; 17: 133-139.
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  • Takashi Onodera, Toshio Ikeda, Yasukazu Muramatsu, Morikazu Shinagawa
    1993 Volume 37 Issue 4 311-316
    Published: 1993
    Released: March 17, 2008
    A five-month-pregnant Suffolk sheep histologically diagnosed as spontaneous scrapie was studied. Western blot analysis was performed with rabbit serum against the sheep scrapie-associated fibrils (SAF). In the proteinase K (pk)-treated parental brain and spleen samples, three major bands (15K, 18K, and 23K) were detected. These major bands were not detected from the placenta. Infectious agents were isolated in mice from the brain samples but not from the placental homogenates. In another case of a three-month-pregnant Corriedale sheep without any clinical sign of, but histologically diagnosed as scrapie, was also studied in a similar approach. In the parental brain samples, three major bands (15K, 18K and 23K) were detected. SAF protein was not detected in the parental spleen and placenta. No bands reactive with the antiserum were detected in any other samples from the fetal brain and spleen in both cases. However, infectious agents were isolated in mice from both brain and placental homogenates. Since the placenta is an important site of natural infection, it is worthwhile to study these tissues for the epidemiological study of scrapie infection.
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  • Yuzo Hayashi
    The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
    2009 Volume 34 Issue Special_ SP201-SP207
    Published: July 01, 2009
    Released: July 01, 2009
    Based on the advance of toxicology and related sciences, a regulatory regime for the safety of chemicals related to daily life has been rapidly established. Especially for the food-related substances, the process of risk analysis has facilitated the collaboration by all the players including consumers toward the security of their safety. On the other hand, except for pharmaceuticals, science-based decisions and governmental actions on safety issues have not always gained confidence of the public. One of the reasons was the inadequacy in the way of use of scientific knowledge, or in other words, inappropriateness of decision making by “the regulatory science”. Regulatory science is a science to warrant the decision making processes for governmental acts (Mitsuru Uchiyama). In the case of chemical safety, it can be redefined as a theoretical concept to complements the uncertainty of scientific knowledge for the decision of governmental acts that is adequate in both scientific and social ways. Therefore, the regulatory science is an indispensable discipline to effectively apply risk analysis. Here, the significance of the regulatory science for the hazard assessment of the chemicals, especially for children is described. In the past, the hazard effects of chemicals have been assessed for adults. Recently, however, the importance of the assessment for children has gained international emphases. Not only for pharmaceuticals, but for food-related substances, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and tolerable daily intake (TDI) are often set differently for adults and children. The child-specific responses against chemicals are related not only to the physiological factors such as body weight, basal metabolism, but also rapid growth of the body with developmental status of various organs. General knowledge on these issues will be discussed mainly referring the World Health Organization (WHO) documents. Although the cutting edge technology backs up the development of toxicology, it would appear that it is reaching a turning point from technology-centrism to look toward the direction for contribution to society from the stand point of regulatory science.
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  • Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi
    2004 Volume 45 Issue Supplement 37-103
    Published: August 31, 2004
    Released: December 18, 2009
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