The increasing need for improved refractory and reactive high strength materials has led to the development of special production processes. This article will consider electron beam melting and refining which is playing an important role especially in the production of nickel base superalloys, specialty steels, refractory metals such as tantalum, niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum and reactive metals such as hafnium, vanadium, zirconium, and titanium and their alloys. The drip and cold hearth melting and refining techniques including the electron beam heat sources are described. Process data and results for various materials are given.
The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan