2020 Volume 41 Pages 297-309
This study focused on and considered the emergent process of responsive actions and drawing expressions in kindergarteners during programmed drawing activities under constraint conditions. Using participant observation in a class for five-year-olds, we selected the children’s responsive actions from the recorded data and categorized it from the bottom up. After analyzing the ‵‵responsive actions that encourage emergence,”, we found that differences emerged between expressions based on experience and those based on imagination. Moreover, the case analysis revealed that the consideration of images was triggered by the constraint conditions; thus, the perspective on the drawing themes shifted and ideas became vague and reconstructed, with the children’s drawing expressions stimulated by those of the other children. The findings from this research will provide a benchmark for controlled conditions and engagement with guardians in programmed drawing activities, in addition to offering indications of drawing expressions born from rich interactions among young children.