※ Most content on J-STAGE is free to view and access. Some journals are access-controlled, and their content can be obtained by contacting
the relevant journal office.
In addition, some journals’ content may be available via pay-per-view (PPV), which can be purchased by adding the desired article to your cart and paying with a credit card.
Please note that if you have a journal subscriber ID, your ‘My J-STAGE ID’ must be different.