2018 Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 83-89
A low-cost and user-friendly microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for identification of bullet hole from gunshot residue (GSR) on cotton fabric target. The device (25 × 82 mm) is made of filter paper with a printed pattern consisting of a circular sample loading reservoir (6 mm i.d.), a circular waste reservoir (4 mm i.d.) and a straight flow channel (3 mm wide and 60 mm long). A sticker with a ruler scale in millimeters was mounted alongside the channel. The straight channel is first impregnated with rhodizonate and dried at ambient temperature. Tartrate extract of the target fabric is loaded on the sample reservoir. If Pb(II) ions are present in the extract, pink streak of Pb(II)-rhodizonate precipitate is formed as the sample solution flows from the reservoir along the channel. The length of the pink strip is employed to estimate the firing distance.