2005 Volume 113 Issue 1 Pages 103-115
In the Eocene, distribution of the order Primates in the northern part of eastern Eurasia was confined to Mongolia. A form of Omomyidae (Altanius orlovi) is represented. Northern Eurasian primates attributed to later times cover the interval between the Late Miocene (Late Turolian) to the Middle Pleistocene (Mindel–Riss). Primates are distributed in the western part of eastern Eurasia (Moldavia, Ukraine), Transcaucasus (Georgia, Iranian Azerbaijan) and Central Asia (Tadjikistan, Afghanistan, Transbaikalian, Mongolia). The total number of known primate taxa is not large: seven genera and eleven species in three families (Omomyidae, Hominidae, Cercopithecidae). The Neogene and Pleistocene representatives of the order Primates comprise either widely distributed Eurasian forms or endemic taxa. The distribution pattern of primates in the western and eastern part of eastern Eurasia can be interpreted in relation to links with African and East Asian faunal provinces. By the Late Pleistocene all non-human representatives of the order Primates in the northern part of eastern Eurasia became extinct.