Anthropological Science
Online ISSN : 1348-8570
Print ISSN : 0918-7960
ISSN-L : 0918-7960
Humans, Animals and Societies of Andean Civilization: Review
Rise of the Andean civilization: bioarchaeological approaches to health and death during the Formative Period in Peru
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2021 Volume 129 Issue 2 Pages 145-150


The Andean civilization emerged in South America during the Formative Period (3000–50 BCE) and developed through renovation activities of ceremonial architecture. A collaborative team of Japanese and Peruvian archaeologists has been excavating an archaeological site with ceremonial architectures at Pacopampa since 2005. Pacopampa is one of the largest Formative Period sites in the Northern Highlands of Peru. This paper reviewed the previous studies of Pacopampa and reconstructed situations of health and death during an initial stage of the Andean civilization from a bioarchaeological perspective. Findings from several previous studies were summarized as follows: (1) bioarchaeological evidence supported the emergence of social stratification in the Formative Period; (2) social stratification promoted the difference in the proportion of dental diseases and stress markers between burial types; and (3) violence-related trauma was first observed at Pacopampa, which was highly likely to be caused by ritual practices. These findings will contribute to an elucidation of the impacts of social stratification on the inhabitants’ health.

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© 2021 The Anthropological Society of Nippon
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