2022 Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 188-196
To identify effective communication methods for rescuing victims buried in an avalanche, we investigate the acoustic transfer characteristics by simulating a snow avalanche to identify a method for effectively communicating with buried individuals. The results indicate that sound attenuation at a depth of 30 cm from the snow surface is 60 dB over a wide frequency range when the sound is emitted above the surface. Because the sound insulation of the simulated snow avalanche is extremely high, the sound emitted from the surface will likely not reach the buried victims. However, vibrations due to foot stomping on the surface of snow are likely to be transmitted to a buried individual as sound.