2019 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 19-29
Sika deer (Cervus nippon) have expanded their distribution and population size have increased, which has resulted in a negative impact on natural forests and plantations. Thus, wildlife managers are required to cull the deer in these environments. However, there are no tools to evaluate the appearance patterns of sika deer on plantations. Using time-lapse photography from August 16 to November 19, 2017, we investigated the number of deer appeared and the time they appeared, their group size during the daytime to assist in establishing a proper culling program for the deer on plantations. The number of deer appeared and the time they appeared varied across plantations and months; hence, wildlife managers were required to select proper culling sites and seasons from the data found. We found that 1-2 deer groups accounted for 90% or more of the total herd, and that the sika deer appeared on plantations during the daytime. Thus, wildlife managers were able to implement the appropriate culling method. Therefore, time-lapse photography clarified the deer appearance pattern during the daytime. Additionally, this photography can work in the long term, and so would have lower survey efforts than direct observation.